Articles

Carola Florence Yapp (nee Stanuell)

On the 18 October 1950, three oil paintings were presented to Glasgow by Mrs Carola Yapp of 14 Clareville Court, Clareville Grove, London, S.W.7.

The paintings were an oil by Cora J. Gordon (1879 – 1950), France – The Village on the Hills (2685) and two oils by Jan (Godfrey Jervis) Gordon (1882 – 1944) – The Melon Guzzlers (2866) and The Gypsy Singer (2867).

Gordon, Cora Josephine, 1879-1950; France: The Village on the Hills
Figure 1. Gordon, Cora Josephine; France: The Village on the Hills; © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. http://www.artuk.org.
Gordon, Jan (Godfrey Jervis), 1882-1944; The Melon Guzzlers
Figure 2. Gordon, Jan (Godfrey Jervis); The Melon Guzzlers. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. http://www.artuk.org
Gordon, Jan (Godfrey Jervis), 1882-1944; The Gipsy Singer
Figure 3. Gordon, Jan (Godfrey Jervis); The Gipsy Singer. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. http://www.artuk.org.

“There was submitted a letter from Mrs. Carola Yapp offering two paintings by Jan Gordon and one by Cora Gordon as gifts to the Corporation. There was also submitted a report by the Director and the committee agreed that the paintings be accepted and that an expression of thanks be conveyed to the donor”.1

Carola Florence Stanuell was born in Dublin on the 6 August 1893. She was the second child of Charles Athill Stanuell, a Dublin solicitor, and Ida Marion Turner. Ida who was from Buxton in Derbyshire was the elder sister of the artist Cora Gordon.2 In addition to being a solicitor, Carola`s father was also a wealthy landowner and was secretary of the Incorporated Law Society of Ireland from 1913 to 1917. At the census of 31 March 1901 the family was living at 7 Clyde Road, Pembroke West in Ballsbridge, a well-to-do area on the south side of Dublin. The household consisted of Charles aged 48, Ida, 32 and their two daughters, Dorothy Helen 8 and Carola Florence 7 and three servants.3

On the 18 December 1918 Carola Stanuell married Charles Peter Yapp a lieutenant in the Bedfordshire Regiment in St. Bartholomew’s Church on Clyde Road, Dublin where Carola had lived as a child.4 After their marriage the regiment was posted to India where the couple remained for about four years. On 23 September 1922 they arrived back in Plymouth having sailed from Bombay. Charles’ occupation on the ship’s manifest was “army” while Carola’s was “domestic”. He was 27 she was 29. They took up residence in Great House Court, East Grinstead.5

In 1928 Carola gave birth to a son Peter Michael Stanuell Yapp in Kensington, London.6 From about 1932 till World War II, the family lived at Flat 5, 16 Emperor’s Gate, Kensington with Carola’s sister Dorothy Helen (and briefly, her mother Ida Marion) residing with them.7 After the war Charles, Carola and Peter moved to 14 Clareville Court.

After Carola’s husband Charles died in London in 1955 aged 59 8 her sister Dorothy moved in with her. By this time her son Peter had married and was living in Kingston, Jamaica and on 23 May 1958 Carola sailed from London to visit Peter and his wife Rita. Her address in the UK on the ship`s manifest was White House Hotel, Earls Court, London. She is listed as having “no occupation”.9 The visit seems to have gone well with Rita subsequently describing her mother-in-law as “a very sweet lady”.10

Carola Yapp
Figure 4. Carola Yapp. Courtesy of her daughter-in-law, Rita Yapp.

After spending some months in Kingston she flew to La Porte, Texas on 5 August, 1958 and then on to Miami. Her address was Stewart House, London.11 Returning to Kingston she sailed to London arriving on 26 September 1958. Her address was now West Heath Road, Hampstead and her occupation “housewife”.12

Carola Florence Yapp died on 24 July 1971 aged 78 in Hendon, Greater London.13

It remains a mystery as to why these three paintings were donated to Glasgow by a woman who was born in Dublin and spent most of her life in London. Jan Gordon died in 1944 and when Cora Gordon died six years later their paintings and artefacts appear to have been dispersed. There is a possibility that before her death Cora had asked her niece Carola to gift the three paintings to Glasgow because of a prior connection to the city 14 although nothing was mentioned specifically in her will. In any event the paintings were duly presented to Glasgow three months after Cora’s death.

 

References

  1. Glasgow Corporation Minutes, 18th October 1950 – Mitchell Library, Glasgow
  2. e.g. ancestry.com, Florida Passenger Lists, 1898-1963; See also https://www.tennisforum.com/59-blast-past/913641-biographical-sketch-irish-sportswoman-florence-stanuell.html
  3. National Archives of Ireland, 1901 Census
  4. ancestry.com. Ireland, Civil Registration Marriages Index, 1845-1958
  5. ancestry.co.uk, UK Incoming Passenger Lists 1878 -1960
  6. Family Search, England and Wales Birth Registration Index, 1837-2008
  7. ancestry,co.uk, London Electoral Registers 1832 – 1965
  8. ancestry.co.uk, England and Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007
  9. ancestry.co.uk, UK Outward Passenger Lists, 1890-1960
  10. Personal communication via Ken Bryant
  11. ancestry.com, Florida Passenger Lists 1898-1963
  12. ancestry.co.uk, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878 – 1960
  13. ancestry.co.uk, England and Wales National Probate Calendar, 1858-1995
  14. Suggestion from Ken Bryant. Ken has spent many years researching the life and works of Jan and Cora Gordon. http://www.janandcoragordon.co.uk/. He still keeps in touch with some members of the family including Rita Yapp.

 

John Duncan (1897-1966) and the Glassford Family Painting.

 

Figure 1. John Glassford (1715-1783), and His Family. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (www.artuk.org)

In November 1950 a Mr. John Duncan M.B.E., of Cairnhouse, Wigtown, donated to Glasgow Museums an oil painting of the Glasgow Tobacco Lord John Glassford and his family. How did it come about that a farmer, born in the small parish of Menmuir, Angus in 1897, had in his possession that particular painting which was begun around 1765 and completed sometime after Glassford married his third wife in December 1768?

As it turns out it was not by purchase but by direct descent through the Glassford family to him. These notes will tell the story of the painting’s journey to John Duncan and also comment on the people it portrays.

Firstly, it may be useful to relate some of the history of John Glassford and his marriages.

His first marriage was to Anne Coats whom he married in 1743. [1] Her father Archibald Coats, a Glasgow merchant, along with Bailie George Carmichael, was taken hostage in 1745 by Bonnie Prince Charlie to ensure the terms he enforced on Glasgow were implemented.[2] These demands included “six thowsand shirt cloath coats, twelve thowsand linnen shirts, six thowsand pairs of shoes and the like number of pairs of tartan hose and blue bonnets.”[3]

John and Anne had five children, all but one dying in infancy. Daughter Jean, born in 1746, was to become a ‘staging post’ for the painting’s journey. Anne died a few weeks after giving birth to her fifth child in 1751.[4]

Less than a year later in 1752 Glassford married Ann Nisbet the daughter of Sir John Nisbet of Dean.[5] They had six children, born between 1754 and 1764, all of whom, with the exception of the fifth child John, survived into adulthood.[6] Ann Nisbet died in April 1766 from child bed fever.[7]

In 1768 there were two Glassford family marriages. The first was that of daughter Jean who married James Gordon on the 18th August.[8] This marriage was key to the painting getting to John Duncan.

