Articles

Mrs Alice Clara Grahame (1864-1954)

Although Mrs Grahame (known as Clara) bequeathed these paintings on her death in 1954 the portraits were in fact of members of her husband’s family. Clara’s husband was Lt Colonel John Crum Grahame (1870-1952).

Figure 1. Humphrey Ewing Maclae of Cathkin (1773-1860) By John Graham Gilbert. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. Acc 3017.

Humphrey Ewing Maclae was born Humphrey Ewing .His father Walter Ewing had inherited Cathkin Estate near Rutherglen in 1790 through Walter Maclae an uncle of his mother Margaret Maclae and had added Maclae to his name at that point.Humphrey Ewing did the same on inheriting Cathkin in 1814.Walter Ewing Maclae had built Cathkin House in 1799 funded in the main through the fortune he had made in the West India Trade. By the 1790s  the family owned several sugar plantations in Jamaica and 449 slaves. According to the slavery compensation claims in 1836 Humphrey Ewing Maclae owned at least three plantations which were Dallas Castle Port Royal with 161 slaves; Southfield in St Ann with 195 slaves and Lilyfield in St Ann with 93 slaves.1 John Crum Grahame was Humphrey Ewing Maclae’s great-great-nephew through his mother Agnes Crum. See Figure 4 below.

Figure 2. Thomas Grahame of Whitehill (1792-1870) by Chester Harding c1825. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. Acc 3018.

Thomas Grahame was the son of Robert Grahame of  Whitehill, advocate and former Lord Provost of Glasgow and brother of James Grahame.2 He was born in Glasgow in 1792. There is no information on his early life. Although he used the title of major there is no information at this point of his military service which may have been in a militia regiment. He married Hannah Finlay of Castle Toward in 1823 with whom he had three daughters.   Hannah died in 1834.3 Thomas moved to England sometime in the late 1830s at about the same time as his father Robert Grahame.  In 1847 Thomas married Elizabeth Campbell in London.4 They had no children. The 1851 and 1861 census records his occupation as ‘landed proprietor,stocks and shares’ so he was of independent means. Thomas spent the rest of his life in England . In 1851 he was living in Rickmansworth  in  Hertfordshire   with his wife, three daughters and his ninety-one year old father Robert 5 and in 18616  the family were living in  Broadwater  in  Sussex where  Thomas  died in 1870.7 Thomas Grahame was the great-uncle of our donor through his father’s family. See Figure 5 below.

Figure 3. Hannah Finlay Of Castle Toward by Chester Harding 1825-25. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. Acc 3019.

Hannah Finlay (1803-1834) was the eldest daughter of Kirkman Finlay (1773-1842). After the death of his father in 1790 Kirkman Finlay took over the running of his father’s business  James Finlay & Co,Glasgow Merchants.   He  moved into the new business of cotton spinning and owned mills in Ayrshire,  Stirlingshire and Perthshire. By 1810 he was the largest exporter of cotton yarn to Europe and managed to evade Napoleon’s wartime blockade.  He was Lord Provost of Glasgow 1812-15 and 1818 and MP for Clyde Burghs 1812-1819.As well as Castle Toward in Argyll the Finlays had a town House in Queen Street Glasgow.8     Hannah was the first wife of Thomas Grahame of Whitehill and died at the age of 31.

Figure 4. Link between John Crum Grahame and Humphrey Ewing Maclae. © J.M Macaulay.
Figure 5. Link between John Crum Grahame and Major Thomas Grahame of Whitehill. © J.M Macaulay.
Figure 4. John Crum Grahame © R.Purvis.

John Crum Grahame (1870-1952)

John Crum Grahame, known as Jack was born in Auldhouse ,  Renfrewshire on 2  February 1870. He was the son of James Grahame and Agnes Crum. His mother was the daughter of John Crum of Thornliebank and his great -great -grandfather was Archibald Grahame of Drumquassie  Drymen  in  Stirlingshire. Jack was educated at Harrow. He joined the 2nd Battalion Highland Light Infantry in 1892 as a 2nd Lieutenant after serving with the Militia and was promoted to Lieutenant in 1894. He served on the Northwest Frontier in India. In 1900 he was attached to the 1st Battalion West African Frontier Force and took part in the Ashanti Campaign and was Mentioned in Despatches and awarded the Ashanti Medal in 1901. During this period he was promoted Local Captain.

During 1901-2 he saw service with the 3rd Battalion as Local Major on the West African Frontier in Southern Nigeria and  was once again Mentioned in Dispatches after the capture of Aro Chuko. He was slightly wounded during this campaign. He was awarded the DSO, the entry in the London Gazette of 12 September  1902 reported:

John Crum Grahame,Captain Highland Light Infantry. For services during the  Aro  Campaign in Southern Nigeria.

 Between 1904 and 1907 Jack served with the Egyptian army and The Sudan Administration.9 It was during this period that Jack married Clara. 

Donor. Mrs A. C Grahame  1864-1954 

Our donor was born Alice Clara Purvis on 28  July 1864 at Kinaldy House on the Kinaldy Estate near St Andrews in Fife. She was the daughter of John Purvis of Kinaldy  (JP) (1820-1909)  and Wilhelmina(Mina) Berry of Newport-on-Tay(1827-1905). 10 She was known as Clara. Clara was the youngest of two surviving daughters.  Her sister Ethel was born in 186011 and there were four brothers who lived to adulthood-Alex, Herbert, Harry and Robert.12 John Purvis’s father Alexander Purvis (1766-1844) originated from Northumberland. He emigrated to South Carolina after the American War of Independence and set up a store and cotton broking business with his eldest brother John at Charleston, Sumter and Columbia. In Columbia the site of the Purvis premises on the corner of Gervais and Main Street was known as Purvis Corner as late as 1900.The business was very successful and Alexander became an American citizen in 1795. He retired in 1809 and returned to Scotland. He purchased the Kinaldy estate near St Andrews in 1829. His only child John was born in 1820.13

Figure 5. Dining Room Kinaldy House © R.Purvis.
Figure 6. Kinaldy House near St. Andrews Fife. © R.Purvis.
Figure 7. Wilhelmina Purvis (or Berry) of Newport on Tay. By William Clark Wontner 1897. © R.Purvis.
Figure 8. John Purvis of Kinaldy by C. Goldsborough R.A. 1897. © R.Purvis.

