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Family and Trustees of Reverend Robert Buchanan DD (1802-1875)

 Donors-Family and Trustees of Reverend Robert Buchanan (1802-1875)

Figure 1. The Reverend Robert Buchanan DD, by Norman Macbeth ARSA 1872 . © CSGCIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries. Acc 883

This painting was exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy Annual Exhibition in 1873.1The subject is the Reverend Robert Buchanan DD, Minister of the Free Church College Church in Lyndoch Street Glasgow . He is painted wearing the robes of the Moderator of the Free Church sitting to the right of stairs leading to the entrance of the Free Church College in Edinburgh. The portrait was donated to Glasgow Corporation  by the family and trustees of the late Robert Buchanan in a letter dated 5 July 1898 from Messrs McKenzie Robertson and Co Writers.2 The donation was made after the death of Mrs Elizabeth Stoddart Buchanan in April 1898.3

Robert Buchanan  was born in St Ninians, Stirling on 15 August  1802. He was the sixth son of Alexander Buchanan, a brewer and farmer. He was educated at the University of Glasgow (1817-20) and then at the University of Edinburgh (1820-25). He was first licensed as a preacher in the Church of Scotland by the Presbytery of Dunblane in 1825. Buchanan served briefly as tutor to the Drummond family of Blair Drummond and through their influence was ordained  minister to the Parish of Gargunnock in 1826. He then served in the parish of Saltoun in East Lothian from 1829 to 1833.

In 1833 a vacancy arose at the prestigious Tron Church in Glasgow where Thomas Chalmers had begun his Glasgow ministry. Buchanan was called to fill this charge and so began the most important part of his career. At the time the bulk of the congregation were not from the area surrounding the Tron Church around Glasgow Cross but from a much wider area to the west  which had a growing and much more affluent population.

Robert Buchanan agreed with the views of Thomas Chalmers regarding the missionary work of the church among the poor of the city, the importance of setting up and maintaining  schools as well as Chalmers’ evangelical views. He did much work in the Wynds, a very poor area around Glasgow Cross and was instrumental in raising money for several new churches.

In fact Robert Buchanan became one of the leading figures in the evangelical wing of the Church of Scotland in the west. The story of the Disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843 is well-known and need not be repeated here except to state that Robert Buchanan was a leading figure during the period leading up to the Disruption. He represented the dissenting evangelical majority party in the negotiations with the Westminster government in London to try to resolve the situation. It was Buchanan who moved the ‘Independence Resolution’ at the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1838 where the majority refused to defer to the civil courts in spiritual matters especially in the appointment of  church ministers. Buchanan was one of the signatories to the  Disruption document in 1843.

Figure 2. First General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland. Signing of the Deed of Demission at Tanfield May 1843. By Amelia Robertson Hill, after David Octavius Hill. © The Hunterian, University of Glasgow.

After the Disruption Buchanan took his congregation from the Tron Church  and for a while held church services in Glasgow City Hall which had opened in 1840. The congregation then moved to the new Dundas Street Free Church opened in 1844.4 In 1857 a new church was opened in Lyndoch Street adjacent to the recently opened Free Church College for the training of ministers which was designed by architect Charles Wilson. The Free  Church College Church was also  designed by Charles Wilson at the cost of £10,000.5 Robert Buchanan was invited to be  minister of the new church a post which he accepted.

Figure 3. Free Church College ,31 Lyndoch Street from Sauchiehall St c 1900. © CSGCIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries.     

 In 1847 on the death of Thomas Chalmers, Buchanan  became the Convener of the Sustentation Fund, the financial system devised by Chalmers  whereby the  richer congregations of the Free Church subsidised the poorer. For thirty years he managed this fund, giving the Free Church a sound financial footing and earning the respect of his contemporaries. Such was thought to be Buchanan’s influence on the Free Church that the caricaturist of the satirical magazine The Bailie portrayed him as its ‘puppet master’.

Figure 4. The Puppet Master. © CSGCIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries.

 The Ten Years of Conflict  was Buchanan’s  scholarly account of the Disruption which went a long way to justify to the public the actions of those who ‘went out’. He also published  Clerical Furloughs an account of a visit to the Holy Land in 1860.6

In 1860  Robert Buchanan was elected Moderator of the Free Church of Scotland which showed the high esteem in which he was held.7

Figure 5. The Moderator and Ex-Moderators of the Free Church of Scotland Assembly 1860. Photograph John Moffat. © National Galleries of Scotland

His congregation at the Free Church College Church ,along with other subscribers, also showed their appreciation of their minister when in  August 1864  the sum of 4000 guineas was presented to Robert Buchanan  at a reception at the Queens Hotel in George Square, part of what is now the Millenium Hotel. The gift was  presented, ‘as a tribute to his private worth and to his public labours as a citizen of Glasgow’. Mrs Buchanan was presented with ,” a silver epergne and appendage’.8 The same congregation  commissioned our portrait.9

Robert Buchanan continued as senior pastor to the Free Church College Church  as well as serving the city of Glasgow in many ways. For example he was elected to the newly formed Glasgow School Board in 1873.10 In  the winter of 1874 when he went to Rome to take charge of the Free Church in Rome for the winter, his wife and two of his daughters went with him. While there he caught a cold and died on 31 March  1875. He had just been appointed the next Principal of the Free Church College in Glasgow.11 

The body was brought back to Glasgow by members of the family. Robert Buchanan was buried in the Glasgow Necropolis on 18 May  1875. According to the Glasgow Herald which reported the funeral in great detail, 15000 people lined the streets to see the funeral cortege. Among the many of Glasgow’s most notable citizens who walked behind the coffin were the Lord Provost, the Dean of Guild and the Deacon Convenor.12

The Buchanan Family (1)

Robert Buchanan was first married in 1828 to Ann Handyside in Edinburgh. They had six children of whom three survived to adulthood. Alexander was born in 1829,Hugh in 1831 and Ann Wingate in 1837. Sadly Buchanan’s wife Ann died in 1840.13 In 1841 Robert and two of the boys were living in Richmond  Street  Glasgow which is now the site of one of the University of Strathclyde buildings.14 Alexander became an engineer and spent most of his adult life in Derby15 and as we shall see he was one of the trustees of his father’s estate.

Hugh attended The High School of Glasgow16 which until 1878 was situated between John Street and Montrose Street. The High School of Glasgow began in the twelfth century as the Glasgow Cathedral Choir School. It was absorbed into The Glasgow School Board in the early 1870s only to become an Independent School once again in the 1970s.17

Figure 6. Location of  High School of Glasgow  1840s. © National Library of Scotland

Hugh died in 1852 aged only twenty. He  is recorded in the 1851 census as being a warehouseman. As he died in Georgetown, Demerara one can only assume  that he had gone out there to improve his prospects.18

In 1843 Robert Buchanan   married again to Elizabeth Stoddart who was born in Hertfordshire in 1825.19 Daughter  Ann lived in the family home until her marriage to John McLaren on 22 August  1861.20 John McLaren is recorded in various census reports as being a merchant. He must have been fairly prosperous as in the 1871 census he and Ann were living at 5 Belhaven Terrace, a prestigious address off Great Western Road and they had five  servants. They had six  children between 1864 and 1876.21

Buchanan Family (2)

Elizabeth and Robert went on to have six children between 1844 and 1855.

  • Charlotte Gordon born 1844
  • Elizabeth born 1846
  • Lawrence Barton born 1847
  • Isabella McCallum born 1849
  • Harriet Rainy born 1852
  • Edith Gray born 185522

The family moved to 11Sandyford Place, Sauchiehall Street around184523 and then to 2 Sandyford Place around 184824  where they remained until Robert Buchanan’s death in 1875.25 The family then dispersed, several to live in England as we shall see.

By the time of the 1881 census Mrs Buchanan had moved to 192 Berkley Street, Glasgow and was living with two servants. She then moved to London as the 1891 census puts her at 52 Ladbroke Grove, Kensington where she was living with her unmarried daughter Harriet and her granddaughter Louise McLaren, daughter of her stepdaughter Ann. Elizabeth Stoddart Buchanan died at this address in 1898.26 As we have seen it was after their mother’s death that the portrait was donated to Glasgow by the family and trustees of Robert Buchanan, though there was no mention of the portrait in  Elizabeth’s will. One of the trustees was Alexander Buchanan, eldest son of Robert Buchanan’s first wife Ann Handyside.27

Charlotte Gordon Buchanan (1844-1919)

There is very little information about the life of Charlotte Buchanan except for the minimal detail provided on census records. She was born in 1844,presumably at 11 Sandyford Place and would have moved to 2 Sandyford Place along with the family around 1848.28There she remained until her father’s death in 1875 when the family was dispersed. Charlotte accompanied her parents on the trip  to Rome in 1874 and it was she who sent the simple telegram, ‘Father died suddenly last night’ to her  step-sister Ann’s husband  John McLaren  to inform the world at large of her father’s death.29

Charlotte was staying with her sister Mrs Edith Gray Wilson at 9 Woodside Crescent, Glasgow at the time of the 1881 census.30She does not appear in the 1891 census but by 1901 Charlotte had moved to London and was living at 31 Hawke Road, Upper Norwood in a  ten bedroom house called St Ninians which was the name of the village outside Stirling where her father had been born. Perhaps she moved to London to be near other members of the family who had moved there. She is still at that address in 1911 and is said to be ‘of independent means’.31 Charlotte died in London on 5 September  1919. 32

Elizabeth McAlpine Thornton  (1846-1932)

Figure 7. Elizabeth c. 1875. Photography Ralston & Sons Whitby Ontario. © Public Domain.

Elizabeth was born in 1846 and lived in the Buchanan’s family home at 2 Sandyford Place 33 until her marriage to the Reverend Robert McAlpine Thornton on July 20th 1871. Robert McAlpine  was the minister of Knox’s Presbyterian Church, Montreal at the time of the marriage.34The marriage ceremony was performed by Elizabeth’s father. Robert became minister of Wellpark  Free Church in the east end of Glasgow  around 1872.35 As with most women of the time it was Elizabeth’s husband’s life which is on record rather than her own.

Robert Thornton was born in Ontario, Canada ,the second son of the Reverend Robert Hill Thornton who had been called to Whitby Township, Ontario in 1833 as minister of the first Presbyterian Church and who went on to have a distinguished career as founder of several churches and schools and was also Superintendent of Education until his death in 1875. Robert McAlpine Thornton was one of ten children.36In 1881 the Reverend and Mrs Thornton were living at 12 Annfield Place, Dennistoun, Glasgow along with three sons. Kenneth Buchanan was seven, David Stoddart was five and Robert Hill was four.37

The family moved to London around 1883 as Reverend Thornton was called to be minister of Camden Road Presbyterian Church.38By this time four more children had been born. Margaret Elizabeth  was  six, Edith Wilson was seven and John McLaren was aged one. The family were living at 72 Carleton Road, North Islington.39

The Reverend Thornton had a distinguished career. He raised large sums for the African Missions.40 The Mail reported on the 25 November 1910 that  he was unanimously chosen as Moderator of the next Synod  of the Presbyterian Church of England which was to meet in Manchester in May 1911.

1898 the Reverend Thornton was one of many ministers who contributed to what was to be the third edition of Charles Booth’s Life and Labour of the People of London  which was published in seventeen volumes 1902-3.41The Thorntons were still at 72 Carleton Road  in 190142. In 1911 Robert visited his son Robert Hill Thornton in Whitley Bay ,Northumberland where he was a Church of England Minister. Robert Junior was married with two children. Elizabeth was at home with the children at 18 Hilldrop Road North London.43

The Reverend Robert Thornton died in London on 19 July  1913. His death was marked by a complimentary obituary in the London Times.44 It was perhaps fortunate he did not live to experience the sadness of the death of his youngest son John McLaren who was killed in action in Flanders in 1916.45 At the time of Robert’s death the family were living in Elgin Crescent Notting Hill46 and it was there that Elizabeth died on 28 March 1932 aged 86.47

Lawrence Barton Buchanan (1847-1926)

Born about 1847  Lawrence lived at the family home at 2 Sandyford Place.48He attended Glasgow Academy, Glasgow’s oldest independent school founded in 1845 and which was in Elmbank Street at that time. Lawrence’s father had been involved in setting up the school.49

 

Figure 8. Original Glasgow Academy building, Elmbank Street . High School of Glasgow from 1878. Porticos added by High School. © CSGCIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries.

 William Campbell of Tullichewan, founder of the drapery and warehouse emporium  J&W Campbell50 had been instrumental in setting up the school. He was a generous benefactor to the  Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow Botanic Gardens and to the Free Church of Scotland among many others. In May 1845 William Campbell convened a meeting  with Free Church ministers at the Star Hotel in George Square to discuss the possibility of setting up ‘ an academic Institution in the city’. Dr Robert Buchanan, Lawrence’s father and then Minister of the Tron Church, proposed that ‘an academic Institution shall be established for the purpose of teaching youth the various branches of secular knowledge, based upon strictly  evangelical principles and pervaded by religious instruction’. This was unanimously agreed by those present. A school of 400 pupils was envisaged. Although admission of girls was discussed this did not happen for another 145 years. Lawrence’s father headed a committee charged with selecting the  headmaster and staff of the school. The first headmaster or rector as he was known was James Cumming, who was appointed in January 1846.  The  school was built in Elmbank Street, Charing Cross  and was designed by Charles Wilson. It was financed by the issuing of 200 shares at £40 each.51 In 1878 the school moved to Colebrooke Street  Kelvinbridge  and the Elmbank Street premises were sold to the High School of Glasgow which was taken over by the Glasgow School Board after the passing of the 1872 Education(Scotland )Act.52

The Glasgow Post Office Directory of 1874-5 tells us that Lawrence was a ‘writer’ meaning a lawyer, working for Bannantyne, Kirkwood and McJannets, a legal firm, at 145 West George Street,  while still living in the family home. After his father’s death in 1875  Lawrence moved to 17 Ashton Lane, Hillhead which remained his address until about 188053 by which time he was a writer with premises at 190 West George Street but living at ‘Fernlea’ in Bearsden.54

On 28 May 1877 The Glasgow Herald reported the laying of the foundation stone of the Buchanan Memorial Free Church in Caledonia Road ,Oatlands. Lawrence attended the ceremony and spoke of his father’s work  and ‘expressed the hope that the Church…would be the means of prospering Christian work in the district.’ The church was designed by Glasgow architect John Honeyman.