The second was when Glassford married his third wife Lady Margaret McKenzie, daughter of the Earl of Cromarty, on the 7th December.[9] There were three children of this marriage, born between 1770 and 1773. Unfortunately, just over five weeks after the third child Euphemia was born[10], Lady Margaret died on the 29th March.[11]

It’s worth noting at this time that between 1745 and 1767 Glassford had bought three significant properties. The first was Whitehill House purchased c. 1745[12] and sold in 1759,[13] the second was Shawfield Mansion bought the following year for 1700 guineas from William McDowall,[14] and finally the Dougalston Estate, purchased from the Grahame family in 1767.[15]

Figure 3. Whitehill House from The old country houses of the old Glasgow gentry. John Guthrie Smith and John Oswald Mitchell, 1878. Glasgow: James Maclehose & Sons. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk
Figure 2.  Shawfield Mansion © Glasgow City Libraries https://www.scran.ac.uk/database/

 

 

 

 

 

 

In common with the two other major tobacco traders Alexander Speirs and William Cunninghame, Glassford was fabulously wealthy during this period, however, that was not to last, particularly as far as Glassford was concerned.

By the early 1770s the general tobacco trade was not in the best financial health. The business model was such that debt (money owed by the planters to the traders) had grown significantly, resulting in potential working capital and cash flow problems in the longer term. When the War of Independence broke out in 1775 it signalled the end of the trade as it had been. As the war progressed the French market collapsed due to French sympathies lying with the revolutionaries, import volumes dropped and debts were not being paid as settlers probably saw a way out of their debt issues.

What of Glassford’s fortune? His difficulties began before the commencement of the war. He was by nature a gambler both in business and in gaming. In particular a number of disastrous business speculations between 1774 and 1778 fundamentally laid the foundations for the loss of his fortune. He believed the war was essentially an English conflict which should have not involved Scotland. He sided with the revolutionaries, unlike his peers, even to the point of refusing to sell ships to the government to aid the war effort, leaving them berthed in Port Glasgow Harbour. This at a time when he was already in deep financial trouble and could have done with the funds that these sales would have brought.[16]

As 1783 approached Glassford’s financial affairs continued to be problematic and he was in poor health. On the 6th August he created a tailzie (entail) of his Dougalston estate in favour of his son Henry and his heirs thus protecting it from his creditors. On the 14th August he established a trust covering the rest of his property, real and personal, the purpose of which was the winding up of his financial affairs and to further protect the entailed Dougalston estate.[17]

Glassford died on the 27th August 1783, cause of death was given as ’growth in stomach.’[18] He was buried in the Ramshorn Churchyard, where also lie several members of his family.[19] It took a further ten years to sort out his finances, his personal debt amounting to £93,140.[20] Today that sum would equate to somewhere between £11million and £1.1 billion, dependant on the measure used.[21]

On his father’s death Henry, who was the only surviving son of Glassford and Ann Nisbet, succeeded to Dougalston. He was an advocate, was Rector of Glasgow University from 1805 until 1807 and MP for Dunbartonshire from 1806 to 1810.[22] He never married and when he died in 1819[23] his half-brother James, son of Lady Margaret and John Glassford, succeeded him.

James’ succession to Dougalston was not without some difficulty. Henry had amassed significant debt during his life and in 1823 the terms of the tailzie was challenged in the Court of Session, the pursuers claiming the Dougalston estate was liable for these debts. In the event the pursuers lost, two of the five judges finding for the defender, one for the pursuers, and the two others excusing themselves as “they had an interest”![24]

James was also an advocate and legal writer.[25] Despite marrying twice, he died in 1845 [26] without any offspring. He was the last of John Glassford’s sons which meant that in accordance with the tailzie his daughter Jean Gordon would succeed. However, she had died in 1785, which meant that her eldest surviving son, James Gordon, would inherit. A further condition of the tailzie was that the surname Glassford should be adopted by any heir, should that be necessary. James Gordon therefore legally became James Gordon Glassford. By this means the painting began its journey to John Duncan.

James Gordon Glassford died two years later to be succeeded by his brother Henry Gordon, who, as required, adopted the surname Glassford. He married Clementina Napier in 1831[27] and had five children, the eldest being James Glassford Gordon, born in 1832[28]. He inherited Dougalston on his father’s death in 1860[29] and became known as James Glassford Gordon Glassford. As far as I can tell he was the last Glassford owner of Dougalston.

James married Margaret Thomson Bain, the daughter of a banker, in 1861[30]. There was no information found about them in the UK census of 1871 however in 1881 they were living at Over Rankeillour House in Monimail, Fife with ten children. This census also recorded that three of the children (two girls and a boy) had been born in Otago, New Zealand between 1868 and 1872, James being described as a Runholder (lessee of a sheep run) there.[31] This explained their absence from Scotland in 1871.

In 1891 a similar picture emerged with another two daughters now living with the family, one had been born in New Zealand in 1879, the other born in Australia in 1865. Margaret was a widow by then,[32] James having died in 1881.[33] One other crucial piece of information was also evident. Staying with them at 35 Coats Gardens, Edinburgh was a 24 year old visitor by the name of James Duncan.[34]

My first thoughts were along the lines of, which daughter did he marry?  Well he did marry one of the daughters, as it turned out it was not one who had been recorded in either of the 1881 or 1891 censuses.

He married Margaret Edith Gordon Glassford in St Giles, Edinburgh on the 12th June 1894. He was a farmer aged 26, the son of a doctor, she was the daughter of James and Margaret, aged 29, living at 35 Coats Gardens.[35]

Margaret Edith was born in 1864 in New South Wales, Australia.[36] When she returned to the UK is not clear however in 1881 she was living with her aunt Christian’s family in Kent.[37] Christian was the sister of her mother Margaret Bain.

By 1901 James and Margaret were living in Balfour, Menmuir where James farmed. They had two children, daughter Margaret aged five and son John aged three[38] who was in due course to inherit the Glassford family painting. He was born on the 29th April 1897 at Menmuir[39]  and married Nancy Marion Robertson in 1943.[40] They had one child James born in 1944 whilst they were living at Uckfield  in Sussex.[41]

John was awarded an MBE. I believe in 1943.[42] I’m not entirely sure that this date is correct, but it is the best fit for him for the years 1940 to 1955. If this is indeed him, and I believe it is, then he was a pilot officer in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve in 1940, service number 03227. In 1942 he was a Flight Lieutenant and had been with the Administrative and Special Duties Branch before being released from active service.[43]

He subsequently farmed at Cairnhouse in Wigtown and according to the present owner Mr. Colin Craig he remained there until c.1955 when Mr. Craig’s parents took over the farm. Mr Craig also related that John’s son James had died in tragic circumstances and that his wife Nancy and her daughter in law had visited the farm in the 1970s.[44]

In generational terms John was John Glassford’s great, great, great grandson. It’s likely therefore he inherited the painting on his mother’s death in September 1950[45], her father James having previously inherited it along with Dougalston.  On the 23 November he gifted it to Glasgow, which was the end of its journey within the Glassford family.