John  Purvis(1820-1909) was a landowner and astute businessman. He was a Justice of the Peace, and a director of the Anstruther and Fife Railway. He also had many business interests abroad.For example he invested in The Pacific Sugar Mill Company and a plantation at Kukuihaele in Hawaii (see Appendix) which was later managed by son Herbert14 and investments in New Zealand. According to Aylwin Clark:

JP was always ready to seize the opportunity to invest in something promising well but then his caution would weigh in reproachfully, reminding him how infrequently there was a pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.15

JP’s investments were worldwide. In the 1870s for example he invested in the Imperial Ottoman Bank, the Natal Colonization Company,  the Central Railway Uruguay, the Tay Bridge and Leuchars  Extension,the East London Railway,the Kansas and Pacific Railway,  the Lanberg and Czarovitz Railway in  Rumania and many more.16

1870s. Schooldays at home  and abroad.

According to the 1871 Census the Purvis Family were staying at a house in Newport -on -Tay  from where  Clara’s mother Wilhelmina Berry originated. According to Clark John Purvis was not overly impressed with the way his children were turning out. At one point he wrote in is diary of his  depression at the melancholy spectacle of Ethel, Clara and Harry on a Sunday evening as ,devoid of sense as of sensibility’. His main grumble seemed to be that they were not enough like their mother.17

Figure 9. Ethel, Clara and Robert Purvis. c.1871. © R.Purvis.

Ethel and Clara appear to have inherited their father’s love of sport and the outdoors rather than the more ladylike pursuits of their mother.

In order to improve the education of his family John took them to Dresden in 1872 for an extended stay presumably to widen their horizons. Clara would have been about ten at this point.18 At this time Dresden was a very popular city with the British and other European visitors and known as ‘Florence on the Elbe’.19 John Purvis was very keen on education both for boys and girls and he was one of the founders of St Leonards School for Girls in 1877. John Purvis was keen that girls,

should be taught matters of substance at school and be challenged to use their minds.20

The staff at St Leonards, headed by Louisa Lumsden, formerly of Cheltenham Ladies College were mostly graduates and encouraged the ideas of plain living and high thinking.

John Purvis was on the School Council for many years and acted as Chairman for the bulk of that time. Clara was a pupil at St Leonards from April 1878 to July 1879 during which time she was in the Upper Third Form.21 One of the teachers at the school, Constance Maynard, kept a diary in which Clara is mentioned several times and not to her credit. Such diary entries as ‘Clara’s ill-concealed smile’ andwhose influence was the worst possible’ and ‘rude, loud and on the look-out for fun22 leads us to believe that Clara, aged about thirteen, was not the best behaved of pupils. In fact according to Clark Clara hated school.23

Perhaps part of the reason for this was that  from about 1878 to 1880 the rest of the Purvis family was living in Bruges,  Belgium or was it simply that she did not respond to being taught matters of substance and to use her mind. It appears that John Purvis’s affairs were undergoing financial difficulties as a result of a series of bad harvests, bad weather and a fall in the price of corn following the repeal of the Corn Laws.  Kinaldy was rented out for the shooting while the family moved to Bruges where they could live more cheaply and where John Purvis had family connections.24

Clara joined the family in Bruges for the Christmas holidays in 1878 where she put pressure on her mother to let her leave St Leonards. According to Clark Clara could always persuade her mother to do as she wished and Mina could always influence her husband.  As Mina did not approve of the ethos of the school either she was probably won over quite easily. This episode is an early indication of  Clara’s character in that she was very strong minded and liked her own way and was often described as ‘difficult’.  Clara did not return to St Leonards after July 1879 but was sent to a convent school in Bruges. How she performed there we do not know.25 The family underwent tragedy in Bruges in 1879 when Clara’s younger sister Mona died of pleurisy. This affected John Purvis for the rest of his life as Mona had been a favourite child.26

 1880s. The Social Whirl 

By the time of the 1881 census the Purvis Family was back at Kinaldy without Clara. She had been sent to The Beehive School in Windsor at the urging of her mother even though the family finances were rather stretched at this time. Correspondence between John Purvis and his wife early in 1880 gives us further indication that Clara was ‘difficult’.

Mina writes in February 1880:

 I wish to send Clara to school and this cannot be delayed until we have the money as she will be sixteen in July and she should be at school till she is eighteen. We must borrow what is necessary as I think it is the only chance of making her a girl we can have any comfort in. 

John Purvis replied:

 As for Clara, though you do not say so I see she is giving you trouble. To spend £500 on sending her to a fashionable boarding school is, in my opinion, just so much money thrown away- she appears to delight in living in a spirit of antagonism to anyone  she should be subject to and until she is …less insolent in manner and speech need not care where you send her.27

The Beehive School had been set up by Mariana Alice Browning in 1876 for the education of girls whose brothers were attending Eton College which is also in Windsor. The Beehive School was relocated to Bexhill-on-Sea in 1900.28 According to the 1881 census Clara was one of 27 girls at the school ranging in age from eleven to seventeen. There were four female teachers all in their twenties as well as the headmistress and nine servants at The Beehive.29 There is no information as to how long she stayed there. There is no mention of her in her father’s diaries for quite some time so perhaps   Clara did not cause her parents any problems whilst at the school.30

After leaving school Clara lived the social life typical of a young lady of her ‘class’. She loved the outdoors and was a keen tennis player, golfer and foxhunter. She was an excellent horsewoman and a member of the Fife Hunt. Clara excelled at all sports 31 and was a member of the St Andrews Ladies Golf Club and the Fifeshire Lawn Tennis Association. There are many newspaper reports of Miss C. Purvis being successful in the Fifeshire Lawn Tennis Annual Championships.32 She also took part in the social whirl of St Andrews  attending,  along with other members of her family, the annual Fife Hunt Ball and the Annual Ball of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of which her father was a member.33

Clara benefited from her father’s enthusiasm for travel and in 1885 she accompanied her parents,brother Aleck  and sister Ethel on a trip to the Rhineland.  They visited Heidelberg, Treves, Spa, Brussels and Bruges. Unfortunately Mina developed bronchitis while the family were in Stuttgart causing great worry to her husband.34

Figure 10. Clara in her twenties. © R.Purvis.