Lawrence married Elizabeth(Lizzie) Agnes McLachlan in October 1877 in St Pancras in London.55Lizzie was the daughter of  Elizabeth McLachlan and the late David McLachlan.56 David McLachlan  had been first a wine and spirit merchant with premises in Oxford Street ,Glasgow and also had  business dealings in London.57 In June 1868 he took over the George Hotel at 74 George Square at the  east corner of what is now Glasgow City Chambers.58                                                                                                                               

Figure 9. George Square from the south-east c1829 by Joseph Swan. © CSGCIC  Glasgow Museums and Libraries. Carriages can be seen depositing patrons outside The George Hotel far right

George Square had undergone many changes since it was laid out in  1781.59 At the time of the Jacobite Rising in 1745 it was a marsh surrounded by meadowlands and kitchen gardens.60 At the beginning of the nineteenth century it was still ,’a hollow filled with green water and a favourite resort for drowning puppies ,cats and dogs while the banks of  this suburban pool were the slaughtering place of horses’.61 Building began around 1789  with a series of elegant town houses. The only statue in 1829 was that of Sir John Moore, erected in 1819.62 As Glasgow prospered the town houses of George Square were taken over by commercial enterprises and hotels.

By the 1860s  George Square had many hotels. Along the western side for example was The Edinburgh and Glasgow Chop House and Commercial Lodgings. In 1849 this had been taken over by George Cranston, father of Catherine Cranston who became famous later in the nineteenth century for her tearooms. The Chop house was renamed  The Edinburgh and Glasgow Hotel and then Cranston’s Hotel. Around 1855 the  town houses on the  north side of the square were converted into the Royal, the Crown and the Queen’s Hotel. This  expansion was possibly as the result of the opening  of the Edinburgh and Glasgow  Railway with  its Queen Street Station (known as Dundas Street station at first) in  1842. David McLachlan became a well-known Glasgow hotel keeper.63 After  her husband’s death in 187264  Elizabeth McLachlan took over the running of the  hotel and when the George Hotel was due for demolition to make way for the new Glasgow City Chambers Elizabeth McLachlan took over the Queen’s Hotel at 40 George Square   and later changed the name  to the George Hotel.65

Figure 10. George Square c. 1868. © CSGCIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries.The George Hotel can be seen in the far right corner. The Queen’s Hotel can be seen  on the far left . 

One  can only speculate how  Lawrence and Lizzie met  but  in  February 1877 Lawrence, in his capacity as a lawyer, defended Mrs Elizabeth McLachlan when she was prosecuted for a breach of the George Hotel licence.66 If this was when they first met and they were married the following October it must have a whirlwind romance or perhaps Lawrence had been acting as Mrs McLachlan’s lawyer for some time as his office was in nearby West George Street. Why they married in London  raises  a question unless it was because, as we have seen, Lawrence’s mother and other members of his family had moved to London by then.

By the time of the 1881 census Lawrence and Lizzie had three children. May Hamilton  aged four was born in France rather unusually. A second daughter Ethel Howard was born in England about 1879 and a son Lawrence Gordon in New Kirkpatrick, Dumbarton in May 1880.67

Around 1880-1 Lawrence’s life seems to have taken a different direction. At the time of the  1881 census Lawrence and his family  were living  at 40 George Square  Glasgow at  the Queen’s Hotel, later renamed The George Hotel. He and his mother-in-law, Elizabeth McLachlan,  were listed as hotel keepers.68  What made Lawrence decide to give up the legal profession and take up that of  hotel keeper is not known but it turned out to be a fortuitous  decision. On 14 October  1881 Mrs McLachlan died suddenly of ‘apoplexy’.69 She was only 58 years old.70 There had been a serious fire at the George in July 1881 which had destroyed a third of the roof. The Glasgow Herald  commented that the damage was around £200 and even though the premises were insured ‘the loss to the lessee of the hotel was considerable‘.71 Perhaps the stress of the fire  caused  the stroke.

Lawrence was proprietor of the George Hotel for the next ten  years.72 Sometime in 1890 The George was taken over by J. Fritz Rupprecht73  who previously owned the  Alexandra Hotel  at 148 Bath Street.74The name of the hotel was changed to the North British Railway Hotel sometime in 1891.75 Then in 1903 this hotel and the Royal at 50 George Square were bought by the North British Railway Company and became one hotel. This is today the Millennium Hotel.76

There is no trace of either Lawrence or his wife after about 1890. They do not appear in the 1891 census. The only clue we have is contained in Lawrence’s mother’s will. When she wrote her will in July 1893 she commented that her son was  living in Stuttgart in Germany but no reason for this is given.77 Neither  do they appear in the UK  census of 1901 but by 1911 Lawrence, aged 64, was back in the UK living in Saffron Waldon with his wife ,daughter May and  son Lawrence. His occupation was given as ‘retired solicitor’.78 Lawrence Buchanan died on 31 July  1926  at 2 London Lane, Bromley Kent aged 79 and was buried in Plaistow Cemetery in Bromley.79

Isabella McCallum Bruce (1849-1908)

Isabella Buchanan lived in the  family home at 2 Sandyford Place until at least 1871 according to the census of that year. There is no trace of her in the 1881 census.80 She married Thomas Boston Bruce who was a barrister. They married at the British Consul in Rome on 26 February 1885.81 Thomas was six or seven years younger than Isabella. It is not known at this time why the wedding took place in Rome. In 1891 the Bruces were living at 22 Ladbrooke Grove in Kensington. They had three children by this time. Charles Gordon was  four, Isabel M  two and Rosamund was one.  There were four servants living in the house demonstrating that the Bruces were quite prosperous.82 Another daughter Elizabeth Winifred was born about 1894.83 As we have seen several members of the Buchanan family had moved to London by this time and Isabella’s mother was living close by at 52 Ladbroke Grove at the time of her death in 1898.

According to the 1901 Census the Bruce family were at  2 Lunham Road Upper Norwood. Thomas Boston Bruce had  chambers at 32 Camden House Chambers, Kensington at the time of his death. 84 There is very little information forthcoming about the Bruces except that gleaned from the census records. We do know that the eldest son, Charles Gordon followed in his grandfather’s footsteps and became a minister of the church though it was the Church of England rather than the Free Church of the Reverend Robert Buchanan.85 Isabella died at the Lunham Road address on 5 January 1908 aged 59.86

Harriet Rainey Buchanan (1852-1925)

Harriet was probably given her middle name in honour of the Reverend Robert Rainey, a friend and colleague of her father. Robert Rainey was a leading figure in the Free Church of Scotland and was for many years  Principal of New College Edinburgh, the first training college for Free  Church ministers in Scotland after the Disruption.87 Harriet lived at the family home in Sandyford Place until the death of her father in 1875.There is no trace of her in 1881 but by 1891 she was living with her mother at 52 Ladbroke Grove ,Kensington.88Her sister Isabella was living at 22 Ladbroke Grove at this time. After her mother’s death in 1898 Harriet appears to have moved in with her eldest sister Charlotte in Hawke Road, Norwood. Also living in the house was niece Margaret Thornton, daughter of elder sister Elizabeth and Robert McAlpine Thornton.89

At the time of the census in 1911 Harriet was staying with her sister  Edith Gray Stewart who was married to Robert Barr Stewart ,a  solicitor. Their home was  Hillfoot House ,New Kilpatrick. It appears the middle classes were already moving to Bearsden by this time.90

In all the census reports consulted Harriet is said to be ‘living on her own means’ and there is no evidence of her having a paid occupation. Like her eldest sister Charlotte Harriet never married. Harriet died in Edinburgh of pneumonia in October 1925 aged 73. At the time of her death she was living in Eglinton Crescent , Edinburgh. Her death was registered by her brother-in-law Robert who by this time was living at 4 Huntley Gardens, Glasgow.91

Edith Gray Stewart (1855-1938)

Edith was the youngest of the children of  Robert and  Elizabeth Buchanan. She lived in the family home in Sandyford Place92 until her marriage on 4 November 1874. She was nineteen when she married Dr James George Wilson, Professor of Midwifery at Anderson’s College Glasgow.93 Dr Wilson was more than twice Edith’s age and already had a home at 9 Woodside Place in Glasgow’s west end.94 Dr Wilson died  on 4 March 1881 at the age of 52.95 Edith  remarried in the spring of 1887 to  Robert Barr Stewart, Writer to the Signet and Notary  Public. They were married in Kensington possibly because, as we have established, Edith’s mother and other members of the family were living in London by this time. Edith’s brother-in-law the Reverend  Robert  McAlpine Thornton assisted at the wedding.96 In 1891 Edith and Robert were living in Inverallen Place ,Stirling97 and later moved to Carronvale Road, Larbert.98

They moved again to Hillfoot House in Bearsden along with their two children . Alex was 22 at this time  and Lillian was twenty.99 At the time of their deaths the Barr Stewart’s usual residence was 4 Huntley Gardens Glasgow. Edith died of cerebral thrombosis at Balmenoch, Comrie Road Crieff on 21 September  1938 aged 84. Her death was registered by her daughter Lilian, now Oldham.100 Less than a month later on 20 October  Edith’s husband Robert died in Perth.101

The Buchanans appear to have been a very close family. Through the years we have seen numerous examples of members of the family visiting one another, living with one another and generally supporting one another. Even as late as 1939 when she was in her eighties we find Lawrence Buchanan’s widow Lizzie and unmarried daughter May  either visiting or living with the Reverend Charles Gordon Bruce , the son of Lawrence’s sister Isabella.102

References

  1. Baile de Laparriere (editor). The RSA Exhibition 1826-1990. 1991
  2. Minutes of Glasgow Corporation Parks and Gardens Committee July 6th
  3. ancesty.co.uk Statutory Deaths. Elizabeth Stoddart Buchanan
  4. Stephen, Sir Leslie (editor). Dictionary of National Biography.(DNB). OUP, 1921
  5. Morning Post 02/04/1875
  6. Op cit 4
  7. http:/www.archive.org/stream/disruptionworthi00edin
  8. Glasgow Herald (GH) 08/08/1864
  9. Op cit 5
  10. Op cit 5
  11. GH 05/04/1875
  12. GH 19/05/1875
  13. Op cit 4
  14. UK Census Records 1841 http://www.scotlandspeople.co.uk
  15. UK Census Records 1861-1891 http://www.ancestry.co.uk
  16. GH 29/091846
  17. highschoolofglasgow.co.uk/why-hsog-/history
  18. Inverness Courier 28/10/1852
  19. Op cit 4
  20. scotlandspeople.co.uk/Statutory Marriages
  21. UK Census Records 1871,1881 http://www.scotlandspeople.co.uk
  22. Ibid 1851,1861
  23. Glasgow Post Office Directory (GPOD)1845
  24. Ibid 1848
  25. UK Census Records 1881 http://www.scotlandspeople.co.uk
  26. scotlandspeople.co.uk. Will of Elizabeth Stoddart Buchanan
  27. ibid
  28. UK Census Records 1851-1881 ancestry.co.uk
  29. GH 01/04/1875
  30. UK Census Records 1881 http://www.scotlandspeople.co.uk
  31. UK Census Records 1891-1911 http://www.ancestry.co.uk
  32. England and Wales National Probate Calendar1858-1966.www.ancestry.co.uk
  33. UK Census Records 1851-1871 http://www.scotlandspeople.co.uk
  34. scotlandspeople.co.uk Statutory Marriages
  35. GH 26/09/1874
  36. whitby.library.on.ca
  37. UK Census Records 1881www.ancestry.co.uk
  38. London Times 21/07/1913 Obituary Reverend R. M. Thornton
  39. UK Census Records 1891.www.ancestry.co.uk
  40. 0p cit 28
  41. Charles Booth Online Archive . Ref Booth B213 pp2-10** check
  42. UK Census Records 1901 http://www.ancestry.co.uk
  43. Ibid 1911
  44. Op cit 38
  45. University of London Student Records 1836-1945.Role of War Service 1914-18.www.ancestry.co.uk
  46. Op cit 32
  47. ancestry.co.uk/Statutory Deaths
  48. UK Census Records 1851-1871 http://www.scotlandspeople.co.uk
  49. McLeod, Iain The Glasgow Academy.150 Years. Glasgow Academy 1997 pp1-9
  50. glasgowmuseumsartdonors.co.uk Lt Colonel Henry Alastair Campbell OBE
  51. Op cit McLeod
  52. theglasgowacademy.org.alumni/from-our-archives/the-history-of-the-academy
  53. Glasgow Post Office Directories1876-1881
  54. Glasgow Post Office Directory 1880-81
  55. General Record Office. Marriage Certificate. Lawrence Barton Buchanan and Lizzie Agnes McLachlan 02/10/1877
  56. GH 25/07/1872
  57. UK Census Records 1851 http://www.ancestry.co.uk
  58. GH 11/06/1868
  59. Sommerville,Thomas A History of George Square. Glasgow 1891 p12
  60. Ibid p9
  61. Ibid p12
  62. Ibid p26
  63. ibid p43
  64. North British Daily Mail 03/07/1874
  65. Glasgow Evening News and Star 04/12/1880
  66. GH 24/02/1877
  67. scotlandspeople.co.uk/Statutory Births
  68. UK Census Records 1881 http://www.scotlandspeople.co.uk
  69. Dundee Evening Telegraph 15/10/1881
  70. scotlandspeople.co.uk/Statutory Deaths
  71. GH 11/07/1881
  72. Glasgow Post Office Directories 1881-1891
  73. Dundee Courier and Argus 23/12/1890
  74. Glasgow Evening News 08/03/1890
  75. Glasgow Post Office Directory 1891-2
  76. theglasgowstory.com
  77. Op cit 26
  78. UK Census Records1901,1911 ancestry.co.uk
  79. London Times 03/08/1926
  80. UK Census Records1851-1881 scotlandspeople.co.uk
  81. Dundee Courier 02/03/1885
  82. UK Census Records 1891 ancestry.co.uk
  83. Ibid 1901 ancestry.co.uk
  84. England and Wales National Probate Calendar 1858-1966 ancestyry.co.uk
  85. Ibid
  86. Op cit 54
  87. Robert Rainey DD 1826-1906 DNB ancestry.co.uk
  88. UK Census Records 1861-1891 scotlandspeople.co.uk
  89. Ibid 1901
  90. Ibid 1911
  91. scotlandspeople.co.uk/Statutory Deaths
  92. UK Census Records 1861,1871 scotlandspeople.co.uk
  93. scotlandspeople.co.uk/Statutory Marriages
  94. UK Census Records 1871 scotlandspeople.co.uk
  95. scotlandspeople.co.uk/Statutory Deaths
  96. ibid Statutory Marriages
  97. UK Census Records 1891 scotlandspeople.co.uk
  98. Ibid 1901
  99. Ibid 1911
  100. scotlandspeople.co.uk/Statutory Deaths
  101. Ibid
  102. 1939 England and Wales Register.www.ancestry.co.uk>search>collection

Illustrations Notes:

Figure 2. Amelia Robertson Hill was the wife of David Octavius Hill. The original was painted by David Octavius Hill between 1843 and 1866 and is owned by the Free Church of Scotland.