He died in the Royal Northern Infirmary in Inverness on the 13th August 1966, his normal home address being Allt-A-Bhruais, Spean Bridge.[46]

The Family Portrait

The Glassford family portrait, as might be expected, demonstrates how wealthy John had become with the fine clothing on display and the room’s furnishings, which was within Shawfield Mansion. Much has recently been written about it particularly around the time (2007) when conservation work on the painting was being undertaken at Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum.

The painting contains the surviving children from his first two marriages and his third wife Lady Margaret McKenzie. The conservation work led by conservator Polly Smith established that his second wife Ann Nisbet had originally been included but had been painted out following her death in 1766, suggesting that it was in progress prior to that date or possibly had been completed. Lady Margaret would have been added subsequent to their marriage in 1768, probably early in 1769.

Another figure was also established behind John Glassford’s chair, that of a negro manservant. It had been believed previously that he had been painted out to avoid any family connection to slavery, however it seems that the figure simply faded over time.[47]

I believe the children in the painting to be Jean at the rear to the right of her father, the middle row left to right being Rebecca, Christian, Anne, Catherine and on Lady Margaret’s lap Henry, and standing at the front, John.

Who was the negro servant and by what means did he come to Glassford’s household? Perhaps the answer lies in the following extracts from Frederick County, Maryland Land Records[48] and the Maryland Genealogical Society Records.[49]

Robert Peter or Peters was a Scottish tobacco factor working for John Glassford and Company in Maryland. He began in Bladensburgh circa 1746, moving to Georgetown in 1755. (In 1790 he became the first mayor of Georgetown). He was also John Glassford & Company’s attorney in Maryland. On the 27th September 1756, he bought a negro boy named Jim for 4,000 lbs of tobacco and £2 5s. For this purchase he is recorded as Glassford’s attorney. I think it probable therefore that this purchase was made in the name of the company. Why else record that it was made by the attorney of John Glassford?

Robert Peter bought other slaves but those records I have seen clearly state that the purchases were on his own or his family’s behalf, and they never involved a single slave purchase.

Was ‘Jim’ purchased for Glassford personally? Is he the manservant in the painting? In truth who knows but intriguing none the less.

Bibliography.

Devine, Tom. (1975). The Tobacco Lords. John Donald, Edinburgh.

Devine, Tom. (2003). Scotland’s Empire 1600 – 1815. Penguin.

Payne, Peter (ed.) Studies in Scottish Business History. 1967, Frank Case & Co. (Reprint from the William and Mary Quarterly entitled ‘The Rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco Trade 1707-1775)

Glasgow Past and Present. 3 Volumes. David Robertson and Co. 1884.

References.

[1] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 24 April 1743. GLASSFORD, John and COATS, Anne. 644/01 0250 0082. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[2] Stewart, George (1881) Curiosities of Glasgow Citizenship. Glasgow: James Maclehose. p. 138. https://archive.org/stream/curiositiesofgla00stewuoft#page/138/search/coats

[3] Ewing, Archibald Orr, ed. (1866) View of the Merchants House of Glasgow etc. Glasgow: Bell & Bain. p. 166.

[4] Deaths (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 18 December 1751. COATS, Anne. 644/1 470 166. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[5] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Edinburgh. 5 November 1752. GLASSFORD, John and NISBET, Anne. 685/1 480 196 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[6] Deaths. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 3 January 1777. GLASSFORD, John. 644/01 0590 0005. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[7] Deaths. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 11 April 1766. GLASSFORD, Anne. 644/01 0480 0174. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[8] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. 18 August 1768. GORDON, James and GLASSFORD, Jean. 644/01 0260 0056. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[9] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. St Cuthbert’s, Edinburgh. 24 November 1768. GLASSFORD, John and MACKENZIE, Margaret. 685/02 0160 0212. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[10] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 21 February 1773. GLASSFORD, Euphemia. 644/01 0160 0007.   http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[11] Deaths. Scotland. Glasgow. 29 March 1773. McKenzie, (Glassford) Lady Margaret. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/182330714/margaret-glassford#source

[12] Senex et al. (1884) Glasgow Past and Present. Vol.2. Glasgow: David Robertson and Co. p. 499

[13] Ibid.

[14] Goodfellow, G. L. M. “Colin Campbell’s Shawfield Mansion in Glasgow.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 23, no. 3, 1964, pp. 123–128. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/988232.

[15] Devine, T. M. (1990) The Tobacco Lords. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 181.

[16] Castle, Colin M. (1989). John Glassford of Dougalston. Milngavie and Bearsden Historical Society. p. 22,23 and Oakley, Charles A. (1975). The Second City. Glasgow: Blackie. p. 7,8.

[17] Shaw, Patrick and Dunlop, Alexander. (1834) Cases Decided in the Court of Session 1822-1824. Vol II. Edinburgh: Thomas Clark. pp. 431 to 433. https://books.google.co.uk

[18] Deaths (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 27 August 1783. GLASSFORD, John. 644/01 0590 0131. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[19] Senex et al. (1884) Glasgow Past and Present. Vol.2. Glasgow: David Robertson and Co. p. 295.

[20] Castle, op.cit. p.24.

[21] Measuring Worth (2019). https://www.measuringworth.com/m/calculators/ukcompare/

[22] University of Glasgow. The University of Glasgow Story: Henry Glassford of Dougalston. https://www.universitystory.gla.ac.uk/biography/?id=WH1166&type=P

[23] Deaths.(OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 26 May 1819. GLASSFORD, Henry. 644/01 0610 0228. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[24] Shaw, Patrick and Dunlop, Alexander. (1834) Cases Decided in the Court of Session 1822-1824. Vol II. Edinburgh: Thomas Clark. pp. 431 to 433. https://books.google.co.uk

[25] Wentworth-Shields, W.F. and Harris, Jonathan. (2004) Glassford, James (1771-1845). In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/10806

[26] Ibid

[27] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Linlithgow, West Lothian. 6 August 1831. GORDON, Henry and NAPIER, Clementina. 668/00 0120 0311. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[28] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Linlithgow, West Lothian. 8 December 1832. GORDON, James Glassford. 668/00 0120 0089. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[29] Deaths (SR) Scotland. St. George, Edinburgh. 2 February 1860. GLASSFORD, Henry. 685/01 0136. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[30] Marriages. Scotland. St. Georges, Edinburgh. 10 December 1861. GLASSFORD, James Glassford Gordon Glassford and BAIN, Margaret Thomson. 685/01 0273. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[31]Census 1881 Scotland. Monimail, Fife. 448/ 3/ 13. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[32]Census 1891 Scotland. St George’s, Edinburgh. 685/1 37/ 20, page 20. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[33] Deaths. (SR) Scotland. Monimail, Fife. 2 October 1881. GLASSFORD, James Glassford Gordon. 448/00 0010. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[34] Census 1891 Scotland. St George’s Edinburgh. 685/1 37/ 20, page 21. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[35] Marriages. (SR) Scotland. St Giles, Edinburgh. 12 June 1894. DUNCAN, James and GLASSFORD, Margaret Edith Gordon. 685/ 4 138. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[36] Births. Australia. Births Index 1788 – 1922. 1864. GLASSFORD. Registration Number 2134/1864. https://familyhistory.bdm.nsw.gov.au/lifelink/familyhistory/search/result?4