In March 1886 Clara was bridesmaid at her sister Ethel’s wedding to Thomas Jeffrey of Edinburgh.35 There is a family story that Clara was presented at court -presumably when she was about eighteen and possibly in Edinburgh but as yet there is no documentary evidence to back this up.
For an unmarried woman of the time Clara had a lot of freedom visiting her friends on her own and joining her parents on their travels. According to Alwyn Clark,’ she could usually get her own way with her mother and as her mother could usually get JP to do what she wanted then Clara was not being frustrated as may women in her position would have been’.

Clara was now twenty- two  but there is little information regarding any romance in her life.  However while her father was on his second business trip to Hawaii in 1886-7 Mina took Clara to Cannes about which her mother wrote:

As far as I am concerned I could leave without regret but K(Clara) likes the life greatly. There are a number of pleasant young men, lots of tennis and a dance every week, and she usually meets with a good deal of attention and, as I came for her I shall stay until nearly the end of the month.

According to Clark one of the ‘pleasant young men’ was a Mr Glover whom Clara got to like. When Mina discovered that Mr Glover’s father’s name was over a shop called ‘Tailor and Clothier’ she put an end to the friendship, presumably as being unsuitable. Mina wrote to her husband on 27th December 1886 that Clara felt it very much but that she had given him up and her mother was sorry for her.36

Figure 11. Clara’s brothers Alex, Harry, Robin and Herbert. © R.Purvis.

Another trip took place in December 1889 this time to Egypt spending a few days in Malta on the way arriving in Alexandria on Christmas Day37 and then to Shepherd’s Hotel in Cairo where once again Mina was ill.38

Figure 12. Clara’s elder sister Ethel. © R.Purvis.

  1890s.   Travel and More Travel

Clara’s diary for the first half of 1890 records lots of socialising in Cairo and Alexandria, numerous mentions of army officers and going to the races. She appears to be having a ball. The Purvises visited Pireaus and Athens, Trieste on April 6,Venice on April 7 followed by a tour round Italy. In May they were in Mainz on the Rhine and were back in London by 21 June where they dined at Hampton Court at whose invitation is not known.39

The Purvis family are nowhere to be found in the 1891 Census. Where were they?  According to Clara’s diary for 1891 the family were off again on an extended voyage back to Egypt via the Mediterranean . One of the ships they were on was the SS Agia Sophia which called in at several North African ports. On February 2 the Purvises, lunched with the Rempsters ,intro to Colonel Kitchener presumably the Kitchener who later became famous for his service in the Sudan, Boer War and First World War. Clara visited Luxor and ‘Karnak on a donkey’ and on March 30 visited the Bey’s Palace in Tunis. She was back in England in time to attend Ascot on June 11. 40

She was off again in 1893 leaving London on the SS Victoria this time to Gibraltar, Tangiers then to Spain where she spent time in Malaga, Seville, Cordoba and Granada.41 In 1894 she went on a trip to India with a Miss Price where  they travelled widely and were treated royally and did not return until 1896.’42

It is in 1896 that the first references to ‘Mr Grahame ‘appear in Clara’s diary for that year. There are also references to quite a few letters to Mr Grahame who is given the initial “J”.43   Lieutenant John Crum Grahame (Jack)of the 2nd Battalion Highland Light Infantry was to be Clara’s future husband.

By 1898 Jack appears to have become a fixture in Clara’s life. He accompanied Clara and her mother on a trip to Dieppe on 3 June 3 and there are numerous references to her watching Jack fishing at Gilmerton (her brother Robert’s home) and dining at Kinaldy.  In 1898 Clara had her portrait painted.  A letter written to her brother Herbert in that year illustrates the rather cold relationship she appears to have with her father. She writes:

My portrait which I think your father rather depreciated (sic) is thought a very good likeness. No doubt it is a well-painted picture and will therefore do credit to the family gallery. Your father is obdurate about having his done so there is no use fighting him. 44 It seems sad she could not just call him ‘Father’.

Figure 13. Clara’s portrait 1898. © R.Purvis.

 1900-1905. A Difficult Time 

Clara was back at Kinaldy by the time of the 1901 census along with her parents and youngest brother Robert who was at home possibly recovering from wounds he had received in 1900 fighting in the Boer War. Clara was thirty -seven by this time. These years were not happy ones as in 1900 Clara’s mother had a severe stroke which affected her speech. A trained nurse, Margaret McKenzie, was also living at Kinaldy presumably to take care of Mina.45 John Purvis had become very deaf by this time and

was unable to discuss matters with Mina because he could not understand her slurred speech. This was a very unhappy time for him as on top of Mina’s illness he and Clara did not enjoy a good relationship.

Part of the problem appears to have been the worry over the financial provision her father would make for her after her parent’s death. This issue was made more pressing when The Amicable Life Insurance Company refused to insure John Purvis’s life in Clara’s favour after he had undergone a medical examination in Edinburgh. J P wrote in the spring of 1901:

I was kept in hot water with respect to Clara’s provision,giving rise to much acrimony and unpleasantness and in order to avoid matters coming to an impasse I yielded…much against my better judgement.

This appears to mean Clara was put in charge of running the household.46

No other members of the family were living at Kinaldy at that time and Clara seems to have used her new authority to its utmost. Although Clara’s brothers Aleck and Herbert recognised the misery Clara was causing their father they did not confront her even though Aleck admitted that ‘Father leads a dog’s life in his own house’.

  She behaved rather strangely in several ways according to the family papers. For example she accused her brother Herbert’s children, Arthur and Inez, of stealing when they were visiting their grandparents at Kinaldy which angered Herbert’s wife greatly. Apparently the butler had complained that Arthur had taken food from the press. When questioned by Herbert the butler denied making any such complaint. Clara forbade the children to be given anything without her orders. Even more strange was a short note in the family archives from Clara’s youngest brother Robert to Herbert telling him:

Mother asks me to tell you she hopes you come out today and that when you come you will lock your bicycle up in the School Room. This is because Clara puts pins in the tyres when it is left in the lobby.

Clara also read her father’s letters and diaries and treated the servants very unfairly. So bad was the situation that in November 1904 the butler, gardener and coachman had gone before JP knew they had been given notice. By 11th July 1905 JP had been more or less driven from his own house. He wrote to his son Herbert from the Monifeith House Hotel,

I have thought it expedient to evacuate the house …. Your Mother is now so much under the evil influence of Clara that I thought more prudent on the fifty-third anniversary of our wedding to clear out.47

Of course there are always two sides to every family dispute but Clara’s behaviour does seem rather inexplicable.