Figure 3. Mitchell Library Special Collections. Virtual Mitchell Ref C2607

Figure 4. The Baillie No 29 May 1873

Figure 5. National Galleries of Scotland .ID PGP751

Figure 6. http://www.maps.nls.uk/index.html

Figure 7. Whitby Online Historic Photographs Collection.

http:/www.whitbylibrary.ca/archives

Figure 8. Mitchell Library Special Collections. Virtual Mitchell Ref C5141

Figure 9. Mitchell Library Special Collections. Ref GC914.14353 SWA

Figure 10. Mitchell Library Special Collections. Ref C8571

Margaret Helen Garroway

(1860-1947)

Our donor Margaret Helen Garroway was the daughter of Robert Garraway, a well-known nineteenth century Scottish industrialist, and Agnes Garraway, formerly Agnes McWilliam. She was born on 24 August 1860 in Rosemount, Cumbernauld Road, Shettleston, Glasgow. [1] Her father Robert Garroway, a surgeon by training, graduated from Glasgow University and later became a manufacturing chemist [2]. He set up business with his brother James Garraway at 694 Duke Street, Glasgow, which became known as R&J Garroway, Netherfield Chemical Works [3]. Robert Garraway’s brother, James, died in 1877 and left quite a big fortune in his will to be distributed among his family and some of the workers in the factory. The total sum of his fortune was recorded as £52,218-6s-09d. [4]

The Garroway Family prospered during the Industrial Revolution which, as well as changing the world, brought great fortunes to those who were able to invest in the inventions andother developments. In Glasgow, most of the industrialists spent some of their fortunes on grand houses and objets d’art to decorate them. The Garroways were one of these families. Our donor’s uncle, James had a house in Helensburgh and father Robert had a house called ‘Thorndale’ in Skelmorlie in Ayrshire which is now a B-listed house. [5]

The Garroways were manufacturing chemists by profession. The factory that they founded was one of the notable firms engaged in the exemplification of Glasgow’s great chemical industry in the nineteenth century [6]. Their factory ‘Netherfield Works’ occupied over eight acres. The factory manufactured a variety of chemicals as well as chemical fertilisers for the home and export markets. They were awarded the gold medal at the Edinburgh International Exhibition of 1886 for excellence of manufacture.

Glasgow was a major centre for chemical manufacture in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Garraway’s company survived until 1970. Since then, fertiliser manufacture has been abandoned, but the works were still producing sulphuric acid in 2002 [7].

It may be appropriate at this juncture to mention that the Garroway family was also very active in their civic duties. Between 1890 and 1893 a general reordering of the choir of Glasgow Cathedral was carried out. [8] The Garroway Family was one of the prominent donors of this major architectural renovation. In particular, the older brothers of our donor, John and James Garroway, made significant contributions to the City of Glasgow. In 1880, John Garroway donated a ‘new bell’ and James Garroway donated the ‘communion table’ to the Cathedral. It must be mentioned that, because of their contributions during the general reordering of the choir of Glasgow Cathedral, between 1890 and 1893, the father, surgeon Robert Garroway and brother, Major John Garraway, of our donor, were both buried at the Glasgow Cathedral. Also their names were carved on a memorial stone in the cathedral’s gardens.

However, our donor, Margaret Helen Garroway has been very elusive during this search, though she appears on every census since 1861. There are no records of a marriage.  There is also no indication that she held any position in the company that was run by her father and her brothers. Her occupation was described as ‘living on her own means’  on the census recordings. There is no mention of her name in any of the local or national press. However, there is one public announcement that she made and that was through her solicitors. That was the bequest she made to the Glasgow’s Kelvingrove Gallery, just before her demise. This was recorded in the Minutes of the Council of City of Glasgow Art Gallery and Museums held on 11 March 1947 in Paragraph 4 mentioning the bequest made by Miss Margaret H. Garroway to the Kelvingrove Gallery [9].  It said:

Figure 1. Andreotti, Federico; The Violin Teacher; © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (www.artuk.org)

Bequest made by late Miss Margaret H. Garroway.
There was submitted a letter by Messrs Kidstons and Co. solicitors of 86 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow, intimating that the late Miss Margaret H. Garroway of Thorndale, Skelmorlie, had offered the Corporation under her settlement the choice of her collection of ivories, pictures and engravings, the selection to be postponed until after the death of her two nieces, Mrs Todd and Miss Haldane. The two nieces in question were agreeable to the corporation making their selection now. There was also submitted a report by the Director stating that he had inspected the collection and recommended acceptance by the Corporation of the complete set of ivories, the following pictures, three of which are shown, viz. –

Medium                Artist’s Name                          Name of the Painting

Oil                          Frederigo Andreotti                A Violin Teacher
Watercolour          Eduard Detaille                         The Drummers
Oil                          Lucien Gerard                           Young Man Reading
Oil                          Paul Grolleron                          The Scout
Oil                          Charles-Louis Kratké               French Army on the March(1848-1921)
Watercolour                   A P Robinson                     Highland Loch
Oil                          Adolphe Weisz                          Going to Mass

Figure 2. Kratke, Charles Louis; French Army on the March; © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (www.artuk.org)

There was also a number of engravings which would be useful for the library of period prints. The committee agreed that the Director’s recommendation be approved.‘Glasgow. A collection of approximately ninety pieces of oriental Ivory has been presented to the Art Gallery by the Trustees of Miss Margaret H. Garroway’.Margaret H. Garroway was brought up with her two brothers and three sisters. She was the youngest in the family. At that time, the Family Garroways had a house on Cumbernauld Rd, called Rosemount. They also had a house at Skelmorlie in Ayrshire. It is possible that our donor was educated privately, as was the custom of wealthy people at that time. 

It appears that Miss Margaret Helen Garroway either inherited or possibly bought the above paintings and the collection of ivory. In her later life, our donor moved to her final home Thorndale, Skelmorlie in Ayrshire.

Figure 3. Grolleron, Paul Louis Narcisse; The Scout; © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (www.artuk.org)

Margaret Helen Garroway died on 24 January 1947, when she was 86 years old. Her death was reported in the Deaths column on the first page of the Glasgow Herald of 25 January 1947. [11] It read:

‘Garroway: At Thorndale Skelmorlie, on 24th January 1947 Margaret Helen, daughter of the late Dr Robert Garroway. Funeral Private’.

There were no obituaries. The Scotsman of 23 May 1947 reported in its Wills and Estates on page seven that her estate was worth £53,248. [12]

Although our donor Margaret H. Garroway appears in all relevant Scotland Censuses, she is invisible all throughout her life until she makes her donation to Kelvingrove Gallery.

References:

[1] www.ancestry.co.uk 1861 Scotland Census.

[2] www.ancestry.co.uk 1851 Scotland Census

[3] Index of Firms (1888)  http://www.glasgowwestaddress.co.uk/1888_Book/Index_of_firms_1888.htm

[4] The will of James Garroway (About 1811-1877), Downloaded from Scotland’s People.

[5] http://www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/sc-50045-skelmorlie-15-shore-road-thorndale-with-b#.WIcjaVwcxg4

[6] op cit.[3]

[7] http://www.britainfromabove.org.uk/image/spw048761?ref=2778

[8] http://www.mackintosh-architecture.gla.ac.uk/catalogue/names/display/?rs=1&nid=GarrJas#s012des5

[9] Corporation Minutes 1946-1947, p. 882 Mitchell Library, Glasgow.

[10] www.e-periodica.ch/cntmng?pid=ast-002:1947:1::200

[11] Glasgow Herald 25 January 1947. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=GGgVawPscysC&dat=19470125&printsec=frontpage&hl=en

[12] The Scotsman 23 May 1947, p.7 Wills and Estates.

Sir Thomas McCall Anderson 1836-1908

Figure 1. McTaggart,William: SummerBreezes( 2368) Glasgow Museums Resource Centre © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums  Collections.

Donors: Mary Constance Parsons, Helen Muriel Buchanan

The Glasgow Corporation Minutes of 1943-44 detail the donation of the McTaggart painting shown above. The offer of donation was from Mrs Muriel Buchanan of Helensburgh and she offered the painting on behalf of herself and her sister, Mrs Charles Parsons. (1)

Figure 2. Sir Thomas McCall Anderson 1836-1908. https://eleanor.lib.gla.ac.uk/record=b1474623.

Sir Thomas McCall Anderson and Lady Margaret McCall Anderson were the parents of the two donors of the painting. Sir Thomas McCall Anderson was the son of Alexander Dunlop Anderson, who was a doctor and President of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons in Glasgow. His mother was Sara McCall. (2)

Sir Thomas came from an eminent Glasgow family with noted clerical and medical ancestors. These included William Dunlop, Principal of Glasgow University 1690 – 1700; Reverend Mr Anderson, Minister of the Ramshorn Church in Glasgow; and John Anderson, Scientist. (3)                                                         

Figure 3. William Dunlop. Principal of Glasgow University 1690-1700. University of Glasgow Archives and Special Collections, University Photographic collection, GB248 UP2/11/1

William Dunlop (1645-1700) was a Covenanter, Minister and  latterly principal of the University of Glasgow from 1690 to 1700. He was the son of an Ayrshire minister. He came from a Covenant supporting family and as a young man he  worked as a tutor for the family of Lord Cochrane, who was also a Covenanter. He went to Carolina, which at that time was known to be a place sympathetic to Protestant Non Conformists and he served there as both a minister and as a member of the militia. He came back to Scotland after the Revolution of 1688 and the accession to the British throne of William III  and was appointed Principal of Glasgow University in 1690. His appointment was believed to be helped by the influence of his brother in law and cousin, the royal adviser William Carstares and to Dunlop’s role in exposing a plot to undermine the authority of the King in Scotland. He invested In the ill-fated Darien Scheme and persuaded Glasgow University to match his considerable donation. (4)

John Anderson (1668-1721), noted in the Dictionary of National Biography as a theologian and controversialist , (5) was ordained minister of Dumbarton and became embroiled in the controversy between the Episcopal and the Presbyterian churches. He was a stout defender of Presbyterianism. In 1720, after much debate within the church about his appointment, he was appointed Minister of the Ramshorn Church in Glasgow. His tenure was short. He died in 1721 at the age of 53. He is buried in the Ramshorn Churchyard. His grandson, Dr John Anderson erected a tombstone in his memory. (6)

OP-4-1-6
Figure 4. John Anderson: Strathclyde University Archives. Image courtesy of the University of Strathclyde Archives and Special Collections (reference:OP/4/1/6)

Dr John Anderson (1726 – 1796) was the founder of Andersonian College, Glasgow and a noted contributor to the advancement of science throughout his life. He graduated from Glasgow University in 1745. He enlisted as a volunteer officer in the Jacobite rebellion of 1745-1746. In 1755 he was appointed Professor of Oriental Languages at Glasgow University. Known as ‘Jolly Jack Phosphorus’ to his students, Anderson was less popular with some of his colleagues, becoming involved in quarrels and even legal disputes with them. He developed an Experimental Philosophy evening class which was advertised in local papers and which was available to the working classes. In 1786 he published a book , The Institutes of Physics  to help his students. It ran to five editions in ten years. Anderson’s will showed plans for the foundation of Anderson University, which stipulated that women should be allowed to attend lectures. Andersonian College is now Strathclyde University (7)

Sir Thomas McCall Anderson became a noted physician who held the chair of Medicine in Glasgow University and who was also an Honorary Physician to the King in Scotland.

Sir Thomas began his medical studies at Glasgow University in 1852 and went on to study in Europe – in Paris, Wurzburg, Berlin, Vienna and Dublin. In 1861, he founded the Glasgow Skin Dispensary with Andrew Buchanan. In 1865 he became the Professor of Practice of Medicine at Anderson’s College. In 1874 Thomas McCall Anderson was appointed Chair of Clinical Medicine at Glasgow University. He held this post until 1900, in conjunction with the post of Physician to the Western Infirmary. In 1900 he became Chair of Practice of Medicine at Glasgow University. Sir Thomas maintained family tradition through his medical work, but also through his lifelong membership of the Church of Scotland. He was an elder in Park Church, Glasgow and also had interests in his life outside of work, being a keen cyclist and golfer. He died suddenly on 25 January 1908 in the St Enoch Hotel Glasgow after making a speech at a dinner there. He is buried in the Necropolis.  The only son and the youngest child of the family, also named Thomas McCall Anderson, went to America in 1908 to study medicine at the University of Maryland Medical School. He became physician to the Actors’ Fund of America and the St George Society of New York. He died of a heart attack on 24 March 1939 aged 57. (8)

Sir Thomas and Lady McCall Anderson had six children. The oldest Anderson daughter, Katherine,  followed her father into medicine, becoming matron of a hospital in Newcastle Infirmary, then moving to become Matron of St George’s Hospital in London. She served with the Red Cross during the South African War for which she was awarded the Royal Red Cross. She returned to military nursing during the first World War, serving as matron in several Military hospitals.(9)

The donors of the painting were the two youngest daughters of the family, Mary Constance, born in 1873 and Helen Muriel, born in 1879. Both women were married and lived in Scotland, Muriel Buchanan in Helensburgh and Mary Parsons in Glasgow.