[37] Census 1881 England. Bromley, Kent. ED 20, Piece 853, Folio 103, page 8. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/

[38] Census 1901. Scotland. Menmuir, Angus. 309/ 1/ 9. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[39] Births. (SR) Scotland. Menmuir, Forfar. 29 April 1897. DUNCAN, John. 309/ 3. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[40] Marriages. (SR) Marriage Index 1916-2005. England. Uckfield, Sussex. July 1943. DUNCAN, John and ROBERTSON, Nancy Marion. Vol. 2b, page 244. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/

[41] Births. (SR) England. Uckfield, Sussex. 3rd Qtr. 1944. DUNCAN, James. Vol. 2b, page 133. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/

[42] London Gazette (1943) 28 May 1943. Issue 36033, Supplement, p. 2431. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/36033/supplement/2431

[43] Forces War Records. John Duncan 03227. https://www.forces-war-records.co.uk

[44] Mrs. H. Lloyd by email. 9 August 2019.

[45] Deaths (SR) Scotland. North Berwick, East Lothian. 23 September 1950. Glassford, Margaret Edith. 713/ 38. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[46] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Lochaber, Inverness. 13 August 1966. DUNCAN, John. 099/2 5. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[47] BBC News Channel. Mystery Slave Found in Portrait. 19 March 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/glasgow_and_west/6466591.stm

[48] Maryland State Archives. Maryland Indexes, (Chancery Papers, Index), 1788-1790, MSA S 1432. 1790/12/013990: Robert Peter vs. William Deakins, Jr., Bernard O’Neal, Edward Burgess, Richard Thompson, John Peters, and Thomas Beall. MO. Contract to serve as securities. Accession No: 17,898-3990. MSA S512-4108   1/36

https://msa.maryland.gov/msa/stagser/s1400/s1432/html/s1432b.html

[49] Maryland Genealogical Society. Bulletin Vol. 36, No.2, Spring 1995. https://mdgensoc.org/

 

 

Edward Nixon Marshall, M.C.

On the 21st November 1944 an oil painting by George Henry, R.A. In a Japanese Garden was presented by Mr. Edward N. Marshall, 8 Cleveden Drive, Glasgow, W.2.

Figure 1. In a Japanese Garden – 1894 (2463). © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

“There was submitted a letter from Mr E. N. Marshall, 8 Cleveden Drive, Glasgow, offering to present to the Corporation the picture “In a Japanese Garden” by the late George Henry, and the committee, after hearing a report from the Director, agreed that the gift be accepted and that a letter of thanks be sent to the donor”. 1

In 1951 Mr E. N. Marshall also donated the following items:

Landscape, 1893, by Alexander Frew (2913), oil on canvas,

A Galloway Landscape, 1889 by Bessie MacNicol, (2914), oil on canvas,

Portrait of James Sellars, architect, 1880, by Georgina M. Greenlees, (2915), oil on canvas

A collection of 29 prints by various artists including Bone, Brockhurst, Cameron, McBey, Smith, Strang, Zorn etc. (PR.1960.23).

A collection of scrapbooks and other items ( OG1953.4)

(Part of this collection is displayed in the “Photographer`s Shop” window at the Riverside Museum, Glasgow and consists of a gift to a Mr and Mrs Paterson on the occasion of their Golden Wedding).

Figure 2. Family Photographs (4596). Photograph A. Macdonald
Figure 3. Locket with Inscription to Mr and Mrs Paterson (4599). Photograph A. Macdonald.

Edward Nixon Marshall was born on the 3rd June 1891 at 5 Spring Gardens, Kelvinside, Glasgow. His father, James Marshall, was a “master flour miller” who had married Mary Carswell Gow on the 6th March 1877. 2 In 1901 the family home was at Woodcroft House, Crow Road, Partick. Edward was a “scholar” aged 9.3 From 1904 to 1911, he attended Loretto School in Musselburgh initially in the Junior School (“Nippers”) and then until the age of 19 when he left from the sixth form. According to school records, he was a prize winner and prefect.4 In 1911 he was a boarder at 41, Linkfield Road, Inveresk, Musselburgh and was therefore presumably still attending Loretto. 5 From Loretto, he went on to Trinity College, Oxford as a Senior Commoner and graduated M.A. in 1914.6

In 1900, Edward`s father had set up his bakery business “James Marshall (Glasgow)”as a limited liability company with himself as managing director and his son James P. Marshall as the only other director. 7 The company manufactured biscuits under the trademarks of “Farola” and “Granola”.  In 1906 two more of Marshall`s sons, Thomas and Allan, joined the company followed in 1908 by his youngest son Edward.

During the First World War, Edward Marshall served with the Duke of Wellington`s, Riding Regiment in France and Flanders. He was a 2nd Lieutenant in 1914 and gained the rank of Captain in 1916. He was mentioned in dispatches and was awarded the M.C. in the New Year`s Honours List of 1st January 1918. 8 (This decoration was awarded to Captain Marshall for an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy. However, because the award was made as part of the New Year`s Honours, citation details were not published). 

After the war, Edward returned to work in the family firm which advertised itself as: “Marshall, James (Glasgow), Ltd., millers, proprietors of “Marshalls` Semolina”, and “Farola”, 25, Cumberland St., Calton.; telephone nos., 2637 and 93 Bridgton” 9

Edward was meantime residing at 21 Eglinton Drive, Kelvinside. 10 On the 13th of September 1928 he joined the Merchants` House of Glasgow (fee 21 guineas). He gave the firm`s address as, 2, Orr Place and described himself as a “merchant”. 11 By 1930 he was living at 21, Cleveden Gardens and the firm was now described as “Macaroni Manufacturers” and proprietors of “Marshall`s Semolina” and “Farola”. 12

On the 11th of September 1935, Edward, then aged 44, married Gertrude Maie Hamilton Marshall at 62, Great George Street, Glasgow (the bride`s home). (Edward is described as a “Cereal Food Manufacturer, formerly married to Margaret Rosamund Leigh Gregor against whom he obtained Decree of Divorce). 13 The couple moved to 8, Cleveden Drive, Glasgow and by 1940, Edward had become Managing Director of Jas. Marshall (Glasgow), Ltd. 14 From 1944-46 he was also the Chairman of the Macaroni Section of the Food Manufacturer`s Association. 15

In 1925 Edward had become a governor of Loretto School.  He maintained this association with his old school, becoming in 1946 Vice-chair of Governors till 1952 and Chairman of Governors from 1952 to 1956. He was also the President of the Fettesian-Lorettonian Club in 1951-52 and later, Lorettonian Society President from 1959 to 1963. He ceased to be a governor in 1961.16

Edward Nixon Marshall died on the 13th of March 1970 in a nursing home at 121 Hill Street, Glasgow. He was 78. He had been suffering from chronic bronchitis and emphysema. He was twice married and had been divorced from his first wife Rosamund Gregor. 17 His funeral took place at Glasgow Crematorium, Maryhill on the 17th of March 1970. 18

In his will he bequeathed the painting West Wind, Macrihanish by William McTaggart to Loretto School. The painting hung in the staffroom for many years until it was sold, with the consent of the family, at Gleneagles Hotel in 1998. The sum raised was £35,600, and helped to fund a new Technology Centre and library in the school. 19 Edward Marshall became a member of the Board of Governors of the Glasgow School of Art in 1943. 20 and this probably brought him into contact with leading artists of the day.