As we have seen Clara had met John Crum Grahame(Jack) around 1896 when he began to appear in her diaries.  Jack is recorded in various newspapers as attending social functions with the Kinaldy Party from that time.48 He also accompanied Clara and her parents on a visit to Harrogate in 1902. It is unclear how they met but Clara’s brother Harry was also in the Highland Light Infantry so perhaps they met through him. It appears to have been a long courtship. Perhaps the Boer War and other military offences postponed thoughts of marriage or there may have been another reason. Correspondence between brothers Harry and Herbert tells us:

The Mother told me yesterday that it is her belief that Clara is waiting for the Father’s death in order to marry Grahame ,intending  thereby to profit by the clause in Father’s will, which gives  a larger allowance if she is unmarried at her death.49 

 1905-1914 Married at Last

The marriage between Clara and Jack Grahame took place in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh on 27 July 1905.  Any friction between Clara and her father appears to have been put aside and the bride was given away by her father.  As there is no mention of Mina in the press report of the wedding we can presume she was too ill to attend. The reception was held at the Roxburgh Hotel in Edinburgh after which the couple left for a honeymoon in the Austrian Tyrol.50 At this time Jack was attached to the Egyptian Army serving in the Sudan and  Clara returned to Kinaldy after the honeymoon, presumably to take care of her mother. Relations between father and daughter do not appear to have improved as in his diary for 30 September  1905 JP wrote:

Do not see how I can continue to live here while Clara is at the head of affairs-setting everyone by the ears and making mischief continually.51

It is difficult to account for this state of affairs but everything was about to change.  On October 14th 1905 Mina lapsed into a coma and died at midnight.  Clara wrote in her diary on Sunday  15 October :

My Mother died just at midnight with her hand in mine. She looked up just before death and gave me a sad loving look and I think recognised the others.52

JP was eighty-six two days later. Clara moved to Gilmerton the home of her youngest brother Robert but not before dismissing all the servants without consulting her father. She also took with her items which did not belong to her according to her father.53This matter was eventually sorted out only with the intervention of William Kirk an Edinburgh lawyer who was also a relative and this seemed to put an end to the battle between Clara and her father.54                                                                                                                     

Kinaldy House was rented to JP’s eldest daughter Ethel and her husband Tom Jeffreys and JP moved to the Imperial Hotel St Andrews and then to a house in Queens Gardens St Andrews. JP’s eldest son Aleck took over the running of the Kinaldy Estate.56

 The couple returned to Kinaldy after the honeymoon and on 7 September Jack left for the Sudan.56 It was not until January 1906 that Clara set off to join him. She was in Cairo by February where she sees the local sights and socialises with other army types. She arrived in Khartoum in Sudan on Thursday 15 March via Luxor and sees Jack who looks ill.57

In 1908 Jack was posted to India and Clara went with him. Entries in her diary record the journey thus:

January 16th passed Malta, January 24th passed Aden,30th January arrived in Bombay,3rd February arrived Dinapore after which Jack left for Barrackpore.

Clara joined him on  10 March  and they enjoyed some socialising in Calcutta. They were still in Calcutta in November 1908 and appear to have stayed there for a further year.58 By this time Jack had been promoted to Major.59

John Purvis died on 21 June 1909 in a nursing home in Edinburgh60 and Clara inherited Lingo Estate which her father had purchased in 1852. Lingo Estate adjoins the Kinaldy Estate to the south west.61 This was to be the home of Clara and Jack until 1952.62

Figure14. Jack 1910. © R.Purvis.

In 1910 Jack was with the Second Battalion HLI in Cork.63 He also took part in the Coronation Ceremony of King George Vth in 1910 after which he was awarded the Coronation Medal.64 In 1911 he was appointed Superintendent of the Military Prison in Cork. 65 There is no information regarding Clara’s whereabouts during this period and she does not appear to be in the Census records for England, Scotland or Ireland. By 1913 and with war looming Jack was commanding the Third Battalion HLI, a Special Reserve Battalion based in Hamilton.66 Jack was in command of the troops during the visit of George Vth and Queen Mary to Hamilton in July 1914.67

An advertisement had appeared in the Situations Vacant section of the Scotsman on 30  May 1914  asking for  a house sewing maid  from early June for a small house in Lanarkshire  to serve a lady and gentleman. Particulars were to be sent to Mrs J C Grahame at 31 Dover Street, London. This suggests that Clara and Jack would be living near to the Hamilton Depot and also that they had a base in London. The advertisement also tells us that a cook and butler were also employed.,

War Years 1914-18 

On 19  August 1914 Jack was promoted Temporary Lieutenant Colonel of the 10th (Service) Battalion HLI which he had raised organised and trained. In May 1915 he and his battalion were sent to France.68 Clara appears to have spent at least some time in London as on June 5 1915 an advertisement appears in the Hamilton Advertiser asking for donations for comforts for the 10th Battalion HLI  and that donations be sent to Mrs J C Grahame wife of Lt Colonel Grahame  at  the  Dover Street address.

An entry in Clara’s diary for 25  September 1915 tells us that Jack was badly gassed at the Battle of Loos.  In January 1916 he was Mentioned in Dispatches for gallant and distinguished conduct in the field’.69 He continued to command the 10th battalion until March 1916 when he was invalided home presumably because of the cumulative effects of front line service. Later entries in Clara’s diary inform us that she went to visit him in hospital in Dublin and brought him back to England on the night boat.70 What Clara does not mention, perhaps because she was preoccupied with Jack, was that her nephew John,son of Clara’s brother Herbert, was killed on 25 September71  and her brother Harry was wounded while commanding the 15th Battalion HLI and for which he won the DSO.72

Jack returned to the front in December 1916 in command of the 10th/11th HLI, then the 12th Battalion, later the 9th Battalion (The Glasgow Highlanders). Finally he assumed field command of his old battalion the 2nd HLI. Also in December 1916 he was promoted to full Lt Colonel.73 In  April 1917 at the Battle of Arras Jack was severely wounded and  this put an end to his front line service until the end of the war.74 There is no information at this point as to Clara’s activities during the war.