The object file for the painting identifies the two children in the painting as being the daughters of Sir Thomas McCall Anderson. The painting was completed in 1881. Looking at the children in the painting and at the ages of the two youngest Anderson daughters, it seems likely that the two donors are the two children in the painting. Helen Muriel would have been aged two and Mary Constance would have been aged seven at the time the painting was completed. The older sisters at this time would have been aged eleven, thirteen and fifteen and do not seem to match the ages of the children in the picture. If the two younger sisters are the subject of the painting, this would explain why it was in their possession and was theirs to dispose of as they wished. (10)  Lachlan Goudie’s History of Scottish Art acknowledges that these paintings of children were McTaggart’s bread and butter and enabled the artist to spend his summers in Kintyre, working on the seascapes for which he would become famous. (11)

There is little further available information about the donors. Mary Constance was born in Largs in 1873. In 1900 she married Charles Parsons, a stockbroker. Helen Muriel born in Glasgow in 1879 married Andrew Buchanan, a chartered accountant in 1915. Muriel Buchanan died in Helensburgh in 1950. Mary Constance Parsons died in Glasgow in 1963. (12)

1.Glasgow Corporation Minutes. November 1943 – April 1944 p.815

2. http://www.universitystory.gla.ac.uk/image/id?=UGSPOO893

3. The Baillie July 31st 1907, Men you Know no.1815

4. http://www.universitystory.gla.ac.uk/biography

5. COOPER, James, 1912, Dictionary of National Biography : London: Smith,       Elder and Co

6. BLAIKIE,  William Garden, 1901: ANDERSON, John  in:  STEPHEN, Leslie: Dictionary of National Biography :London: Smith Elder and Co

7. Strathclyde University Archives      https/www.strath.ac.uk/archives/iotm/may2010/

8. Glasgow Herald: 27.01.1908; 28.01.1908; 30.01.1908; 03.02.1908

9.  Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2020. Introduction

10. Object File, GMRC. Summer Breezes, William McTaggart 2368

11. GOUDIE, Lachlan , 2020: The Story of Scottish Art :London.:Thames and Hudson

12. Scotland’s People, www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

Anderson Thomas McCall, Birth 646/3 1 472: 1906

Anderson, Mary Constance, Birth 602/6 8 1873

Anderson, Helen Muriel Dunlop, Birth 644/9 1879

Other sources consulted: Who’s Who in Glasgow 1909 pp.4

Colonel John Macfarlane (1846-1910)

Figure 1. Reynolds, Warwick; Colonel John Macfarlane (1846-1910); Glasgow Museums;© CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection.

In 1933 Gertrude Elizabeth Macfarlane gifted a portrait of her father Colonel John MacFarlane to Glasgow Museums. The painting, titled Portrait of Colonel John MacFarlane M.V.O., V.D., D.L., J.P., of The 1st Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers was completed by Warwick Reynolds in 1907, who was  better known as a painter of animals, but he had an interest in depicting regimental figures. The portrait was exhibited at The Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Art in 1909.(1)

Figure 2. Reynolds; Warwick, Poster – Recruits Wanted for the Scottish Regiments: Permission of Imperial War Museum, Accession IWM PST 13490

In 1919 Reynolds designed a poster entitled Recruits Wanted for the Scottish Regiments, a copy of which is in The Imperial War Museum.(2)

Gertrude was born in Glasgow on 6 January 1877 to John Macfarlane, a grain merchant, and Marion Buchanan McCallum from Lanarkshire.(3) John was born at Gartmore, Perthshire on 19 June 1846 and his parents were John MacFarlane, farmer and portioner (inheritor of a small piece of land), and Janet Sands.(4)

John junior, the subject of our story, attended Dalmary School in Gartmore, and when the family moved to Glasgow he was educated at St Enoch’s Public School followed by Andersons College. (5) At age 16 he started in business in Helensburgh with his brother Robert. Six years later he was working in a grain store in Glasgow, and in 1869 he set up business with another brother Malcolm. (6) Number 14 Kent Road, Charing Cross, Glasgow was the business address of Robert S MacFarlane, grain merchant, from 1865 to 1868, followed by Malcolm MacFarlane, grain merchant from 1868 to 1870. The same address was then occupied by the firm of M & J Macfarlane from 1870 to1879, (7) so this appears to be Johns place of work for this period and his progression to a senior level within the business. The business expanded and a branch was opened in Coleraine in Ireland followed by several agencies in Africa. (8)

John married Marion on second of February 1872 at 15 Hill Street, Garnethill, Glasgow. (9) In 1881 they were living at 11 Camphill Quadrant adjacent to Queens Park in Glasgow, with their family, John, William, Robert, Gertrude (our donor) and Marion aged from five months to eight years.  They employed three servants. (10)

Figure 3. 20 Berkeley Street, Glasgow 1968. Permission of J R Hume https://canmore.org.uk/collection/685598

John then became senior partner with Messrs M and J MacFarlane, grain merchants, and eventually sole partner with Macfarlane Brothers, Job Masters, hiring out horse drawn carriages in Berkley Street. (11) The arched entrance gave access to two levels for horses and carriages. The premises were demolished in 2000 to make way for a large block of flats and shops.

In 1907-08 John and Marion were living at 15 Dundonald Road in the West End with their son William (12)  who was employed in both of these businesses.

During his lifetime John contributed much to public duty, beginning as a reforming member of The Barony Parochial Board. In 1884 he entered the Town Council as a representative of the fourteenth ward and was a Magistrate of the city from 1889 to 1903. He became Convenor of The Statute Labour Committee from 1894 to 1902, with responsibility for looking after the public streets of Glasgow, and laying the foundation stones of three Glasgow bridges; Millbrae Bridge over the River Cart, Rutherglen Bridge over the River Clyde and Kirklee bridge over the River Kelvin. (13)

Among his many prominent roles he was preceptor (chairman) of Hutchieson’s Hospital from 1905 to 1908 and a Justice of The Peace and President of Central Division Liberal Association, Glasgow. He was Deputy Lieutenant of the County of the City of Glasgow and was on the board of many charitable institutions. (14)

One of his overriding interests was in The 1st Lanarkshire Volunteers, where he passed through all the grades to command the battalion as Colonel Commandment. John’s services were recognised by being awarded The Volunteer Decoration, and in 1905 he was enrolled as a member of The Royal Victorian Order by King Edward V11 when on a visit to Edinburgh. (15)

During a Royal Visit to Glasgow in 1907 Colonel John MacFarlane’s skills were employed in organising the royal processions. (16) John also originated the ‘Marches Out’, and these included the then famous midnight march to Lenzie and the three day march to Gartmore and around Loch Katrine. Johns’ favourite pastimes were riding and shooting and he also made time to join The Royal Clyde Yacht Club.(17)

John died on 19 December 1910 of pneumonia at his home at 15 Dundonald Road.(18)

DS

References…

  1. Mitchell Library, Royal Glasgow Institute record of exhibitions
  2. https://www.vads.ac.uk/digital/collection/IWMPC/id/4526/rec/1
  3. (births 644/090118) 1877, https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  4. https://www.clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info/genealogy/TNGWebsite/getperson.php?personID=I8257&tree=CC
  5. Mitchell Library, Glasgow Contemporaries at The Dawn of the xxth Century, John M’Farlane p.82
  6. Mitchell Library, Index of Glasgow men 1909, Colonel John MacFarlane
  7. http://www.glasgowwestaddress.co.uk/Kent_Road/14_Kent_Road.htm
  8. Mitchell Library, Index of Glasgow men 1909, Colonel John MacFarlane
  9. (Marriages 64/060062),1872, https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  10. (Census, 560/00006/00044) 1881 https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  11. Mitchell Library, Gaskell, Ernest, Lanarkshire Leaders Social and Political, Col. John MacFarlane, D.L., M.V.O,  V.D., J.P.
  12. Mitchell Library, Post Office Directories 1907-08
  13. Mitchell Library, Index of Glasgow men (1909) http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/eyrwho/eyrwho1212.htm
  14. Mitchell Library, Gaskell, Ernest, Lanarkshire Leaders Social and Political, Col. John MacFarlane, D.L., M.V.O,  V.D., J.P.
  15. Mitchell Library, Index of Glasgow men (1909) http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/eyrwho/eyrwho1212.htm
  16. Mitchell Library, Gaskell, Ernest, Lanarkshire Leaders Social and Political, Col. John MacFarlane, D.L., M.V.O,  V.D., J.P.
  17. Mitchell Library, Index of Glasgow men (1909) http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/eyrwho/eyrwho1212.htm
  18. (Deaths 644/120946) 1910 https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/

Arthur Edward Anderson (1870-1938)

Gardner, Daniel, 1750-1805; Agnes Pennington
Figure 1. Gardener, Daniel: Agnes Pennington (1820) Glasgow Museums Resource Centre © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.
Figure 2. Stott, Edward A.R.A. : The Sacred Pool  (1820) Glasgow Museums Resource Centre © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.

Arthur Edward Anderson donated the two paintings shown to Kelvingrove in 1931 (1) Arthur Edward Anderson was born in Wandsworth in 1870. (2) He was the son of Edward John Anderson and Eleanor Anderson. Arthur Edward Anderson died in Chessington Surrey on November 9th 1938. (3) There is no evidence of any marriage. Edward John Anderson was born in Meerut, East India, with census returns  in 1871 showing him as a British Subject, his occupation listed as ‘gentleman’. His father owned a soap factory in Meerut. Edward John Anderson returned to England to live and established himself as a wharfinger. (4)

The family undoubtedly had money. Most of the scant census information available for Arthur E. Anderson, who was the first born son of the family, lists him as a gentleman, although in the 1901 and 1911 census he is listed as a clerk in the East India Merchant Company. (4) His life’s work however, seems to have been philanthropy, fuelled by his passion for art.

His wealth is also highlighted in a brief biography on the website of the British Museum which states that his art purchases were funded by his ‘inherited wealth’, although the same biography states that Anderson was ruined by the ‘great crash’ – presumably the stock market crash of 1929. It is worth noting that although he was ‘ruined’, he still managed to donate two paintings to Kelvingrove in 1931 and donated paintings to the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge until 1935 (5)

A.E. Anderson was a philanthropist who definitely gave for public benefit. He wanted others to enjoy art as he did. According to Sir Sydney Cockerell who wrote Anderson’s obituary for the Times, Anderson was a man of exceptional taste who bought art works because they were beautiful. Cockerell acknowledges that he took advice from gallery directors about what he should buy. (6) Having bought these works, Anderson then donated them to Galleries and Museums around Britain.

These galleries included the Fitzwilliam Museum In Cambridge (of which Sir Sydney Cockerell was the director) and the Whitworth Institute in Manchester. Between 1924 and 1935 Anderson donated twenty six items to the Fitzwilliam Museum, including watercolours, drawings and sculpture. Between 1916 and 1927 Anderson donated 17 drawings to the British Museum. These included drawings by Brandoin, Daumier, Raemaekers and Clara Klinghoffer, among others. (7)

 After his death, obituary notices were featured not only in the Times, but also in local papers in places such as Gloucester, Hull, Derby, Belfast and in Angus in Scotland, perhaps an indication of the scope of Mr Anderson’s generosity (8)

Although frequently invited to do so, Anderson seldom visited any of the museums and galleries to which he donated art works. Even when the Whitworth Institute held an exhibition of works donated by him he could not be persuaded to attend the opening. He has been quoted as saying ” I do it because I enjoy it and I don’t like being thanked.” 

Apparently he did once visit Cambridge because he had at one time been destined to attend Clare College. He is also known to have attended a gathering of distinguished guests invited by the government of the day to celebrate the centenary of the foundation of the National Gallery in 1924. Largely however, Anderson was not a man who sought recognition. In some cases, paintings would arrive at galleries having come directly from the dealer where Anderson bought them with no information other than the name of the donor. 

Cockerell stated of Anderson that he got as much pleasure out of finding homes for his art works as did the collector who hung his treasures on his own walls. Cockerell also hoped that “the example of this unique public benefactor will inspire others with similar enthusiasm”

Anderson himself wrote, ” I often wonder what made me take up such an unusual hobby – I simply cannot resist buying a beautiful work of art when I see it and, as there is no room in my tiny cottage, there is nothing like presenting them to the great public museums, where they will have a safe refuge for many years to come. I should hate a sale for distribution far and wide after they have been collected together with such loving care.” (9)

Arthur Edward Anderson’s story is a small but significant one. He has no great galleries named after him and most of the works he donated rest in the stores of the Museums to which he was so generous. However, his motives for giving are clear and his desire to share his love of art with others stands in tribute to his memory. Donors such as Arthur Edward Anderson form an important part of much of our cultural life. Without them our galleries and museums would be lesser places.

Bibliography

(1) Glasgow Corporation Minutes 1931

(2) ancestry.co.uk :1881 census accessed 07/04/2021

(3) The Times, November 11th 1938

(4) ancestry.co.uk: 1901 census, 1911 census accessed 07/04/2021 

(5) Fitzwilliam Museum Cambridge : http://www.fitz museum.cam.ac.uk

(6) The Times, November 26th 1938: p.17, par2

(7) http://www.british museum.org.uk/ research/ collection online accessed 12/04/21

(8) www-British newspaper archive-co-uk.nls.idm.oclc.org  accessed 19/04/2021

(9) The Times, November 26, 1938: p.17 par 3

George Bowie Sawers(1855-1923)

In the minutes of the Corporation of Glasgow of 5 February 1919 (page 615) [1], it was reported that: ‘the sub-committee agreed to accept an offer made by Mr G B Sawers of 1 Belgrave Terrace, Hillhead to present to the Corporation two pictures entitled:

1-Skaters on a Frozen River after Peeter Bout 

2-A Village Festival attributed to Mathys Schoevaerdts

 and to accord the donor a cordial vote of thanks therefore.’

The paintings that our donor presented to the Corporation in 1919 are displayed below. Dutch and Flemish paintings were popular with Glasgow collectors and it is possible that our donor had bought these paintings in Glasgow where there was a number of well-known art dealers, among them Alexander Reid and Craibe Angus who had contacts in Europe. These dealers could help buyers with their purchases of what was available in the art market.

Our donor, Mr George Bowie Sawers was born on 3 February 1855 [2], in the Tradeston District of Glasgow, in 14 Kenning Street. His parents were Robert Sawers, and Janet Anderson Sawers of Perth. His father’s occupation was recorded as ‘a pattern designer’. He was born into a family three boys and two girls.

Most of our donor’s career was spent in the locomotive industry in Glasgow. Initially, he workedfor the Hyde Park Locomotive Works and when the Company joined with the North British Locomotive Company [3], he became the joint secretary of the new firm.  

According to the 1881 census, our donor was living with his parents at 1 Belgrave Terrace, Glasgow and also spending some time in Dunoon where his father had a house. He was a very civic minded person and although his demanding position in a large company kept him very busy, he managed to find time to be a member of the 1st Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteersandreach the rank of major. [4] The Volunteers was initially a Scottish Volunteer Unit of the British Army and it was raised in Glasgow in 1859. During WWI, the Unit served on the Western Front and Ireland. All of our donor’s business-life was spent in the service of Messrs Neilson, Reid and Co., Glasgow, afterwards known as the NB Locomotive Co. Apart from his usual company work, he appears to have been an elected member of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. His name appears in Volume 28, 1912 – Issue 12 of the Proceedings of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society.