Figure 4. Plaque in the Chapel at Loretto School. Courtesy of Irene Molan, Database & Web Administrator, Loretto School

References

  1. Glasgow Corporation, Minutes of Art Galleries and Museums Committee, 17th October, 1944, page 1542
  2. Scotland`s People, birth certificate
  3. ancestry.co.uk., 1901 Census
  4. Records of The Lorettonian Society courtesy of Emma Sinclair, Membership Co-ordinator
  5. ancestry.co.uk., 1911 Census
  6. Records of The Lorettonian Society courtesy of Emma Sinclair, Membership Co-ordinator
  7. Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography, 1860 – 1960, Anthony Slaven, Aberdeen University Press, 1986
  8. London Gazette, 1st Jan 1918, page 41
  9. Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1920-21
  10. ibid
  11. List of Members of the Merchants` House of Glasgow, Robert Anderson & Sons Ltd. 72, Howard Street, 1963; Matriculation Book of the Merchant`s House of Glasgow 1912-, Mitchell Library
  12. Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1930-31
  13. Scotland`s People, marriage certificate
  14. Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1940-41
  15. Records of The Lorettonian Society courtesy of Emma Sinclair, Membership Co-ordinator
  16. ibid
  17. Scotland`s People, death certificate
  18. Glasgow Herald, 14th March, 1970, p16
  19. Glasgow Herald, 29th August, 1998 and 3rd September, 1998
  20. Glasgow School of Art, Archives, GOV 2/18, Board of Governor`s Minute Book, 1937-1945

Lindsay Grandson MacArthur 1873-1956

In 1946 Lindsay MacArthur’s widow, Beatrice Butts Thomson, donated four paintings to Glasgow. Lindsay was an artist and two of these works were his own, The Golden Quarry and Pastorale, Evening. 

MacArthur, Lindsay Grandison, c.1866-1945; The Golden Quarry
Figure 1. MacArthur, Lindsay Grandison; The Golden Quarry; Glasgow. (© CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection)

Lindsay’s father, also Lindsay Grandison, was born in the village of Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire. (1) His mother Catherine McNicol, known as Kate, who hailed from Dublin was Lindsay’s second wife and was twenty- one years his junior. (2) They married in Liverpool in 1860  and shortly moved to Braehead Villa, Oban in Argyll where Lindsay junior was born on 21 April 1865. (3) This was a period when the rail network was expanding, enabling many people to travel to coastal resorts. Oban was already a busy fishing town and ferry port. In 1866 Lindsay senior built the 80 room Alexandra Hotel, on vacant land which is now known as the Corran Esplanade, a prime site overlooking Oban Bay and competed with The Great Western Hotel for the top end of the market. He ran the hotel with his daughter Jane till his death in 1885. He left debts of £2478 of which £1000 was owed to Thomas Lawrie, art dealers in Glasgow, so perhaps Lindsay junior’s interest in art was inspired by his father. The hotel was then managed by Lindsay Senior’s wife until 1897 when it was put up for sale. (4) Although the family had a house at 3 Hampden Terrace in Glasgow, they resided mainly at the Alexandra in Oban in the 1870s. (5) 

blog Alexandra_Hotel,_Oban
Figure 2. Alexandra Hotel, Oban

Lindsay junior appears to have had an early interest in art, attending Glasgow School of Art from 1881 to 1884. (6) In the 1891 census, when he was 25, he is described as a landscape painter. His brother Robert also studied art but by 1891 had become a surgeon. (7) Interestingly the 1881 census reveals that the artist William Black was staying at the Alexandra Hotel. He was a popular novelist whose landscape painting  influenced his writing style such as in White Wings: A Yachting Romance of 1880. (8) 

Lindsay  travelled south in the 1890s and lived in the picturesque village of Broadway in The Cotswolds and became part of a group of artists known as The Broadway Group which was mainly comprised of expatriate American artists. The most prominent member was John Singer Sergeant who produced some of his best known works there such as Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose which was painted in the garden of Russell House in the village. This was the home of American artist Francis Millet who purchased the nearby Abbot’s Grange, a ruined monastery which he converted into a communal artists studio. 

Sargent, John Singer, 1856-1925; Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose
Figure 3. Sargent, John Singer; Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose 1885-6; Tate; digital image © Tate released under Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported).

One of Millet’s best known works is Between Two Fires of 1892 which depicts a puritan standing between two rather confident kitchen maids. The puritan figure is modelled on Lindsay MacArthur who is described by a contemporary as ‘a highland landscape artist with a sardonic biting humour, a quick temper and fierce loyalties.’ (9)

Between Two Fires c.1892 by Francis Davis Millet 1846-1912
Figure 4. Francis Davis Millet, Between two Fires, 1892 digital image © Tate released under Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)

Another of Millet’s paintings The Black Sheep, in The New Bedford Library, Massachusetts, and of a similar setting to Between Two Fires includes the same character modelled on MacArthur. Millet’s last return to the USA was, unfortunately, in 1912 when he boarded The Titanic and was last seen helping women and children as she sank. The bohemian Broadway Group had a reputation for the high life, with singing and drinking regularly breaking the peace of the village. The writer Edmund Gosse describes…’Nothing we do scandalises the villagers…one of the Americans was chased down the village street, screaming all the time and and trying to escape up lamp-posts and down wells. Not a villager smiled, they only say ‘them Americans is out again’. (10)

While at Broadway MacArthur designed a bookplate (National Galleries Scotland) for Lady Maud Bowes-Lyon, aunt to Her Majesty The Queen Mother. She lived at Orchard farm in the village and frequently hosted concerts in her music room (she was an accomplished violinist) and held regular art exhibitions. (11)

One of MacArthur’s donations Pastorale, Evening may have been painted during his stay in the Cotswolds, and he exhibited thirteen paintings at The Royal Academy between 1893 and 1904. (12)

MacArthur, Lindsay Grandison, c.1866-1945; Pastorale, Evening
Figure 5. MacArthur, Lindsay Grandison; Pastorale, Evening.(© CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection)

The 1901 census places MacArthur at Spencer Street, London and little is known of his whereabouts in the following few years. However, he appears to have spent time travelling as many of his paintings from this period are landscapes and seascapes of Palestine and Ceylon with a few from France. He does not appear to have dated his work.