From 1918                                                                    

In October 1919 Jack attended the funeral of Major General  Scrase- Dickinson who had been invalided out of the HLI after the Battle of Loos in October 1917 and never recovered. Scrase -Dickinson had been best man at Jack and Clara’s wedding in July 1905.75

Jack retired from the army in 192176 as a result of his wounds and he and Clara lived at Lingo House until 1951.There are few snippets of information about Jack and Clara during the 1920s.  On 1 January 1927 The Scotsman reported a break-in at Lingo House on 18/19 November  when James Taylor of no fixed abode stole an Indian tweed overcoat, scarf, lady’s coat, three postage stamps and two message bags. Taylor was sent to prison for six months.

Figure 15. Clara in later life. © R.Purvis.

There is little information about Jack and Clara in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s.  Clara’s brother Robert owned the nearby Gilmerton and Brigton Estates while her brother Harry lived at Kinaldy which he had bought from his elder brother Alexander in 1921.77 One presumes there would be contact between the siblings. Clara’s great nephew John Purvis  remembers cycling over to Lingo to visit Clara and despite her fearsome reputation does not remember having any problem with his great-aunt and describes Jack as  ‘quite delightfully easy going‘.78 There are numerous mentions in the local press about Jack’s salmon fishing on the River Tay. One day in February 1935 he caught a 20lb salmon79, in January 1937 a 22lb fish80 and in January 1939 a 27lb salmon.81

In November 1940, 551 acres of the Lingo Estate was requisitioned for war use.82 According to his obituary Jack played his part in the Home Guard from 1940 until 1944.83

According to family legend Clara continued to be a force to be reckoned with. One story relates how a visitor to Lingo during the war found the local post lady sitting in the hall. When asked why she replied that she had been ordered by Mrs Grahame to wait until she had finished her correspondence so the post lady could take it with her to the post office.84                                                                  

In 1949 Jack made a claim to the General Claims Tribunal for damage done during the requisition period. He was awarded £1500.   At a  different tribunal, the Land Court  in 1951, the Secretary of State put in a claim for £3430 for improvements done during the requisition period. This was reduced to £2150 and was upheld by the Land Court. A case of two tribunals looking at an issue from different points of view as the judges commented. The final outcome of the matter is unknown.85

Jack and Clara sold Lingo in October 1951 and moved to an apartment in Cameron House Arden Dunbartonshire86 where they lived until Jack’s death on 19 August 1952.He was buried in Dunino Churchyard with representatives of the Highland Light Infantry honouring him.87

Clara moved back to Fife and lived in a flat at Strathvithie House, Dunino. She died two years later on 17th August 1954 and was buried in Dunino Churchyard alongside Jack.88

As well as the three paintings she donated to Glasgow Museums Clara donated  to the 2nd Battalion  HLI a  silver bowl which Jack had won in Jersey riding his horse Sir James. To the regimental depot she left a testimonial for valor  signed by King George V after the 1914-18 war along with an oak display table and a French cabinet containing Jack’s  manuscripts with maps and portraits of the history of the 74th Highland Regiment. After several bequests the residue of her estate   which was £24,714  was used to  set up the John Grahame of Lingo Memorial Trust  which is still used to help the families of former HLI soldiers especially for education purposes.89 

Appendix.   The Hawaii Connection

Archibald Scott Cleghorn whose family came from   Anstruther in Fife,  had gone out to Honolulu with his father in 1851 to set up a dry goods business. He stayed on after his father’s death and expanded the business. He married Miriam K Likelike, his second wife, whose brother David became the King of Hawaii in 1874. As David had no children the Cleghorn’s daughter Victoria Kaiulani (Princess Kaiulani) became heir presumptive to the throne of Hawaii. Hers is an interesting but sad story. She returned to Hawaii after a British education only to see her country annexed by the USA in 1893 and died in 1899 at the age of twenty-three.90

Clara’ brother Herbert had gone out to Hawaii in the late 1870s to join his father’s cousin Robert Purvis who had invested in a sugar plantation in Hawaii, John Purvis having given Herbert £1000 to start him off.  The investment at Kukuihaele was extended to include a sugar mill.91

The Cleghorn family were related to the Sprots of Strathnivie, the estate which bordered Kinaldy and so were neighbours of the Purvises.92  Nancy Sprot was a bridesmaid at Jack and Clara’s wedding.93Through that connection the Purvis family became close to Princess Kaiulane . She was godmother to Herbert’s daughter Inez and gave her a napkin ring made of silver Hawaiian coins as a christening gift. This gift is still in the  possession of the Purvis Family. Clara must have known her, as she signed Kauilane’s autograph book sometime in the 1880s, probably during the time the princess was at school in Britain.94