He retired approximately seven years before his death. However, his name appears on the passenger list of s/s Etruria on 9 September 1898, on the return journey from New York, USA to Liverpool, England. This indicates that he had managed to have some free time to travel. When he retired, he moved to Hunters Quay in Dunoon and bought a house named Tignacoille. He was a well-known personality in the area as he had spent many years on holiday in his father’s house at Kirn. Although public life had no attraction for him, it appears that he liked playing bowls and he was still involved in the 1st Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers. It was after taking part in such a match at the Green that he felt unwell and later died of heart failure in his house. In the report of his death in the local paper [5] it was mentioned that ‘he was a most generous subscriber to all deserving objects’. The report continued:

Major Sawers died 7 August 1923 aged 69 years at his home Tignacoille, Hunter’s Quay Dunoon. [6] He was in his 69th year when he died; he leaves a number of nephews and nieces. The cause of his death was heart failure. In accordance with his express wish, his remains were conveyed to the Crematorium at Maryhill on Friday, 10 August 1923.

A remembrance note printed in the 11 August 1923 edition of the Dunoon Observer and Argyllshire Standard after his death stated that he had lived in his residence Tignacoille, Hunters Quay, which he bought about 20 years before his death. [7]

His will dated 27 January 1923 [8] was recorded at Dunoon on 8 October 1923. His estate was valued at £12,286: 7s: 3d.

As our donor spent most of his working life in the North British Locomotive Company (NBL or North British) and because  NBL is an important development in the history of steam locomotive, it is important at this point to introduce the NBL and give a short history of it from 1903 until it closed down in 1962.

The NBL was created in 1903 through the merger of three Glasgow locomotive manufacturing companies: Sharp, Stewart and Company (Atlas Works), Neilson, Reid and Company (Hyde Park Works) and Dübs & Company (Queens Park Works), creating the largest locomotive manufacturing company in Europe. [9]

The main factories were located at the neighbouring Atlas and Hyde Park Works in central Springburn, as well as the Queens Park Works in Polmadie. A new central Administration and Drawing Office for the combined company was completed across the road from the Hyde Park Works in Flemington Street by the architect James Miller in 1909.  Hugh Reid, who was a well-known engineer and philanthropist of his time, became Deputy-Chairman and chief   Director. William Lorimer was the chairman. The building later became the main campus of Kelvin College.

The new company produced 5000 locomotives (the 5,000th one was produced in 1914) and the company had 7000 employees at that time. 

The Company [10]

1903 The largest Locomotive Company in Europe was created through mergers.

1905 Hugh Reid was the joint inventor with David MacNab Ramsay of the ‘Reid-Ramsay’ steam-turbine electric-locomotive, which underwent some trials but was not placed in service.

1914 The 5,000th locomotive was produced.

1914 Specialities: all types of locomotive engines; contractors to home railways, government railways of India, South Africa, Australia etc., state railways of France, Norway, Chile, Argentina, Japan, China, Egypt etc., also to railways and docks companies, steelworks, mines etc. Employees, 7,000.

1914 WWI Made 1,400 locomotives.

1918 The factory produced the first prototype of the Anglo-American Mark VIII battlefield tank for the Allied armies, but with the Armistice it did not go into production.

1924 Construction of the Reid-MacLeod turbine-driven locomotive, designed by Hugh Reid and James MacLeod. The turbine developed 500 HP at 8000 rpm. The reversing turbine developed 70% of the forward power. Boiler pressure 180 psi. 4-4-0+0-4-4 wheel arrangement.

1927 See Aberconway Chapter XV for information on the company and its history

By the start of WWII 8,850 locomotives had been completed.

1951 NBL acquired a controlling interest in Henry Pels and Co. (Great Britain), Ltd. Thereafter machine tools were made at the Queens Park works.

1961 Engineers and locomotive builders.

1962 The company ceased trading.

NBL had supplied many of its diesel and electric locomotives to British Rail (BR) at a loss, hoping to make up for this on massive future orders that never came. This, with a continuing stream of warranty claims to cure design and workmanship faults, proved fatal – NBL declared bankruptcy on 19 April 1962. Andrew Barclay, Sons and Co acquired the goodwill. They had built 11,318 locomotives since 1903.

Whilst highly successful as designers and builders of steam locomotives for both its domestic market and abroad, NBL failed to make the jump to diesel locomotive production. In the 1950s it signed a deal with the German company MAN to construct diesel engines under licence. These power units appeared in the late 1950s BR designs, later designated Class 21, Class 22, Class 41, Class 43 (Warship) and Class 251 (Blue Pullman). None of these were particularly successful (constructional shortcomings with the MAN engines made them far less reliable than German-built examples). A typical example of this was the grade of steel used for exhaust manifolds in the Class 43s – frequent manifold failures led to loss of turbocharger drive gas pressure and hence loss of power. More importantly, the driving cabs of the locomotives would fill with poisonous exhaust fumes. BR returned many NBL diesel locomotives to their builder for repair under warranty and also insisted on a three-month guarantee on all repairs (a requirement not levied on its own workshops). This and the continuing stream of warranty claims to cure design and workmanship faults proved fatal – NBL declared bankruptcy. Because of the unreliability of its UK diesel and electric locomotives, all were withdrawn after comparatively short lifespans.

NBL built steam locomotives for countries as far afield as Malaysia and New Zealand. The Colony of New South Wales purchased numerous of their locomotives, as did the State of Victoria as late as 1951 (Oberg, Locomotives of Australia), and in 1939 it supplied locomotives to New Zealand Railways, some of which were later converted to other classes. In 1949, South Africa purchased over 100 engines from the company. Some still operate tourist trains on the George-Kynsa line. Additionally South Africa also purchased some engines from the company between 1953 and 1955. These successful engines, with various in-service modifications, survived until the end of steam in South Africa in 1990. NBL also introduced the Modified Fairlie locomotive in 1924.

In 1957, the last order for steam locomotives was placed with the company and the last steam locomotive was completed in 1958. Although the company was making small industrial diesel locomotives, and received some early main line diesel orders from British Railways, the orders were never big enough to maintain the company. Other locomotive manufacturers, who had acted swiftly in transferring from steam to diesel and electric production, were becoming more successful. Messrs Andrew Barclay Sons & Co (Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, Scotland) acquired NBL’s goodwill.[11]

References

[1] Minutes of the Glasgow Corporation Minutes of 5th February 1919, Volume November 1918-April 1919, page 615.

[2] Birth Certificate, obtained from Scotland People.

[3] Archives of North British Locomotive Co., Springburn Museum (Mitchell Library, Glasgow).

[4] The London Gazette, 31 October 1899. Page 6531.

[5] Dunoon Observer and Argyllshire Standard, 11August 1923. Archives of Argyll and Bute Council.

[6] Death Certificate, records from Scotlands People.

[7] op.cit. [5]

[8] Confirmations and Inventories 1923 (Vol. M-Z), Mitchell Library.

[9] https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/search/archives/450f1232-3643-3c24-b8b9-9df92d152798

[10] https://www.gracesguide.co.uk/North_British_Locomotive_Co

[11] https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/search/archives/450f1232-3643-3c24-b8b9-9df92d152798

 

Francis James Eck (1835-1915)

In the 1915 minutes of Glasgow City Council,(1) there is a report of a letter received from the solicitor handling the will of Francis James Eck.

Figure 1. van Ostade, Adriaen; A Village Festival. Glasgow Museums © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (http://www.artuk.org)

“I bequeath ……..subject to my wife’s use and enjoyment such ten of my paintings as they shall select under the hand of their clerk. They shall be permanently hung in their gallery.” This was agreed by Deputy River Baillie, Rosslyn Mitchell. Mrs Eck wrote and formally declined the life use of the paintings. A full list of these paintings is appended as an annexe. The painting here is A Steet in Abbeville by D. Roberts . (2)

Francis James Eck came from a wealthy family and was at times  Independently wealthy. His father was a stockbroker and his son was on the Board of some banks in London. There are, however, years in which no record of him can be found in the United Kingdom and there is no known Scottish connection.  So why did he leave ten paintings to Glasgow?

When Francis James Eck was born in 1835(3) his parents, Francis Vincent Eck and Louisa, were living in St Pauls Terrace, Islington, London. He was baptised on 18 November 1835. His father Francis, (1797-1894) was born in Switzerland. (4) His mother Sara Eck (1799-1865) was born in London (5) but her father, Jacques Louis du Mont ( John  Lewis)(6 )was born in Saone et Loire Bourgogne, France. Her mother, Mary Poupard, was the daughter of Pierre and Louise Poupard.( 7) They were Huguenots and she was baptised in a Huguenot Church in Threadneedle Street, London.(8 ) Thus both sides of Francis Eck’s family came originally from the Europe.

Figure 2. A Street in Abbeville by David Roberts.  © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

In the census of 1841 (9) at six years of age and that of 1851(10) at 16 years of age, he is living at home in Islington. He does not then feature in records until he is 56 years old living at 58 Cleveland Square,London with his father. (11) No evidence can be found that he travelled abroad. His father died in 1894, (12) leaving an estate of £306, 421 (13)for which Francis James Eck and his brother were executors. In January 1895, he married Ada Marian Lamb at St James , Paddington, London. (14 ) His residence in 1900 was Hollywood, Clapham Common, Surrey.(15 ) From 1907 to his death on the 27th February 1915,(16) he lived at 7 Hollywood , Nightingale Lane , Clapham Common ,  Surrey with his wife.

In 1890, he was listed in the Economist (17) as a Director of the Bank of Tarapaca and London. He was re-elected in 1900(18) and 1903(19).The Bank of Tarapaca and London was founded in 1880 by John Thomas North- “The Nitrate King “. (20) British companies dominated the nitrate industry in Chile in the early 1880s. When easy supplies of guano as fertiliser were no longer available, nitrates replaced them. In the War of the Pacific (1879-1882) Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia (21) and assumed control of the provinces of Tarapaca and Antofagasta. British capital from private companies and government loans was invested in Chile to the extent of millions of pounds (22) and was financially very rewarding. The number of British companies was 25 in 1896. (23)  In 1907 The Bank of Tarapaca wished to expand their operations and decided to buy the Anglo-South American Bank and continue trading under that name. ( 24 ) In the Economist  (25 ) Francis James Eck is listed as a Director of that bank working there until his resignation in 1913.(26 ) He had other directorships, in particular, in the Scotsman, he is listed as a Director of the Nitrates provisions Supply Company. (27)

His Will (28), which is extensive, details bequests to his wife, to relatives, to servants and to friends. One in particular, Dixon Provand, whose address is in Ayr, Scotland, is the second “friend” to be mentioned. This friend was an engineer and can be found sailing from Valparaiso to Britain in 1900. (29) In the 1921 census he can be found living in Glasgow at an address near Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum. (30 )  Did our subject visit him in Scotland, visit the Art Gallery and decide to leave paintings to Glasgow ? We can maybe speculate also that his interest in Chile was not only as a merchant banker and that this may provide an explanation for his not appearing in United Kingdom records from his late teens to mid-fifties.

Bequeathed by Francis James Eck. Hollywood, Clapham Common, London

  • A Mountain Stream with a Peasant driving Cattle over a Rustic Bridge by J. Rathbone
  • A Woody Stream, with a Cottage and peasant Woman Washing by W. Shayer
  • Interior with Card Players by Joost van Gael
  • Two Cows with Goats and Ducks in a Landscape by J.F.Herring
  • A Village Festival after Adrien Ostade
  • An Old Mill with Farm Cart by  Ibbotsen and Rathbone
  • A Street in Abbeville by D. Roberts
  • Ploughing By   Shayer Senior
  • Old Chelsea Church by H & W Greaves
  • A Street in Chelsea by H & W Greaves

References

    1. Minutes of Glasgow City Council 1915
    2. Wenley Robert : A Village Festival after Adrien van Ostade. National Inventory of Continental European paintings.
    3. Church of England Births and Baptisms 1813-1917 Ancestry.co.uk
    4. Ancestry.co.uk. Family Trees
    5. Ibid
    6. Ibid
    7. Ibid
    8. England Births and Christenings 1538-1975. Ancestry.co.uk
    9. England Census Records 1841
    10. England Census Records 1851
    11. England Census Records 1891
    12. England and Wales Death Index 1837-1915
    13. England and Wales, National Probate Calendar( Index of Wills and Administrations), 1861-1914
    14. England and Wales, Marriage Index:1837-1915
    15. Ancestry.co.uk. Family Trees
    16. England and Wales Death Index 1837-1915
    17. The Economist.22 October 1892.Vol 050 issue 2565 p34
    18. The Economist.22 October 1900.Vol 058 issue 2983 p1507
    19. The Economist.30 October 1903.Vol 061 issue 3140 1855
    20. Blackmore, H:   John Thomas North, The Nitrate King in History Today July 1962,volume 12, issue 7
    21. Ibid
    22. Ibid
    23.  Rippy J. FredEconomic Enterprises of “The Nitrate King and his Associates in Chile” in Pacific Historical Review November 1948 vol.17 p457-465
    24. Anglo-South American Bank Wikipedia
    25. The Economist.4 October 1907.Vol 065 issue 3347 p 1783
    26. The Economist.6 October 1913.Vol 077 issue 3658 p656
    27. The Scotsman 8 June 1892 p.4
    28. England and Wales, National Probate Calendar ( Index of Wills and Administrations), 1861-1914
    29. Ancestry.co.uk
    30. ibid

 

Joseph Henderson R.S.A., R.S.W. (1832-1908)

Figure 1. The Sweep’s Land, Stockwell Street by Thomas Fairbairn © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.