In 1934 Lindsay married Beatrice Butts Thomson in Chelsea. Beatrice was born in 1873 in Japan to British parents. (13) Her first husband, John Leslie Thomson was a landscape artist from Aberdeen and trained at The Slade in London He was a member of The New English Art Club and requested an invitation to one of Whistler’s famous 10 0’Clock lectures. He died in 1929. (14) They lived at 1 Hornton Street, Kensington. (15)

After their marriage Lindsay and Beatrice lived at 9a St Mary Abbot’s Place, Kensington and over the next few years Lindsay exhibited at Royal Scottish Academy with landscapes of England, Galilee and Ceylon. (16)

Lindsay died in Surrey in 1945 aged 80. (17) In 1946 Beatrice was living at 37 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edinburgh and she gifted paintings to public collections around Scotland with the majority going to Kirkcaldy Galleries. Around half of the donations were painted by Lindsay Grandson MacArthur, with the remainder by her first husband John Leslie Thomson. (18) It would appear that both artists were influenced by the French Impressionists, depicting fleeting moments of time and displayed a remarkably similar style to each other.

Thomson, John Leslie, 1851-1929; Seascape, Anglesey
Figure 6. Thomson, John Leslie; Seascape, Anglesey; (© CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection)

Beatrice moved to Devon, to the market town of Honiton where she died in 1956. (19)

DS

References

1. (Census, 1881, 677356) http://search.ancestry.co.uk

2. (Census, 1881, 644/9 61/21) https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

3. (Births,Lindsay Grandson MacArthur 523/000023) https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

4.  Fiona Morrison, Bournemouth University Thesis, http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22514/

5. (Census 1871, 560/00004/00027)  https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

6. Glasgow Schoo; of Art, archives@gsa.ac.uk

7. (Census 1891, 52300002/00001)  https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Black_(novelist)

9. https://www.cotswolds.info/arts-crafts-antiques/broadway-artists.shtml

10. https://www.cotswolds.info/arts-crafts-antiques/broadway-artists.shtml

11. http://www.broadwaymanor.co.uk/blog/page/2/

12. Royal Academy (libraryinformationdesk@royalacademy.org.uk)

13. England and Wales Marriages 1837-2005,  https://search.findmypast.co.ukBMD/M/1934/3/ AZ/000990/030

14. University of Glasgoe, https://www.whistler.arts.gla.ac.uk/correspondence/people/biog/?bid=Thom_JL&firstname=&surname=thomson

15. (Census 1911, 2frg), https://search.findmypast.co.uk

16. Royal Scottish Academy, https://collections@royalscottishacademy.org

17. England and Wales Deaths, https://search.findmypast.co.uk/record?id=bmd1945

18. https://artuk.org

19. England and wales Deaths, https://search.findmypast.co.uk/record?id=bmd2f1945

John Sawers (1862-1945)

Pinks Charles Rennie MacKintosh
Figure 1. Pinks: Charles Rennie Mackintosh. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection

In December 1941, John Sawers donated eight watercolours and three drawings to Glasgow’s collections, including a striking watercolour, Pinks, by Charles Rennie MacKintosh. (1)

John Sawers was born in 1862 and died in 1945. He married Mary Watson in 1888 and they had three children, two daughters and a son.(2)

John Sawers, with his father Thomas and his brother George, was part of a well-known fish, game and poultry business within the city of Glasgow and beyond.  The firm had branches in Birmingham and other English cities, as well as eight branches in Glasgow.  There is also a Sawers in Belfast, which exists to this day. The company had a flair for publicity. For example, its fleet of vans were nicknamed after fish –  Miss Haddock, Miss Crab and Miss Plaice.

The firm was the biggest buyer in the Glasgow Fish Market and could apparently “command any exotic sea creature, such as a shark, porpoise, turtle or monkfish as a centrepiece for their displays in Howard Street.” (3) The Oyster Bar within the fish emporium in Howard Street was legendary, and the gentlemen of Glasgow would congregate here to sample the wares and meet their fellow Glaswegians. It was the only licensed fishmongers in Scotland, so the city gentlemen could have their seafood with a glass of ale or porter.

When the Howard Street shop opened in 1890, a large banquet was held and many influential tradesmen and merchants in the city were invited. It was noted that “the banquet was given in almost regal style”. (4)

Figure 3.
Figure 2.
Figure 4,

Figures 2, 3, 4. Tiled Panels from Sawers’ Howard Street shop and the shop interior. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection

Many newspapers carried the story of the wonderful establishment and praised its designer, Mr J Winton Mackie, who was assisted by Mr John Sawer. “There is no more magnificent fish shop in Europe, and the splendours of the suggestive tiles and granite slabs must be inspected in order to be appreciated.” (5) The tiled panels, created for the shop by Doulton of Lambeth, attracted a great deal of attention and fortunately, when the firm folded in 1960 after attracting the attention of corporate raiders, Glasgow Museums rescued the entire tiled scheme and part of the mosaic fascia from the front of the shop.

Sawers also published an annual fish and game calendar and a cookbook ” Our Table Fishes: How to Choose and Cook Them”. (6)

In the early 1900s John Sawers bought a plot of land in Giffnock known as the Hollows. Here he built a house known as Eastwood Hollows. The house was designed by Andrew Balfour and was a fine example of an Art and Crafts House. (7) Balfour was articled to James Boucher and, during his apprenticeship, won a studentship to Glasgow School of Art (GSA). After finishing his apprenticeship Balfour worked with John Burnet. (8) The picture below shows the house and presumably the three children seated are the Sawers children.

Sawer House 1.jpg
Figure 5. Eastwood Hollows Exterior and Garden. https://archive.org/details/academyarchitect19londuoft/page/102
Figure 6. Eastwood Hollows Interior 1. https://archive.org/details/academyarchitect19londuoft/page/105
Figure 7. Eastwood Hollows. https://archive.org/details/academyarchitect19londuoft/page/102

 

John Sawers made a beautiful garden round his house, with a pond, a pergola and a greenhouse where he grew vines. The house was demolished, in the 1960s allegedly to make way for a road and a roundabout. (9)

Figure 8. Eastwood Hollows Interior 2.  https://archive.org/details/academyarchitect19londuoft/page/105.

John Sawers was more than just a fishmonger. He was clearly an art lover and in his obituary is mentioned as being an artist in his leisure moments. His obituary also states that he was “a pioneer of colour photography”.(10) He liked to surround himself with beautiful art, including his house in Giffnock. Even within his working environment Sawers incorporated art. His art can now be enjoyed by a wider audience thanks to his generous donation to Glasgow Museums.

References

1.Glasgow Corporation Minutes Nov 1941- May 1942 p.428

2.Scotland’s People: scotlandspeople.gov.uk

3. King, Elspeth (1991) The People’s Pictures, The Story of Tiles in Glasgow, Glasgow: Glasgow Museums

4. Stratten and Stratten (1891) Glasgow and Its Environs, Glasgow: Stratten and     Stratten

5.The Baillie: October 1890 P4

6. Glasgow University Library, Special Collections.

7. Koch, Alexander, ed. (1901). Academy Architecture. Vol.19. London: Academy Architecture. pp 102,. 105.

8. Dictionary of Scottish Architects http://www.scottisharchitects.org

9. Giffnock Library Family History Centre: Memories and Information from the       Mary D. Gardiner Archive, 23 rec 2092, April 2008

10. The Glasgow Herald: 18th April 1945

 

 

 

 

Swedish Donation 1911 Erik Eriksson Etzel, Sweden

In 1911, from the 2nd May to the 4th November, the Scottish Exhibition of History, Art and Industry was held in Kelvingrove, Glasgow. The exhibition was formally opened on the 3rd May by the Duke of Connaught (brother of the late King Edward VII) and his wife.[1] It was not on the same scale as the exhibitions of 1888 and 1901 however over its course it attracted 9.4 million visitors. Its central point was the Stuart Memorial in Kelvingrove Park surrounded by a number of palaces, the principal one being the Palace of History which was modelled on Falkland Palace. It was divided into four galleries, one of which, the West Gallery, dealt with the historical ties between Sweden and Scotland.