References

  1. https:glasgowmuseums.co.uk/2019/07/02cathkin-house-and-slavery
  2. http://www.glasgowmuseumsartdonors.co.uk Felicia Pepys Cockerell
  3. http://www.clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info/genealogy
  4. http://www.ancestry.co.uk Parish Records
  5. www.ancestry.co.uk Census Records 1851
  6. ibid 1861
  7. www.ancestry.co.uk Statutory Deaths
  8. http://www.theglasgowstory.com
  9. http://www.soldiersofthequeen.com
  10. Purvis,John Purvis Family History(PFH) unpublished. p.1178
  11. PFH p.1198
  12. PFH pp.1179,1180,1203,1218
  13. PFH pp.1175-1177
  14. Clark, Aylwin John Purvis of Kinaldy 1820-1909. 1995 unpublished. p6. Based on Purvis family papers. University of St Andrews Special Collections.MS 38684/1.Misc Box 1 No 57 (Clark)
  15. ibid p 54
  16. Clark pp. 54-62
  17. ibid p.13
  18. ibid p.18
  19. www.britanica.com/place/Dresden-Germany
  20. op cit Clark p.14
  21. ibid pp. 50-51
  22. Maynard, Constance. Green Book Diaries 1878/1879/1880 https://www.library.qmul.ac.ukop cit Clark p.51
  1. ibid p.38
  2. ibid p.14
  3. ibid p.11
  4. ibid p.14
  5. www.ancestry.co.ok Census Records 1881
  6. www.bexhillmuseums.org.uk
  7. op cit Clark p.14
  8. ibid p.15
  9. Dundee Courier 21/08/1885 p.8
  10. ibid 26/09/1884
  11. op cit Clark p.34
  12. East of Fife Record 12/03/1886 p.3
  13. op cit Clark p.16
  14. Diary of Alice Clara Purvis. Family Papers. Unpublished. December 1889 (Diary ACP)
  15. Clark p.16
  16. op cit Diary  ACP  1890
  1. ibid 1891
  2. ibid 1893
  3. op cit Clark p.16
  4. op cit Diary ACP 1896
  5. op cit Clark p.16
  6. www.ancestry.co.uk Census Records 1901
  7. op cit Clark p.16
  8. ibid p.17-18
  9. Dundee Evening Telegraph 30/10/1903 p.5
  10. op cit Clark p.17
  11. Fife Record 04/08/1905 p.5
  12. op cit Clark p.18
  13. Diary of Alice Clara Grahame (Diary ACG )15/10/1905. Purvis Family Papers unpublished
  14. op cit Clark p.18
  15. ibid p.19
  16. ibid p.18
  17. op cit Diary ACG 07/09/1905
  18. ibid January -March 1906
  19. ibid January-November 1908
  20. www.soldiersofthequeen.com/Egypt-John CrumGrahameDSO.html
  21. op cit PFH p.1177
  22. 61 ibid p.1178
  23. ibid p.1202
  24. Army Lists 1910
  25. op cit ref 59
  26. Army and Navy Gazette 14/01/1911 p.29
  27. Army Lists 1913
  28. Daily Record 10/07/1914 p.6
  29. op cit ref 59
  30. ibid
  31. op cit Diary ACG post March 1916
  32. op cit PFH p.1197
  33. ibid p.1203
  34. op cit ref 59
  35. Dundee  Courier  20/08/1952 p.4. Obituary for John Crum Grahame DSO
  36. West Sussex Gazette 30/10/1919 p.10
  37. Army and Navy Gazette 10/09/1921 p.452
  38. op cit PFH p.1204
  39.  Interview with John Purvis 28/10/20
  40. Dundee Courier 05/02/1935 p.9
  41. Perthshire Advertiser 20/01/1937 p.14
  42. Scotsman 31/01/1939 p.16
  43. St Andrews Citizen 17/03/1951 p.6
  44. op cit ref 74
  45. op cit ref 79
  46. op.cit ref 82
  47. Dundee Courier 10/10/1951 p.2
  48. St Andrews Citizen 30/08/1952 p.6
  49. op cit PFH p.1202
  50. St  Andrews Citizen  6/11/1954 p.6
  51. www.mau.celtic.com/hawaii-scots.htm
  52. op cit Clark pp6-7; 28-32
  53. Information from John Purvis e-mail 30/10/2019
  54. op.cit ref 90
  55. op.cit PFH pp.1196-7

 

Acknowledgements.

My grateful thanks to Clara’s great -nephew John Purvis and his wife Louisa for welcoming me into their home and sharing information about the history of Purvis Family which John has been researching for many years. I am particularly grateful for his discovery of Aylwin Clarks biography of Clara’s father John Purvis of Kinaldy. Thanks also to their son Rob who also welcomed me into his home and gave me permission to use wonderful family photographs and portraits. Rob was also responsible for extracting invaluable information from Clara’s diaries which I used in Clara’s story. Last but not least I must thank Angela Tawse, Librarian of St Leonard’s School, St Andrews for confirming Clara’s attendance at the school and for putting me in touch with the Purvis family. JMM

 

Jessie Henderson Hay

In 1947, the portrait of Adam Carter Hay was offered to Glasgow museums by the lawyer acting for Jesse Henderson Hay on the instructions of her late husband that the painting should be given to Glasgow museums to hang in the People’s Palace (1). The painting was a portrait by Maurice Greiffenhaggen of Adam C Hay painted on the occasion of his retirement from R and J Dick.

Figure1. Adam C Hay by Maurice Greiffenhagen. © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

Jessie Henderson Smith was born to John Smith and Agnes Marion Smith née Ferrier on the 12 November 1893 in Cardross. (2) Her father was a headmaster and her parents had been married in Kirkliston. (3) Little is known of her early life and education and she first appears in the 1901 Census (4) visiting Newington with her mother and older sister. She was the second wife of Adam Carter Hay and their marriage certificate (5) of 12 March 1926 describes her as a private nurse. Her husband died on the 13 September 1936. (6) She is next found travelling to Montréal in 1937. (7) When and where she died is not known.

Adam Carter Hay has been described in the Bailie as the archetypal example of “rags to riches”. (8) He was born on 16 May 1861 to William Hay, harbour labourer, and his wife Margaret Campbell living in Clyde Street, Glasgow. (9) He was with the Dick Company for 47 years starting as an office boy, then becoming a labourer proceeding to foreman and finally retiring as managing director. The Bailie has described him as being” an outstanding personality controlling a great business who retained the affection and loyalty of all grades of his employees”.(10) They attribute this to his knowledge of the business from A to Z. He was also a well-known figure in the business and social life of Glasgow; a member of Trades House and a Mason and a member of the other charitable organisations. Particularly as President of the Bridgeton Burns Club he was the moving spirit in raising £1150 for the Erskine House Hospital for Disabled Sailors and Soldiers in October 1917.

To understand the working life of Adam Hay one must describe the firm set up by the Dick Brothers. This is very fully chronicled in “100 years of Gutta-percha, R and J Dick Ltd” by Aird and Coghill Ltd Glasgow. (11) R and J Dick were from Kilmarnock. (12) They moved with their parents to Glasgow at an early age and John was apprenticed to an upholsterer and Robert to a jeweller but it was the coming of gutta-percha which made their fortune. Gutta-percha was rubber from Singapore. They made rubber soled shoes – 34,000 per week at the height of production – in the Greenhead works on Glasgow Green. In the 1840s, adequate insulation was needed for the transatlantic cables and gutta-percha proved ideal for this. They worked successfully with William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, on developing these cables.

Figure 2. © Glasgow Life and Museums.

The next opportunity came with the increase in the number of manufacturing industries  and the need for transmission belts in factories. In the 19th century power transmission was achieved solely by leather belting but this was not entirely satisfactory. In 1885 Robert Drake produced a driving belt made from rubber. Gutta percha was not suitable for this because it was too soft but a vegetable gum known as balata was found in South America. Thus the balata belt industry was born and became global.

Adam Hay (13) was recognised as an expert in belting and he superintended important installations in many of the great factories on the continent notably in France, Spain and Germany. He also took a leading part in the establishment and opening up of the Passaic factory, New Jersey.