‘The gifts include a water colour, “The Sweep`s Land, Stockwell Street” by James (sic) Fairbairn, presented by Mr Joseph Henderson, R.S.W., Glasgow, and this sub-committee resolved that a special vote of thanks be accorded him for the gift’. 1

Joseph Henderson was born on 10 June 1832 in Stanley, Perthshire, He was the third of four boys. When he was about six, the family moved to Edinburgh and took up residence in Broad Street. The two older boys joined their father, also Joseph, as stone masons. 2 Joseph’s father died when Joseph was eleven leaving his mother, Marjory Slater, in straightened circumstances. 3 As a result, Joseph and his twin brother, James, were sent to work at an early age and the thirteen-year-old Joseph was apprenticed to a draper/hosier. At the same time, he attended part-time classes at the Trustees’ Academy, Edinburgh. At the age of seventeen, on 2 February 1849, he enrolled as an art student in the Academy.4 From the census of 1851, Marjory, Joseph and James were living at 5 Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh. Marjory was now a ‘lodging housekeeper’ with two medical students as boarders. James was a ‘jeweller’ while Joseph was a ‘lithographic drawer’.5 In the same year Joseph won a prize for drawing at the Academy enabling him, along with fellow students, W. Q. Orchardson, W. Aikman and W. G. Herdman, to travel to study the works of art at the Great Exhibition in London, which he found to be a very formative experience.6

He left the Academy about 1852-3 and settled in Glasgow. He is first mentioned in the Glasgow Post Office Directory for 1857-8 where he is listed as an artist living at 6 Cathedral Street.7 The census of 1861 confirms this address where he is a ‘portrait painter’ living with his wife Helen, daughter Marjory aged four and his mother Marjory who is now his ‘house keeper’.8

Joseph Henderson’s first exhibited work was a self-portrait which was shown at the Royal Scottish Academy (RSA) in 1853.9 He painted several portraits of friends and local dignitaries including a half-length portrait of his friend John Mossman in 1861. His painting, The Ballad Singer established his reputation as one of Scotland`s foremost artists when exhibited at the RSA in 1866.10 Throughout his career he continued in portraiture. He executed portraits of James Paton (1897) a founder and superintendent of the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (this portrait was bequeathed to Kelvingrove in 1933) and Alexander Duncan of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. 11 He also painted Mr. Scott Dickson, Sir Charles Cameron, Bart., DL, LLD (1897), RGI and Sir John Muir, Lord Provost of Glasgow (1893). 12 His portrait of councillor Alexander Waddell (1893) was presented to Kelvingrove in 1896.13

However, it is probably as a painter of seascapes and marine subjects that he became best known. His picture Where Breakers Roar attracted much attention when exhibited at the Royal Glasgow Institute (RGI) in 1874, ‘as a rendering of angry water’.14

Figure 2. Joseph Henderson, The Bailie, No. 277, 6th Feb. 1878. (Mitchell Library).

Henderson was in part responsible for raising the profile and status of artists in Glasgow and was a member of the Glasgow Art Club (he was President in 1887-8), the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts (founded 1861) and the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolour.15 Between 1853 and 1892, he exhibited frequently at the RSA and at the RGI and between 1871 and 1886 he had twenty pictures accepted for the Royal Academy in London. In 1901 he was entertained at a dinner by the President and Council of the Glasgow Art Club to celebrate his jubilee as a painter. He was presented with a solid gold and silver palette. An inscription on the palette read: ‘Presented to Joseph Henderson, Esq., R.S.W. by fellow-members of the Art Club as a mark of esteem and a souvenir of his jubilee as a painter, 8th January 1901’ 16

Joseph Henderson was married three times. On  8  January 1856 he married Helen Cosh (d. 1866) with whom he had four children including a daughter Marjory who became the second wife of the artist William McTaggart. On 30 September 1869 he married Helen Young (d. 1871) who bore him one daughter and in 1872 he married Eliza Thomson with whom he had two daughters and who survived him.17 Two of his sons, John (1860 – 1924) and Joseph Morris (1863 – 1936) became artists; John was Director of the Glasgow School of Art from 1918 to 1924.18

By 1871 he had moved with his family; wife Helen, daughter Marjory and sons James, John and Joseph and his mother Marjory from Cathedral Street to 183 Sauchiehall Street. He also employed a general servant. He is described in the census as a ‘portrait painter’.19 In 1881, Joseph was living at 5 La Belle Place, Glasgow with Eliza, two sons and four daughters.20 He later moved to 11 Blythswood Square, Glasgow. 21 In the 1901 census he was still at this address with his wife Eliza, sons John and Joseph and daughter Mary and Bessie. His occupation is ‘portrait and marine painter’.22

Figure 3. Joseph Henderson in 1894. Painted by his son-in-law William McTaggart. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 4. Joseph Henderson, The Bailie, No. 1472, 2nd Jan. 1901. (MItchell Library)

Joseph Henderson painted many of his seascapes at Ballantrae in Ayrshire. At the beginning of July 1908, he again travelled to the Ayrshire coast. However, he succumbed to heart failure and died at Kintyre View, Ballantrae, on 17  July 1908 aged 76 and was buried in Sighthill cemetery in Glasgow. 23  A commemorative exhibition of his works was held at the RGI in November of that year. 24 A full obituary was published in the Glasgow Herald. 25

As well as his devotion to art, Joseph Henderson was a keen angler and golfer. A contemporary account states that he was ‘frank and genial, with an inexhaustible fund of good spirits and a ready appreciation of humour, of which he himself possesses no small share’. 26

A comprehensive account of the life and works of Joseph Henderson has been written by Hilary Christie-Johnston. 27

Thomas Fairbairn (1821 – 1885) was an older contemporary of Henderson and both were friends of John Mossman and Robert Greenlees.  A series of his drawing were acquired by Glasgow Corporation. 28 It is possible that the painting The Sweep`s Land, Stockwell Street was given to him by the artist.

References.

  1. Glasgow Corporation Minutes, 6 July 1898, p 642.
  2. Scotland’s People, 1841 Census, St. Cuthbert’s Edinburgh
  3. glasgowwestaddress.co.uk/1909
  4. J. L. Caw, rev. Elizabeth S. Cumming. ‘Henderson, Joseph (1832–1908)’. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  5. Scotland`s People, 1851 Census, St. Cuthbert`s Edinburgh
  6. glasgowwestaddress.co.uk/1909
  7. Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1857-1858, National Library of Scotland
  8. Scotland`s People, 1861 Census, St. David`s, Glasgow
  9. Baile de Laperriere, Charles (ed.) Royal Scottish Academy Exhibitors, 1826 – 1990, Vol II,  Hillmartin Manor Press, 1991
  10. https://www.markmitchellpaintings.com/joseph-henderson-1832-1908
  11. Billcliffe, Roger, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts 1861-1989. Vol 2, Roger The Woodend Press, 1991
  12. Glasgow Herald, 18th July 1908, p9
  13. Art UK/ Glasgow Museums Resource Centre
  14. Waters, Grant M., Dictionary of British Artists, (1900 – 1950),  Eastbourne Fine Arts Publications, 1975.
  15. glasgowwestaddress.co.uk/1909
  16. Glasgow Herald, 18 July 1908, p9
  17. Caw, J. L.  rev. Elizabeth S. Cumming. ‘Henderson, Joseph (1832–1908)’. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  18. Glasgow School of Art, archives
  19. Scotland`s People, 1871 Census, Glasgow, Barony
  20. Scotland’s People, 1881 Census, Glasgow
  21. Scotland’s People, 1891 Census, Glasgow
  22. Scotland`s People, 1901 Census, Blythswood, Glasgow
  23. Scotland`s People; Death Certificate.
  24. Billcliffe, Roger, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts 1861-1989. Vol 2, Roger The Woodend Press, 1991
  25. Glasgow Herald, 18 July 1908.
  26. The Bailie, Mitchell Library, Glasgow, GC 920.04 BAI., No. 277, Feb. 6th, 1878; No. 1472, Jan. 2nd. 1901.
  27. Christie-Johnston, Hilary, Joseph Henderson: Doyen of Glasgow Artists, 1832 – 1908,   Macmillan Art Publishing, Melbourne, Australia, 2013
  28. https://electricscotland.com/art/artinscotland18o.htm

 

John Jarvie- Merchant (1822-1879)

Figure 1. Graham-Gilbert, John; Mrs John Jarvie; © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection (http://www.artuk.org)

In October 1950 Mrs. Helen Percy presented to Glasgow Museums a portrait of her mother by the artist John Graham Gilbert.

Her mother was Elizabeth Bannatyne, wife of Glasgow merchant John Jarvie who was heavily involved in trade with China and the Far East during the middle of the nineteeth Century.

This article looks at both their family backgrounds and how he became  a ‘foreign merchant’ particularly in Singapore, who was not always successful.

John Jarvie’s grandfather was William Jarvie, a coal master of Pollokshaws. He married Agnes McGie in 1754[1] and they had at least four children, three girls and one boy. They were all baptised on the same day in 1762 in the parish of Eastwood, their birth dates ranging from 1755 to 1762.[2]

William was a coal master at a time in Scotland when essentially miners were no better than slaves and were legally tied to mines (bondsmen) by an Act of Parliament (1606), unless their master agreed to release them. Another Act in 1672 authorised ‘coal masters, salt masters and others, who had manufactories in this kingdom to seize upon any vagabonds or beggars wherever they can find them, and to put them to work.’ [3] This state of affairs continued until the beginning of the 19th Century. For more on the history of coal mining in Scotland the Scottish Mining Website (http://www.scottishmining.co.uk/index.html) is an excellent source of information.

Whilst his main occupation is given as coal master he also farmed at various locations within Sir John Maxwell’s Pollok estate, including at Clogholes farm, PolIocktoun and Northwoodside. His will, he died c.1767, details the value of equipment and crops at each of these locations and others, and also includes the value of tools, equipment and instruments associated with his coal works at Napiershall. When household goods, furniture and so on are included his estate was valued at £334 2s., his wife Agnes being his named executrix.[4]

His son Robert was born in July 1758 at Shaws.[5] His initial schooling has not been established, the only certainty being that he did not attend the University as the matriculation or graduation records do not include his name. It’s probable he worked for his father at some stage but again nothing has been found to indicate what he did in the early part of his life.

Robert eventually became a merchant in Glasgow however his first appearance in the Post Office Directories does not occur until 1806 where he is described as a merchant with James Hamilton, Sen. and Co., his home address being given as Charlotte Lane,[6] which is where he lived until 1815.[7] He remained with that company for the rest of his active life, eventually becoming a partner in the business and others. He was also a director of the Chamber of Commerce from 1829 until 1833.[8]

He married in 1814 Jane Milligan,[9] the daughter of William Milligan, merchant, and Jean Ure of Fareneze Printfield, Neilston.[10] They had seven children, five sons and two girls. The family home was at Maxwellton Place from 1815 until 1824, at which time they moved to 19 Carlton Place.[11]

Robert died at home on the 28th April 1843. At the time of his death his movable estate was valued at £8378 9s 3d,[12] equivalent to £800,000 today by simple RPI changes, in terms of economic power it equates to several millions of pounds.[13]

However, that does not tell the whole story of his wealth. In 1830 he set up a Trust Disposition and Settlement which dealt with his heritable estate in Glasgow plus what is described as his ‘stock in trade’ including his ‘share of same’ from other co-partneries with which he was involved. Included was property/ground bounded by the west of Robertson Street and the Broomielaw, subjects in Queen Street, property in Carlton Place and other properties and ground.

Eleven trustees were named whose function was to manage the trust to support his wife and children and if need be, their children. There are three codicils to the deed the last of which in 1836 names his eldest son William as a trustee.[14]

Four of the five sons, William, Robert, James and John,more of whom later, all matriculated at the University between 1829 and 1837,[15] and all became merchants in due course. There is no evidence to suggest the youngest son Alexander became a merchant or attended the University, however there was a bit of a mystery about his whereabouts after 1856 which led to a petition for him to be presumed dead.

In 1885 Robert’s sister Agnes, the widow of Isaac Buchanan, resident in Hamilton, Canada, sought to have Alexander presumed dead in accordance with the 1881 Presumption of Life Limitation Scotland Act. In her submission to the Lords of Council and Session she stated that her brother had sailed from New York to Melbourne, Australia in 1856 and had not been heard of since. She also stated that he was unmarried at that time.

Deposited in a bank account in his name was his share of his father’s estate which was finally settled in 1865, plus other bequests and interest accrued amounting to £1644, all of which had remained untouched since the account had been set up.

Judgement was given in her favour and Alexander was presumed to have died on or about the 23rd February 1864. Why that date is not made clear however a reasonable guess would be that since he was presumed to have died before his father’s estate was settled then his share would automatically go to his siblings, otherwise it should go to any heirs (children) he may have had which would have entailed a difficult search for proof.

In the event with Alexander being declared dead Agnes, as the only surviving sibling, was confirmed as executrix and sole beneficiary of his estate in January 1886.[16]

When I tried to find out if he did die in Australia only one possibility arose in that an Alexander Jarvie died in Wellington, New South Wales in 1902. The data from the NSW web site is sparse but intriguingly the first names of the parents quoted in the document were Robert and Jane. Pure coincidence or could this have been the long lost brother?[17]

The other brothers’ stories are also somewhat interesting. The eldest, William, started on his own account as a commission agent in 1839 in Robertson Street. By 1846 he was a partner in Rainey, Jarvie and Co. and by 1848 he was declared bankrupt and had his assets sequestrated.[18]  He never appears in the Post Office Directories again.

Very little is known about James except he died in 1867 at Lismore, Argyllshire. The registration document describes him as a merchant, no other source has been found to confirm that, and that he died of ‘excessive drinking’.[19]

A little more is known about Robert. He undoubtedly was a merchant but it’s not obvious with whom in Glasgow. The most likely is Buchanan, Hamilton and Co. as in 1860 a partnership was established in Shanghai between Buchanans, Robert Jarvie and William Thorburn, which was styled Jarvie, Thorburn and Co.[20] This partnership lasted until Robert’s death in Shanghai in 1866.[21]

John Jarvie, the second youngest of the brothers was born in 1822.[22] He matriculated at the University in 1837[23] and by 1842 he was in Singapore donating 20 Spanish dollars for raising a spire and tower for St. Andrew’s Church there.[24]

He was essentially to remain there for the next eighteen years, travelling around the Far East as required by business. In 1848 he was acting as an agent for the Glasgow firm of Hamilton, Gray and Co.[25] and in 1852 he became a partner of the company in Singapore and also of Buchanan, Hamilton and Co. in Glasgow.[26] During that period, he travelled to and from Hong Kong,[27]Siam[28], India,[29] and Australia.[30] His travels continued to these destinations and others until he returned home circa 1860.

In 1854 he was appointed Consul for Denmark in Singapore, an appointment he fulfilled well on behalf of that country.[31] In 1858 he travelled to Siam accredited to the Royal Court there by King Frederich VII of Denmark. His task was to negotiate a treaty with the ‘first and second kings’ of Siam and their ‘magnates’. As he was well known to all of the personnel involved he had no difficulty in concluding a treaty of friendship and commerce along the same lines as other countries had done before.[32]

He played his part in Singapore civic life serving on several grand jurys between 1849 and 1854. In 1853 he served on a jury whose calendar comprised of eighteen cases including two murders.[33] In November 1850 he was elected Master of the local Masonic lodge from the position of Senior Warden.[34]

In 1859 in recognition of his service to Denmark he was created a Chevalier of the Royal Order of Danebrog by the King of Denmark.[35]

He returned to Glasgow in 1860 and married Elizabeth Bannatyne in November of that year. She was the daughter of Andrew Bannatyne, writer, and Margaret Millar.[36]

Her paternal grandfather was Dugald Bannatyne[37] a prominent citizen of Glasgow in the early part of the nineteenth century. He was a stocking weaver who was influential in the development of George Square around 1800. He formed, along with Robert Smith Jr and John Thomson,  the Glasgow Building Company.[38] He was able to attract English capital to what was a speculative venture through Thomson’s brother-in-law, an English stocking weaver called Johnston.[39] By 1804 the Square had buildings on each side which were being described as ‘elegant, particularly on the north (side).’[40]

He was appointed Post Master General in 1806 and was secretary to the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce from 1809 to 1830.[41] In 1817 he was a member of a committee of the Glasgow Merchants House charged with bringing about the building of a new Merchants Hall.[42] Dugald’s wife was Agnes Stirling, who was a descendant of the Stirling family of Drumpellier.[43]

John and Elizabeth had 11 children, six boys and five girls. Sadly, with two exceptions they all died before they were forty-five years old, the exceptions being Helen the donor of the painting and her sister Agnes. Two died as infants, four as teenagers, two of whom, Andrew and Robert, died from pneumonia within 8 days of each other in 1878.[44] [45] The other five all married, more of which later.