Figure 1. Site Plan 1911 Exhibition – from Study Group website. http://www.studygroup.org.uk/Exhibitions/Pages/1911%20Glasgow.htm

One of the exhibition’s key objectives was to fund the creation of a Chair of Scottish History and Literature at Glasgow University, which was achieved, the Chair being founded in 1913. [2], [3]

Between 1909 and 1911 a number of visits between the two countries had been made to determine what the Swedish/Scottish exhibition should contain. The Swedish committees were led by Professor Oscar Montelius, of Uppsala University, a noted pre-historian and archeologist, and Dr. E.E. Etzel of Stockholm and Uppsala University. The convener of the Scottish committee was John S. Samuel. [4], [5]

The agreed Swedish exhibits included the following items:

  • from Professor Montelius, prehistoric artefacts from graves and tombs in Sweden, similar to objects found in Scotland
  • a collection of medals struck in honour of celebrated Scotsmen, from the Swedish Academy of Science
  • pistols, guns and daggers made in Scotland and taken to Sweden by Scottish soldiers of fortune, loaned by the Royal Armoury in Stockholm
  • heraldic shields of Swedish Nobles of Scottish extraction. These were replicas of the originals and they were to be used again at the ‘Scots in Sweden ‘exhibition held in the Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh in 1962.[6]
  • genealogical documentation of Scots who had lived and stayed in Sweden. This information was eventually published in The Scottish Historical Review in 1912, taken from work carried out by Dr. Etzel and given to the magazine by John Samuel.[7]
  • portraits of Swedish and Scottish Royalty which included two copies of portraits from the Royal Gallery in Gripsholm Castle, being the work of Swedish artist John Osterlund (1875-1953), completed between 1900 and 1910. These were the paintings eventually gifted to Glasgow at the end of the exhibition by Dr. Etzel.[8]

The first portrait was that of ‘Mary Queen of Scots as a Child’, which had been discovered during a Scottish deputation to Sweden in 1909. The catalogue of the exhibition described it as ‘a unique and valuable portrait of Mary Stuart… its existence had not previously been recorded by any historian of the period of history to which it belongs.’ The original artist was unknown and the date attributed to the painting was 1577.[9]

The other was a portrait of King Gustavus Adolphus II. Again the original artist was unknown although it had been annotated with the initials ‘G.T.’ and dated 1630.

The entry in the exhibition catalogue regarding Gustavus Adolphus is interesting in that he is described as the ‘Lion of the North and Bulwark of the Protestant religion, the hero of the 30 years war, that awful period of bloodshed, rapine and robbery that devastated Germany in the early part of the 17th century.’ It also added that his victorious armies included 13,106 Scotsmen.[10]

Figure 2. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

In an attempt to find out more about the original paintings I contacted the National Museum of Sweden. The initial response from the Museum confirmed there was a painting of ‘Maria Stuart’ in the Royal Gallery collection; inventory number NMGrh 1142, artist unknown. In a very comprehensive second reply I was informed that the museum did not now consider it to be a portrait of Mary Stuart and that it depicted an unknown girl. The inscription on the painting they believe to be later, the date of 1577 questionable and that the girl does not resemble Mary. They now list the painting as ‘possibly 16th century, or a later copy after a painting from the 16th century – Unknown child’.[11]

With reference to the painting of Gustavus Adolphus, there are a number of such paintings in museum collections in Sweden, none of which seemed to be the original we were looking for. It was suggested that as Osterlund had spent most of his life in Uppsala it may be that the original lay there, possibly within the University. I contacted Uppsala University who were able to confirm that they had a portrait, very similar to the Osterlund copy, which had been painted in the 17th century. It did not however give an exact date, and the artist is recorded as ‘The Monogramist P.G.’ who, it was thought, may be Pieter de Grebber.

Figure 3. King Gustav Adolphus II © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

In appearance this painting fits the bill very well, and it’s possible, maybe probable that it is the one Osterlund copied, although the copy is darker in some areas.[12], [13]

In a letter to the Lord Provost of Glasgow, Sir Archibald McInnes Shaw, dated 20th November 1911 Dr. Erik Erikson Etzel formally gifted the two Osterlund copies to Glasgow.

Little is known about Dr. Etzel except that he was a D.Ph. probably from Uppsala University. He was born in 1868 in Karlskoga, Sweden. In 1902 he lived in Stockholm which is where died in 1964. [14], [15]

John Smith Samuel was the private secretary to Lord Provost McInnes Shaw, and had held that position for 10 years serving others in that office. He was elected to the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1902, held various other civic positions and was a member of the Glasgow Art Club. He was appointed Knight of the Royal Order of Vasa by Professor Montelius on behalf of King Gustav V of Sweden in 1910.[16], [17]

Professor Oscar Montelius, was born in Stockholm in 1843. He studied history and Scandinavian languages at Uppsala University between 1861 and 1869. He was attached to the Museum of National Antiquities, Stockholm, from 1863 and was appointed professor in 1888. He was the Museum’s director from 1907 to 1913. Still controversial is his theory, the “Swedish typology,” suggesting that material culture and biological life develop through essentially the same kind of evolutionary process. In 1911 he was Director General of the Swedish Board of National Antiquities. He died in Stockholm in 1921.[18], [19]

John Osterlund was born in 1875 in Stockholm and was mainly known as a landscape artist and conservator of paintings, particularly church paintings. He died in 1953. [20]

[1] Glasgow Herald (1911) Glasgow, Exhibition Opened. Glasgow Herald. 4th May pp 9, 10. Mitchell Library, Glasgow

[2] The Scottish Exhibition of  History, Art and Industry:  http://www.studygroup.org.uk/Exhibitions/Pages/1911%20Glasgow.htm

[3] Glasgow University: http://www.universitystory.gla.ac.uk/biography/?id=CB0018&type=C

[4] Glasgow Herald (1910) Swedish Visitors in Glasgow. Glasgow Herald. 31st August p. 7b, c. Mitchell Library., Glasgow

[5] Glasgow Herald (1911) Scottish Flints at the Glasgow Exhibition. Glasgow Herald. 17th April p.11c. Mitchell Library, Glasgow

[6] Glasgow Herald (1962) Scots in Sweden Exhibition. Glasgow Herald. 10th August p.14d, e. Mitchell Library, Glasgow

[7] The Scottish Historical Review. (1912) Vol. 9, Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. p. 268. https://archive.org/stream/scottishhistoric09edinuoft#page/268/mode/2up;

[8] Palace of History Exhibition Catalogue. Mitchell Library, Glasgow reference 272126 GC 606.4 (1911).