On the death of James Dick, in 1902, the business was left to a number of his old employees, among whom was Mr Adam Hay. He resigned in 1920 but on the death of the then managing director, he was reappointed and remained in post until his death.

He married twice. His first wife with whom he had four daughters was Ellen Todd(14) and after her death he married Jessie Henderson Smith in 1926.(15) He died on the 13th September, 1936.(16) The date of death of Jessie Hay is not known.

References

  1. Minutes of Glasgow City Council 17th May 1947
  2. National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Births 1893
  3. National Records of Scotland Census 1901
  4. National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Marriages 1926
  5. National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Deaths 1936
  6. Ancestry.co.uk   Passenger Lists 1937
  7. The Bailie. Men you know.2444. August 20th 1919
  8. National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Births 1861
  9. Wikipaedia Gutta-percha
  10. The Bailie. Men you know.2444. August 20th 1919
  11. 100 years of Gutta-Percha. http://www.electricscotland/history/articles/dicks
  12. The Bailie. Men you know.2444. August 20th 1919
  13. 100 years of Gutta-Percha. http://www.electricscotland/history/articles/dicks
  14. Ancestry.co.uk
  15. National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Marriages 1926
  16. National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Deaths 1936

 

Miss Christina Russell 1877-1939

Miss Christina Russell left four paintings to Glasgow in 1927. (1) They were Lochranza Castle by William Beattie Brown; Arcady by Cecil Ray; Glenn Affric by Horatio McCulloch and Kirkcudbright by James G Laing.

 

Lochranza Castle by William Beattie Brown © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection
Figure 1. Lochranza Castle by William Beattie Brown. © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

Figure 2. McCulloch, Horatio, 1805-1867; Glen Affric
Figure 2. McCulloch, Horatio; Glen Affric. © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

Rea, Cecil William, 1860-1935; In Arcady
Figure 3. Rea, Cecil William; In Arcady. © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

Christina Russell can be seen as a not atypical female donor to Glasgow Museums at the beginning of the twentieth century. It is much easier to define her by the details of male relatives’ lives and by the houses in which she lived than to find anything about her own interests and pursuits. She was born on 24 July 1877 in Glasgow (2) to Thomas Russell and his wife Jessie, née McGregor, then living in Bute Terrace, Queens Park, Glasgow. Her father was a retail fruit merchant who sold from the Old Fruit Market in Glasgow in partnership with William Turnbull and their names may be seen on the balcony in the Old Fruit Market. (3)

OFM
Figure 3. © Culture and Sport Glasgow (Arts and Music)

The business was dissolved in 1923 on the retirement of three of the Turnbull brothers and continued by Thomas Russell, the son, as sole owner(4). There were three other children, Catherine ((1876 to 8 June 1961)(5), Thomas (1879 to 8 February 1927)(6) and Alexander (1883 to 19 January 1915).(7) Christine lived in the family home all her life moving from Kinning Park to Govan, 29 Princess Square,(8) and then finally to Newark Drive in Pollokshields. (9)  In the next 10 years family members died and she was left alone.Her brother Alexander had married Margaret Ritchie in London in 1912(10) and moved back to Glasgow to Fotheringay Road where he died in 1915. (11)   Her father, Thomas, died in April 19, 1915. (12) His obituary said that he had been a Justice of the  Peace and one time Chairman of the Agricultural Society.(13) Her mother, Jessie, died in July 1925 (14) and her brother, Thomas, died in July 1927.(15) Her sister-in-law, Margaret Russell lived in Terregles Avenue.(16)

 

The Wills of Thomas senior ((17) and of his son Thomas (18) show that both were successful businessmen. It was after the death of her brother Thomas that she gave these four paintings to Glasgow. Was this the reason for the donation? There is no information about the purchase of these paintings and who was the art lover.

Christine Russell died on 1 November 1939(19) and her ashes are buried in the family lair in Cathcart Cemetery. Unfortunately the gravestone is face down but details were available from East Renfrewshire Council(20).

References

  1. Glasgow City Council Minutes.
  2. National Records of Scotland Statutory Births 1877
  3. © Culture and Sport Glasgow (Arts and Music)
  4. Edinburgh Gazette: May1, 1923. Page649
  5. National Records of Scotland Statutory Births 1876
  6. National Records of Scotland Statutory Births 1879
  7. National Records of Scotland Statutory Births 1883
  8. National Records of Scotland Census 1901
  9. National Records of Scotland Census 1911
  10. London, England. Church of England Marriages and Banns.1754.1932
  11. National Records of Scotland Statutory Deaths 1915
  12. National Records of Scotland Statutory Deaths 1915
  13. Glasgow Herald,1915. Obituary
  14. National Records of Scotland Statutory Deaths 1925
  15. National Records of Scotland Statutory Deaths 1927
  16. National Records of Scotland Statutory Deaths 1939
  17. National Records of Scotland Statutory Wills and Testaments 1917
  18. National Records of Scotland Statutory Wills and Testaments 1927
  19. National Records of Scotland Statutory Deaths 1939
  20. Cathcart Cemetery Records. East Renfrewshire Council

Carola Florence Yapp (nee Stanuell)

On the 18 October 1950, three oil paintings were presented to Glasgow by Mrs Carola Yapp of 14 Clareville Court, Clareville Grove, London, S.W.7.

The paintings were an oil by Cora J. Gordon (1879 – 1950), France – The Village on the Hills (2685) and two oils by Jan (Godfrey Jervis) Gordon (1882 – 1944) – The Melon Guzzlers (2866) and The Gypsy Singer (2867).

Gordon, Cora Josephine, 1879-1950; France: The Village on the Hills
Figure 1. Gordon, Cora Josephine; France: The Village on the Hills; © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. http://www.artuk.org.

Gordon, Jan (Godfrey Jervis), 1882-1944; The Melon Guzzlers
Figure 2. Gordon, Jan (Godfrey Jervis); The Melon Guzzlers. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. http://www.artuk.org

Gordon, Jan (Godfrey Jervis), 1882-1944; The Gipsy Singer
Figure 3. Gordon, Jan (Godfrey Jervis); The Gipsy Singer. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. http://www.artuk.org.