John continued in partnership with Buchanan, Hamilton and Co. and others this time based in Glasgow, the family living at 13 Park Circus.[46] Unfortunately this situation did not last for very long. In 1865 the funds of all the partnerships he was involved with and those of the individual partners were sequestrated. The companies involved were Buchanan, Hamilton and Co., Jarvie, Thorburn and Co., and Hamilton, Gray and Co., the partners being Walter Buchanan, William Hamilton, John Jarvie and George Henderson.[47] The process of dealing with creditors lasted until 1876.[48]

John however around 1866/67 had already formed another partnership with George Henderson apparently unaffected by the sequestration problems they both faced. They were known as Jarvie, Henderson and Co, in Glasgow [49] and J. Jarvie and Co. in Shanghai. However, this was another venture which ended up in failure, the funds of the companies and those of the partners being sequestrated on the 2nd June 1873.[50]

There is no evidence that he formed any other partnerships following that with George Henderson, as from 1874 on his entries in the Post Office Directories simply state that he is a merchant.[51] [52]

He died intestate in 1879 at 9 Lyndoch Crescent, the family home since 1866. When he died his occupation was recorded as wine agent.[53] The value of his estate was eventually given as £642 5s 7d.[54] John’s wife Elizabeth died in Bournemouth in 1924.  Her estate was valued at £9690 16s, probate being granted to her daughters Agnes Bannatyne and Elizabeth Helen Percy.[55]

The five surviving children of John and Elizabeth were George Garden Nicol, Norman Alexander, Helen (Elizabeth Helen), Agnes and Susan Evelyn.

George married Sarah Elizabeth Tuffin at St Peter’s Limehouse in 1900. He was 29 years old and Sarah was 22. At the time of his marriage his occupation was given as mariner.[56] They had a son in 1903, George Norman who died a few months after his birth. George’s occupation at that  was time given as ‘independent’.[57] Not much more has been established about him except that he died on the 10th May 1907, age 36 at the Deddington Arms, a beer house in Poplar, Middlesex. He left estate valued at £30.[58] He seems to have been the landlord of the establishment as two years later his wife was still at the same address.[59]

Norman spent some of his life in the military. In 1895 he was given a commission as a second lieutenant in the 3rd/4th battalion of the Highland Light Infantry.[60] As a lieutenant he acted as aide-de-camp to Colonel Thackery, his battalion commander, when the Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria and the battalion’s honorary chief, visited the battalion in June 1899.[61]

He eventually attained the rank of temporary captain and was an Instructor of Musketry when he was seconded to a line battalion in South Africa early in 1900 at the start of the second Boer War.[62]

It seemed his military career was progressing satisfactorily though it came to an abrupt end a few months later whilst he was in South Africa. In the London Gazette of the 1st May 1900 it was announced that Captain N.A. Jarvie was to be appointed second lieutenant.[63] I have not been able to ascertain what caused this demotion but worse was to follow. About seven weeks later his new appointment was cancelled[64]  to be followed by his dismissal from the army in November, the official Gazette notice stating that he was ‘removed from the army, Her Majesty having no further occasion for his service’.[65]

Norman married Edith Nora Ferguson in Huntingdon in 1903.[66] By the 1911 census they were living in a private apartment in Llandudno with no family. Norman’s occupation was given as actor working on his own account.[67] You can’t help but get the impression that he had led a rather nondescript life since his dismissal from the army.

However, there are two postscripts to his army life. In 1905 there was a further entry in the London Gazette about him, which stated that the paragraph about his removal from the army in the November 1900 issue was to be substituted by one that simply said that Captain (temporary) N.A. Jarvie has retired from the Military.[68]

The other is that three weeks after Great Britain declared war on Germany on the 4th August 1914 Norman enlisted as a private with the King Edward’s Horse at the age of 41. He did not see any active service as he died on the 13th December of that year at a hospital in Hounslow, cause of death not stated but seemingly from an accident or an illness. The army documentation which records his enlistment and his death also records that his estate was not entitled to any war gratuity as he had not served for six months.[69] His estate was valued at £11.[70]

Figure 2. Lieutenant (Acting Captain) Ninian John Bannatyne (HU 113287) The King’s (Liverpool Regiment). © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205290045

Agnes married chartered accountant John Allan Bannatyne in 1894.[71He was the son of her mother’s brother John Miller Bannatyne, that is, they were first cousins.[72] He was a partner in Bannatyne, Bannatyne and Guthrie when the company was founded in 1892[73] but after 1902 he is no longer mentioned in the directory and the company name has changed to Bannatyne and Guthrie.[74] What he did subsequently is unknown. They had a son Ninian John, born in 1896, who was killed in action in France in 1917.[75] John died intestate in Sierra Madre, California in 1909, leaving £688 2s 7d, probate granted to Agnes twenty years after his death.[76] She died in Durban, South Africa in 1949.[77]

by Camille Silvy albumen print, 19 December 1861 NPG Ax56602 © National Portrait Gallery, London
Figure3. Frederick Robertson Aikman, by Camille Silvy albumen print, 19 December 1861 NPG © National Portrait Gallery, London

Susan Evelyn married Duncan Forbes Robertson Aikman in 1903 in Westminster, London.[78] He was a member of the Robertson Aikman family of Ross House and New Parks House Leicester. His father was Hugh Henry Robertson Aikman whose brother Frederick Robertson Aikman[79] won a V.C. during the Indian Mutiny in 1858.[80] The marriage was childless and did not last very long as Susan died at the age of 32 in 1908.[81] He died in 1920.[82]

Helen, the donor of the painting was born in 1868.[83] She married Edward Josceline Percy in 1907 in London.[84] He was the son of Hugh Josceline Percy who was descended from Hugh Percy, the 1st Duke of Northumberland (great grandfather), via the 1st Earl Beverly (grandfather),and the Rev. Hugh Percy, Bishop of Rochester and then Carlisle, his father.[85] Edward died in 1931, probate granted to Helen, his estate being valued at £7898.[86] She died in 1954.[87] There were no children of the marriage.

In the Necropolis in Glasgow, the family lair has fifteen family names inscribed on its headstone starting with Robert Jarvie and his wife Jane Milligan. They are followed by John Jarvie and his wife Elizabeth Bannatyne and all of their children. Not all of them are buried there however, the exceptions being George Garden Nicol Jarvie and Susan Evelyn Jarvie.[88]

When it’s considered that Robert Jarvie left a very significant fortune when he died in 1843 it’s difficult not to come to the conclusion that none of the adult sons took advantage of the start in business that had been given to them. In fact, the family fortune went in reverse due to their combined lack of the business acumen shown by their father.

On a sadder note, despite having eleven children there are no direct descendants of John Jarvie and Elizabeth Bannatyne.

[1] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Govan. 11 November 1754. JARVIE, William and MCGIE, Agnas. 646/ 10 379. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[2] Births (OPR) Scotland. Barony. 23 September 1755, JARVIE, Margaret, Shaws. 1 July 1758, JARVIE Robert, 12 June 1760, JARVIE, Agnes and 23 June 1762. JARVIE, Janet. 562/  20 30. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[3]Barrowman, James. Slavery in the Coal Mines of Scotland. http://www.scottishmining.co.uk/index.html

[4] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 21 September 1767. JARVIE, William. Testament Dative and Inventory. Glasgow Commissary Court. CC9/7/66. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[5] Births (OPR) Scotland. Shaws. 23 June 1762. JARVIE, Robert. 562/ 20 30. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[6] Directories. Scotland. (1806) Glasgow directory. Glasgow: W. McFeat and Co. p. 54 https://digital.nls.uk/87881372

[7] Directories. Scotland. (1815) Glasgow directory. Glasgow: A. McFeat and Co. p. 81. https://digital.nls.uk/83285081

[8] Directories. Scotland. (1832-33) Glasgow directory. Glasgow: John Graham. p. 32 https://digital.nls.uk/87847018

[9]Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 15 May 1814. JARVIE, Robert and MILLIGAN, Jane. 644/1 280 220. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[10] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Neilston. 21 March 1786. MILLIGAN, Jean. 572/  20 22. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[11] Directories. Scotland. (1824). Glasgow Directory. Glasgow: W. McFeat. p. 113. https://digital.nls.uk/83292027

[12] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 21 June 1843. JARVIE, Robert. Inventory. Glasgow Sheriff Court. SC36/48/29. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[13]Measuring Worth (2016). https://www.measuringworth.com/m/calculators/ukcompare/

[14] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 21 June 1843. JARVIE, Robert. Trust Disposition and Settlement. Glasgow Sheriff Court. SC36/15/19. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[15] Addison, W. Innes. (1913). The Matriculation Albums of the University of Glasgow 1728 – 1858. JARVIE(12247/1829, 12655/1830, 13175/1833 and 13828/1837). Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. p. 574. https://archive.org/details/matriculationalb00univuoft/page/n7

[16] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 18 February 1886. JARVIE, Alexander. Edinburgh Sheriff Court. SC70/1/247. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[17] Deaths. Australia. Wellington, New South Wales. 1902. JARVIE, Alexander. 3574/1902. https://familyhistory.bdm.nsw.gov.au/lifelink/familyhistory/search/result?3

[18] London Gazette (1848) 14 January 1848. Issue 20815, p. 157. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/20815/page/157

[19] Deaths. (SR) Scotland. Lismore, Argyll. 18 June 1867. JARVIE, James. 525/1 11. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[20] Advertisements. (1860). Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 16 August 1860. JARVIE, Robert. Company Notice. p.2c. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[21] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 8 November 1872. JARVIE, Robert. Trust Disposition and Settlement. Glasgow Sheriff Court. SC36/51/62. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[22] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Gorbals. 2 September 1822. JARVIE, John. 644/2 40 57. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[23] Addison, W. Innes. (1913). The Matriculation Albums of the University of Glasgow 1728 – 1858. John Jarvie. Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. p. 420. https://archive.org/details/matriculationalb00univuoft/page/420

[24] Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. (1842). The Free Press, Church subscriptions. Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 10 November 1842. p. 3d. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[25] Advertisements. (1848). The Straits Times. 10 May 1848. JARVIE, John. Company Notice. p. 2a. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[26] Advertisements. (1852). Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 6 February 1852. JARVIE, John. p. 1c. . http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[27] The Straits Times. (1846). Batavia. The Straits Times 3 June 1846. p. 2d. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[28] The Straits Times. (1852). 13 April 1852. p. 4c. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[29] The Straits Times. (1848). 1 April 1848. p. 2d. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[30] The Straits Times. (1848). 26 April 1848. p. 2c. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[31] The Straits Times. (1854). Notice. The Straits Times. 20 June 1854. p. 4b. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[32] The Straits Times. (1883). FBI (treaty). The Straits Times. 12 March 1883. p. 3b. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[33] The Straits Times (1853) Criminal Session. The Straits Times. 12 April 1853. p. 4b. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[34] Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. (1850). 22 November 1850. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[35] Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. (1859). Notice. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. p. 2e. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers

[36] Marriages. (SR) Scotland. Anderston, Glasgow. 27 November 1860. JARVIE, John and BANNATYNE, Elizabeth. 644/8 252. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[37] Maclehose, James. (1886). Memoirs and Portraits of One Hundred Glasgow Men. Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/mlemen/mlemen008.htm

[38] Kellet, John R. (2002)’ Property Speculators and the Building of Glasgow, 1780-1830.’ In: Pacione, Michael, ed. The City: The City in Global Context. London: Routledge. p.79.

[39] Ibid.

[40] House, Jack (1972) The Heart of Glasgow. 2nd ed. London: Hutchinson. p.148.

[41] Stewart, George (1881) Curiosities of Glasgow Citizenship. Glasgow: James Maclehose. p175. http://www.archive.org:

[42] Ewing, Archibald Orr. (1866). View of the Merchants House of Glasgow. Glasgow: Bell and Bain. p. 310.

[43] Sterling, Albert Mack (1909). The Sterling Genealogy. Vol. 1. New York: The Grafton Press. p. 162.  https://archive.org/details/sterlinggeneal01ster/page/n13

[44] Deaths. (SR) Scotland. Greenock, Renfrew. 8 November 1878. JARVIE, Andrew William. 564/3 817. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[45] Deaths. (SR) Scotland. Kelvin, Glasgow. 16 November 1878. JARVIE, Robert John Louis. 644/9 958.  www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[46] Directories. Scotland. (1860-61). Glasgow Directory. Glasgow: William McKenzie. p. 151. https://digital.nls.uk/83905458.