[9] Ibid

[10] Ibid

[11] Karlsson, Eva Lena (2012) Gustavus Adolphus II. E-mail to author.

[12] Thornlund, Asa (2012) Gustavus Adolphus II. E-mail to author.

[13] Thornlund, Asa (2012) Gustavus Adolphus II. E-mail to author.

[14] Forsberg Family Tree. http://forsberg.foppa.nu/individual.php?pid=I5158&ged=Family%20Forsberg:

[15] The Scottish Historical Review. (1912) Vol. 9, Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. p. 268. https://archive.org/stream/scottishhistoric09edinuoft#page/268/mode/2up

[16] Eyre Todd, George (1909) Who’s Who in Glasgow 1909. Glasgow: Gowans and Grey Ltd. Glasgow Digital Library. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/eyrwho/eyrwho1601.htm:

[17] Glasgow Herald (1910) Swedish Visitors in Glasgow. Glasgow Herald. 31st August p. 7b, c. Mitchell Library, Glasgow

[18] Encyclopaedia Britannica: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Oscar-Montelius:

[19] Karlsson, Eva Lena (2012) Gustavus Adolphus II. E-mail to author.

[20] Ibid.

William Kennedy (1836-1899)

dr blog kennedy
Figure 1. William Kennedy, © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections

William Kennedy is best known as a successful businessman and for playing a major role in the fledgling shale oil industry of central Scotland in the mid-nineteenth century. He bequeathed one painting to Glasgow, The Sacrifice of Marcus Curtius by Luigo Garzi, in 1899.

Garzi, Luigi, 1638-1721; The Sacrifice of Marcus Curtius
Figure2. The Sacrifice of Marcus Curtius 1715-20 by Luigi Garzi 1638-1721                                          © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (http://www.artuk.org)

William was born in Biggar, South Lanarkshire in 1836 to William, an innkeeper and Mary Scott.(1) Little is known of his early years but he moved to Glasgow when aged sixteen and joined the firm of P & R Fleming, ironmongers which had branches at 29 Argyle Street and 18 Stockwell Street. He then moved to Henry Field and Son of Buchanan Street.(2)

dr blog kennedy
Figure 3. Henry Field & Son, advert from Post Office Glasgow Directories 1859-60, Mitchell Library

The first gas lighting in Glasgow was introduced in 1805 and by the mid-nineteenth century there was huge demand for gas heating and lighting in homes and Fields was well placed for the fitting of pipes, meters and other equipment. The city’s gas manufacturing and supply industry was placed under municipal control in 1869. While at Fields mineral oil was becoming a popular fuel for lighting and William assisted with its development with enthusiasm. He ensured that the best oil lamps on the market were stocked in the shop and he promoted the sale of lighting oil all over Scotland and the North of Ireland.(3)

William married Margaret Law from Linlithgow in 1860 (4) and they had three girls and a boy (also William). They were living at 39 Devon Street, Glasgow in 1861(5) and lived in Govan and Pollokshields areas for many years, and were residing at a detached villa at 32 Newark Drive in Pollokshields by 1891.(6)

James ‘paraffin’ Young was the pre-eminent ‘Father of the Oil Industry ‘ who succeeded in producing, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, a fluid which resembled paraffin wax and in 1851 his Bathgate works became the first commercial oil-works in the world.(7) William Kennedy succeeded Young in continuing to develop manufacturing processes for new products and markets.

In 1861 William joined West Calder Oil Company and stayed with them for seven years producing paraffin. He then became actively associated with Oakbank Oil Company, West Lothian and was general manager until 1877. In that year The Broxburn Oil Company was formed for the purpose of acquiring, from Robert Bell,  his rights as lessee of the oil, shales and other minerals of Lord Cardross, at Broxburn in Linlithgowshire. Bell was a pioneer of the shale industry and was the first in Scotland to distil oil from shale.  William was appointed Managing Director of Broxburn Oil Company on its foundation, at a time when fierce competition from USA and Russia made life difficult for many businesses. He remained as its managing Director till his death in 1899. The Broxburn works were the first to challenge the scale of Youngs Addiewell Works and it was equipped to undertake all processes necessary to transform shale into a full range of oil and wax products, including the manufacture of candles. The works site covered an area of 250 acres and employed approximately 1700 workers. The modern equipment enabled the company to stay ahead of the competition for the next ten years. (8)

drBroxburnWorksArchiveImage1
Figure 4. Broxburn Oil Works, circa 1910. Creative Common Licence. c. Almond Valley Heritage Trust. Creative Commons Licence © Almond Valley Heritage Trust, http://www.scottishshale.co.uk

Prior to 1876 William was appointed  Secretary to the Scottish Mineral Oil Association and was subsequently elected as its President. He was also a director of Niddrie and Benhar Coal Company Limited, the Glenboig Union Fireclay Company Limited and the National Insurance Company of Great Britain. He also entered local politics as a county councillor for Linlithgowshire and was a Justice of the Peace for the same county.(9)

In the 1890s  William moved to 21 Huntly Gardens, a fine townhouse in Glasgow’s west end.(10) In ailing health he died on 20th May 1899 leaving a significant estate of £44,600.(11) In his Will he left the painting The Sacrifice of Marcus Curtius 1715-20 to Glasgow.(12) At the time of his death it was attributed to Nicholas Poussin, an influential French baroque artist. It is now attributed to Luigi Garzi who was influenced by Poussin’s classical style while in Rome. The scene depicts the young Roman who sacrificed himself to the gods of Hades. 

This painting was previously owned by John Bell who, with his brother Matthew, founded J and M P Bell & Co, the largest pottery in Scotland in the mid-nineteenth century and which produced a wide range of high-quality products for the home market and for export. John amassed a huge collection of paintings and objects during his lifetime for North Park House, which he had built adjacent to the Botanic Gardens in Glasgow (later used as the home of the BBC). He died intestate in 1880 and his collection of around 800 paintings was sold at auctions in Glasgow, Edinburgh and London. The sales catalogues list paintings by Titian, Rubens, Caravaggio, Canaletto, Raphael, and many more apparently by world=renowned artists. However, many of his paintings are now thought to be copies, and some fakes, but he did achieve sales of £50,000 in a struggling market.(13) William Kennedy may have purchased The Sacrifice of Marcus Curtius at one of these auctions and it is one of only a few objects to remain in Glasgow from Bell’s collection.

DS

References

(1) http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk births, 793/000070 0296 Kelso

(2) Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography  “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”

(3) The Baillie, vol XLV111 No 1237, July 1896, “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”

(4) http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk, marriages, 644/100175

(5) http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk, census 1861 644/933/8

(6) http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk, census 1891 644/14037/00014

(7) www.engineeringhalloffame.org, Scottish Engineering hall of Fame/James Young

(8) Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography  “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”

(9) The Baillie, vol XLV111 No 1237, July 1896, “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”

(10) https://www.glasgowwestaddress.co.uk/Huntly_Gardens/21_Huntly_Gardens.htm

(11) Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography  “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”

(12) http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk, sc36/51/122 Glasgow Sheriff Court Wills

(13) Mitchell Library, Sales Catalogues John Bell Jan 1881, “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”