[47] London Gazette (1865) 28 July 1865. Issue 22995, p. 3777. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/22995/page/3777

[48] Edinburgh Gazette (1876) 1 February 1865. Issue 8657, p. 78. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/Edinburgh/issue/8657/page/78

[49] Directories. Scotland. (1866-67). Glasgow Directory. Glasgow: William Mackenzie. p. 186. https://digital.nls.uk/84382057

[50] Edinburgh Gazette (1873) 3 June 1873. Issue 8377, p. 335. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/Edinburgh/issue/8377/page/335

[51] Directories. Scotland. (1874-75). Glasgow Directory. Glasgow: William Mackenzie. p. 238. https://digital.nls.uk/84416633

[52] Directories. Scotland. (1878-79). Glasgow Directory. Glasgow: William Mackenzie. p. 264. https://digital.nls.uk/84188397

[53] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Kelvin, Glasgow. 13 April 1879. JARVIE, John. 644/9 332. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[54] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 16 June 1880. JARVIE, John. Inventory. Glasgow Sheriff Court. SC36/48/92. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[55] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 8 May 1925. JARVIE, Elizabeth. National Probate Index (Calendar of Confirmations and Inventories), 1876-1936. 1925, p. J10. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[56] Marriages (SR) England. Limehouse, Tower Hamlets. 30 July 1900. JARVIE, George Garden Nicol and TUFFIN, Sarah Elizabeth. England, Church of England Marriages and Banns, 1754-1932. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[57] Births (SR) England. Poplar, St Stephen, Tower Hamlets. 10 May 1903. JARVIE, George Norman. London, England, Church of England Births and Baptisms, 1813-1917. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[58] Testamentary Records. England. 18 July 1907. JARVIE, George Garden Nicol. Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate. 1907, p. 325. Collection: England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995.  https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[59] London, England, Electoral Registers, 1832-1965. Poplar, Tower Hamlets. 1909. JARVIE, Sarah Elizabeth. https://search.ancestry.co.uk/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=try&db=LMAelectoralreg&h=90738852

[60] London Gazette (1895) 4 June 1895. Issue 26631, p. 3204. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/26631/page/3204

[61] Glasgow Herald. (1899) The Duke of Connaught at Lanark. Glasgow Herald 22 June. p. 11ab. https://www.nls.uk/

[62] Glasgow Herald. (1900) Military Appointments. Glasgow Herald 14 February. p. 8d.  https://www.nls.uk

[63] London Gazette (1900) 1 May 1900. Issue 27188, p. 2762. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/27188/page/2762

[64] London Gazette (1900) 19 June 1900. Issue 27203, p. 3814. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/27203/page/3814

[65] London Gazette (1900) 16 November. Issue 27247, p. 7021. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/27247/page/7021

[66] Marriages (SR) England. Huntingdon. 1st Qtr. 1903. JARVIE, Norman Alexander and FERGUSON, Edith Nora. England & Wales, Civil Registration Marriage Index, 1837-1915. Vol. 3b, p. 630.  https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[67] Census. 1911. Wales. Llandudno cum Eglyws-Rhos. RD 632, ED 05. Piece: 34540; Schedule Number: 119. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[68] London Gazette (1905) 3 January. Issue 27750, p. 29. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/27750/page/29

[69] UK, Army Registers of Soldiers’ Effects, 1901-1929. 13 December 1914. JARVIE, Norman Alexander. https://search.ancestry.co.uk/cgi-bin/sse.dll?dbid=60506&h=470547&indiv=try&o_vc=Record:OtherRecord&rhSource=60506

[70] Testamentary Records. England. 14 June 1916. JARVIE, Norman Alexander. Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate. 1916, p. 285. Collection. England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[71] Marriages (SR) Scotland. Hamilton, Lanark. 4 December 1894. BANNATYNE, John Allan and JARVIE, Agnes Marion. 647/ 195. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[72] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 30 May 1829. BANNATYNE, John Miller. 644/1 320 551. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[73] Directories. Scotland. (1892-93) Glasgow Directory. Glasgow: William Mackenzie. p. 128. https://digital.nls.uk/84659894

[74] Directories. Scotland. (1901-02) Glasgow Directory. Glasgow: Aird and Coghill. p. 64. https://digital.nls.uk/84742750

[75] Imperial War Museum.  Lieutenant (Acting Captain) Ninian Norman Bannatyne. https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205290045

[76] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 26 November 1929. BANNATYNE, John Allan. National Probate Index (Calendar of Confirmations and Inventories), 1876-1936. 1929, p. B15. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[77] Testamentary Records. England. 30 June 1950. BANNATYNE, Agnes Marion. Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate. 1950, p. 317. Collection. England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[78] Marriages. (SR) England. London. 1st Qtr. 1903. AIKMAN, Duncan Forbes Robertson and JARVIE, Susan Evelyn. England and Wales Civil Registration Indexes, 1837-1915. Vol. 1a, p. 768.  https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[79] The Peerage. Frederick Robertson Aikman, Hugh Henry Robertson Aikman and Duncan Forbes Robertson Aikman. pp. 65290. http://www.thepeerage.com/p65267.htm#i652896

[80] The Comprehensive Guide to the Victoria and George Cross. Frederick Robertson Aikman. http://www.vconline.org.uk/frederick-r-aikman-vc/4585908729

[81] Deaths. (SR) England. Faringdon, Berkshire. 2nd Qtr. 1908. AIKMAN, Susan Evelyn R. England & Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1837-1915. Vol. 2c, p. 157. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[82] Deaths. (SR) England. Faringdon, Berkshire. 4th Qtr. 1920. AIKMAN, Duncan Forbes Robertson. England & Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1837-1915. Vol. 2c, p. 318. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[83] Births. (SR) Scotland. Anderston, Glasgow. 13 March 1868. JARVIE, Elizabeth Helen. 644/8 529 www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[84] Marriages. (SR) England. London. 1st Qtr. 1907. PERCY, Edward Josceline and JARVIE, Elizabeth Helen. England and Wales Civil Registration Indexes, 1837-1915.  Vol. 1a, p. 868.  https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[85] The Peerage. Hugh Josceline Percy. pp. 1048, 1049, 1052, 1057. http://www.thepeerage.com/p1057.htm#i10565

[86] Testamentary Records. England. 8 August 1931. PERCY, Edward Josceline. Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate. 1931, p. 679. Collection. England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[87] Testamentary Records. England. 11 April 1954. PERCY, Helen Elizabeth. Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate. 1954, p. 377. Collection. England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[88] Historic Graves. GLA-NECR-SIGF-0092. Glasgow Necropolis.  JARVIE Lair. https://historicgraves.com/glasgow-necropolis/gla-necr-sig-0092/grave

 

James Turner of Thrushgrove 1768-1858

Figure 1. Macbeth, Norman; James Turner of Thrushgrove (1768-1858), a Former Magistrate of the City. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.

Jessie Turner bequeathed a portrait of her grandfather James Turner by Norman Macbeth to Glasgow City Council in 1927. Jessie was born in 1837 in Laurieston, Glasgow to William Turner, an ironmonger and Elizabeth Paterson, whose family were from Ayr.(1) They married in 1834 in Glasgow.(2) Williams’ parents were James Turner, a tobacco spinner, and Jean Hardie (3) who married in 1797 (4) and it is James who is the subject of the portrait.

James was born on 29th April 1768 in Glasgow (5) and became a wealthy tobacconist, living at Thrushgrove House in the district of Garngad, an area which became a centre of social unrest in the early nineteenth century. 

In Recollections of James Turner Esq of Thrushgrove 1854 by J Smith, he is described as ‘rather under the middle size, of firm make and benevolent aspect. …an adorable portrait by Mr Macbeth gives an admirable idea of what he was when an octogenarian.’ (6) James Macbeth was born in Greenock and  spent some time in Glasgow and Edinburgh as a portrait painter. He became a full member of The Royal Scottish Academy in 1880. (7)

James was the son of William Turner, a shoemaker in Glasgow. (8) He appears to have been a very obstinate boy as he refused to go to school. His father resolved to punish him by making him a tobacco boy. James served with several tobacconists before entering the employment of a Mr Hamilton as an errand boy at sixteen pence a week. Mr Hamilton  regularly read to his employees and James decided that he should be able to read and write. Although some of his education would have been from home, he benefited from his employer’s benevolence. Following  a nine years apprenticeship James continued as a Journeyman. In 1798 he set up his own business as a tobacconist and tobacco spinner with a shop at 275 High Street near the University. (9)(10)

Figure 2. Site of tobacco shops at 275 and 104 High Street Glasgow, shop at Gallowgate and Duke Street prison, Street Guide to Glasgow (probably 1920’s) owned by author

On 4 June 1797 James married local girl Jean Hardie (11) and rented their first house using part of his savings of around £100, a larger than average amount for a newly wed at the time.

The business flourished and he moved to premises at The Cross Well, farther down High Street at number 104, and he remained there till 1831 when he retired.(12)(13) The couple had a total of eleven children, only three surviving at the time of James death; George, William and James. In 1813 he was able to afford his own small estate of Thrushgrove on the edge of Glasgow at Garngad, now Royston. (14) The property ran from Castle Street to Garnock Street and the area was later intersected by Turner Street (in memory of James Turner), Villiers Street, Cobden Street and Bright Street, also named after men who shared Turner’s radical views. (15) He lived there till 1838 (Jane died in 1837) when he moved to London Street followed by St Andrew Square and East George Street, and finally to Windsor Terrace. (16)

Figure 3. Approximate site of Thrushgrove Estate, Street Guide to Glasgow (probably 1920’s) showing Turner Street centre of highlighted area

It was in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars that James Turner came to public notice. There was great discord in the country, high unemployment, and dissatisfaction with living conditions and the lack of representation in local and national government. There was universal outcry for parliamentary reform, and public meetings became a common occurrence. In 1816 both the town council and the owners of land normally used for meetings refused permission for a meeting to demand political reform. It was during this emergency that James Turner came forward and offered the radicals the use of the fields of Thrushgrove, as it lay just outside the jurisdiction of the magistrates of Glasgow. 

 It is believed that upward of 40,000 attended the meeting on 29 October 1816, which lasted from twelve till four pm. It was the largest radical gathering ever seen in Scotland. The City Council was so afraid of trouble that the 42nd regiment was drawn up in arms within the barrack square in Gallowgate in readiness. However order prevailed throughout and physical intervention was not required.

James chaired the meeting and his speech included calls for an overhaul of The House of Commons and voting rights for citizens to elect members of Parliament and representatives of town councils.

A petition of nineteen resolutions was sent to His Royal Highness, The Prince Regent. James Turner was later charged with high treason and was imprisoned in the Bridewell Prison in Duke Street. However he was never brought to trial and was soon released. (17) The Bridewell was rebuilt as Duke Street prison around 1825 and survived till 1955, when it closed and was finally demolished in 1958. (18)

Figure 4. Thomas Sulmans 1864 Bird’s Eye View of Glasgow.      https://universityof glasgowlibrary.wordpress.com/2015/08/01

A contemporary east end poet, Sanny Roger penned the following verse amid the foment going on in the city at the time. He is better known for The Muckin’ o Geordie’s Byre. (19)

        Vile sooty rabble what d’ye mean

        By raisin’ a’ this dreadful din

        Do you no ken what horrid sin

        Ye are committing

        By haudin’ up your crafts sae thin

        For sig a meeting?

When the demand for political reform was renewed in 1830, Turner became a leading member of the Glasgow Political Union, which aimed to unite working class supporters of reform of Parliament. When the Reform Act of 1832 gave the vote only to the middle class, Turner continued to campaign for further reform and for a further extension of the franchise to include all householders. In 1833 a democratic electorate was introduced in politics and Turner was elected to the new town council as a representative of the First Ward. He remained an active member of the council until his defeat in 1847, when he became a Baillie. He continued his interest in reform and was regularly asked to chair political reform meetings, although he did not go as far as The Chartists did, in supporting universal suffrage. He remained convinced of the importance of re-establishing the links between middle class and working class reformers. (20)

James acquired many properties, mainly around High Street, Gallowgate and adjacent to the Thrushgrove Estate. Flats, shops and land were passed on to his three surviving sons on his death. In his Will, probated on 13 July 1858, he describes two shops ‘just under Blackfriars Church and on the east side of High Street’ (Blackfriars Church stood next to Glasgow University which was later demolished to make way for The City of Glasgow Union Railways College Station). 

Just to the north of Thrushgrove was land bordered by the site of Charles Tennant and the Company of St Rollox. (21) Charles Tennant discovered bleaching powder and founded a mighty industrial dynasty and the St Rollox Works soon grew to be the largest chemical plant in the world. (22) Charles Street was named in his memory and had just been formed when Turner made his Will. Some 1433 square yards of land between St Rollox and Thrushgrove is part of Turner’s bequest to his sons. (23)

On 20 May 1858 James died at the ripe old age of 90 at his son’s house in Windsor Terrace, Glasgow (24) and was laid to rest in the Necropolis, adjacent to Glasgow Cathedral. The Glasgow Herald reported in his obituary that ‘in private life he was highly esteemed by all…in personal matters he was uniformly kind and conciliatory.’ (25)

DS

References

  1. Births 1837 (644/002 0050 0006 Gorbals ), https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  2. Marriages 1834 (644/001 0410 0514 Glasgow) https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  3. Births 1805 (644/0010200 0249 Glasgow) https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  4. Marriages 1797 (644/001 0270 0233 Glasgow) https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  5. Births 1768 (644/001 0150 0057 Glasgow) https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  6. Smith J, Recollections of James Turner Esq of Thrushgrove 1854, printed at The Examiner office, Glasgow 1854. Collection University of Guelph, Toronto.
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Macbeth
  8. Deaths 1858 (644/07 0340) https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  9. Smith J, Recollections of James Turner Esq of Thrushgrove 1854, printed at The Examiner office, Glasgow 1854. Collection University of Guelph, Toronto.
  10. (10) No 275 High Street, Post office Directories 1819
  11. (11) Marriages 1797 (644/001 0270 0233 Glasgow) https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  12. (12) Smith J, Recollections of James Turner Esq of Thrushgrove 1854, printed at The Examiner office, Glasgow 1854. Collection University of Guelph, Toronto.
  13. (13) 104 High Street, Post Office Directories 1825
  14. (14) Smith J, Recollections of James Turner Esq of Thrushgrove 1854, printed at The Examiner office, Glasgow 1854. Collection University of Guelph, Toronto.
  15. (15)http://roystonroadproject.org/archive/history/garngad_royston.htm
  16. (16) Smith J, Recollections of James Turner Esq of Thrushgrove 1854, printed at The Examiner office, Glasgow 1854. Collection University of Guelph, Toronto.
  17. (17) Smith J, Recollections of James Turner Esq of Thrushgrove 1854, printed at The Examiner office, Glasgow 1854. Collection University of Guelph, Toronto.
  18. (18)https://universityofglasgowlibrary.wordpress.com/town-plan-of-glasgow-duke-street-prison/
  19. (19)http://roystonroadproject.org/archive/history/garngad_royston.htm 
  20. (20) Smith J, Recollections of James Turner Esq of Thrushgrove 1854, printed at The Examiner office, Glasgow 1854. Collection University of Guelph, Toronto.
  21. (21) Wills and Testaments 1858, Turner, James (SC36/51/38, Glasgow Sheriff Court Wills)
  22. (22)https://gracesguide.co.uk/Charles_Tennant_(1768-1838) 
  23. (23)Wills and Testaments 1858, Turner, James (SC36/51/38, Glasgow Sheriff Court Wills)
  24. (24) Deaths 1858 Turner James (644/7 340 https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/
  25. (25) Glasgow Herald, obituaries twenty second of May 1858