“There was submitted a letter from Mrs. Carola Yapp offering two paintings by Jan Gordon and one by Cora Gordon as gifts to the Corporation. There was also submitted a report by the Director and the committee agreed that the paintings be accepted and that an expression of thanks be conveyed to the donor”.1

Carola Florence Stanuell was born in Dublin on the 6 August 1893. She was the second child of Charles Athill Stanuell, a Dublin solicitor, and Ida Marion Turner. Ida who was from Buxton in Derbyshire was the elder sister of the artist Cora Gordon.2 In addition to being a solicitor, Carola`s father was also a wealthy landowner and was secretary of the Incorporated Law Society of Ireland from 1913 to 1917. At the census of 31 March 1901 the family was living at 7 Clyde Road, Pembroke West in Ballsbridge, a well-to-do area on the south side of Dublin. The household consisted of Charles aged 48, Ida, 32 and their two daughters, Dorothy Helen 8 and Carola Florence 7 and three servants.3

On the 18 December 1918 Carola Stanuell married Charles Peter Yapp a lieutenant in the Bedfordshire Regiment in St. Bartholomew’s Church on Clyde Road, Dublin where Carola had lived as a child.4 After their marriage the regiment was posted to India where the couple remained for about four years. On 23 September 1922 they arrived back in Plymouth having sailed from Bombay. Charles’ occupation on the ship’s manifest was “army” while Carola’s was “domestic”. He was 27 she was 29. They took up residence in Great House Court, East Grinstead.5

In 1928 Carola gave birth to a son Peter Michael Stanuell Yapp in Kensington, London.6 From about 1932 till World War II, the family lived at Flat 5, 16 Emperor’s Gate, Kensington with Carola’s sister Dorothy Helen (and briefly, her mother Ida Marion) residing with them.7 After the war Charles, Carola and Peter moved to 14 Clareville Court.

After Carola’s husband Charles died in London in 1955 aged 59 8 her sister Dorothy moved in with her. By this time her son Peter had married and was living in Kingston, Jamaica and on 23 May 1958 Carola sailed from London to visit Peter and his wife Rita. Her address in the UK on the ship`s manifest was White House Hotel, Earls Court, London. She is listed as having “no occupation”.9 The visit seems to have gone well with Rita subsequently describing her mother-in-law as “a very sweet lady”.10

Carola Yapp
Figure 4. Carola Yapp. Courtesy of her daughter-in-law, Rita Yapp.

After spending some months in Kingston she flew to La Porte, Texas on 5 August, 1958 and then on to Miami. Her address was Stewart House, London.11 Returning to Kingston she sailed to London arriving on 26 September 1958. Her address was now West Heath Road, Hampstead and her occupation “housewife”.12

Carola Florence Yapp died on 24 July 1971 aged 78 in Hendon, Greater London.13

It remains a mystery as to why these three paintings were donated to Glasgow by a woman who was born in Dublin and spent most of her life in London. Jan Gordon died in 1944 and when Cora Gordon died six years later their paintings and artefacts appear to have been dispersed. There is a possibility that before her death Cora had asked her niece Carola to gift the three paintings to Glasgow because of a prior connection to the city 14 although nothing was mentioned specifically in her will. In any event the paintings were duly presented to Glasgow three months after Cora’s death.

 

References

  1. Glasgow Corporation Minutes, 18th October 1950 – Mitchell Library, Glasgow
  2. e.g. ancestry.com, Florida Passenger Lists, 1898-1963; See also https://www.tennisforum.com/59-blast-past/913641-biographical-sketch-irish-sportswoman-florence-stanuell.html
  3. National Archives of Ireland, 1901 Census
  4. ancestry.com. Ireland, Civil Registration Marriages Index, 1845-1958
  5. ancestry.co.uk, UK Incoming Passenger Lists 1878 -1960
  6. Family Search, England and Wales Birth Registration Index, 1837-2008
  7. ancestry,co.uk, London Electoral Registers 1832 – 1965
  8. ancestry.co.uk, England and Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007
  9. ancestry.co.uk, UK Outward Passenger Lists, 1890-1960
  10. Personal communication via Ken Bryant
  11. ancestry.com, Florida Passenger Lists 1898-1963
  12. ancestry.co.uk, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878 – 1960
  13. ancestry.co.uk, England and Wales National Probate Calendar, 1858-1995
  14. Suggestion from Ken Bryant. Ken has spent many years researching the life and works of Jan and Cora Gordon. http://www.janandcoragordon.co.uk/. He still keeps in touch with some members of the family including Rita Yapp.

 

John Duncan (1897-1966) and the Glassford Family Painting.

 

Figure 1. John Glassford (1715-1783), and His Family. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (www.artuk.org)

In November 1950 a Mr. John Duncan M.B.E., of Cairnhouse, Wigtown, donated to Glasgow Museums an oil painting of the Glasgow Tobacco Lord John Glassford and his family. How did it come about that a farmer, born in the small parish of Menmuir, Angus in 1897, had in his possession that particular painting which was begun around 1765 and completed sometime after Glassford married his third wife in December 1768?

As it turns out it was not by purchase but by direct descent through the Glassford family to him. These notes will tell the story of the painting’s journey to John Duncan and also comment on the people it portrays.

Firstly, it may be useful to relate some of the history of John Glassford and his marriages.

His first marriage was to Anne Coats whom he married in 1743. [1] Her father Archibald Coats, a Glasgow merchant, along with Bailie George Carmichael, was taken hostage in 1745 by Bonnie Prince Charlie to ensure the terms he enforced on Glasgow were implemented.[2] These demands included “six thowsand shirt cloath coats, twelve thowsand linnen shirts, six thowsand pairs of shoes and the like number of pairs of tartan hose and blue bonnets.”[3]

John and Anne had five children, all but one dying in infancy. Daughter Jean, born in 1746, was to become a ‘staging post’ for the painting’s journey. Anne died a few weeks after giving birth to her fifth child in 1751.[4]

Less than a year later in 1752 Glassford married Ann Nisbet the daughter of Sir John Nisbet of Dean.[5] They had six children, born between 1754 and 1764, all of whom, with the exception of the fifth child John, survived into adulthood.[6] Ann Nisbet died in April 1766 from child bed fever.[7]

In 1768 there were two Glassford family marriages. The first was that of daughter Jean who married James Gordon on the 18th August.[8] This marriage was key to the painting getting to John Duncan.

The second was when Glassford married his third wife Lady Margaret McKenzie, daughter of the Earl of Cromarty, on the 7th December.[9] There were three children of this marriage, born between 1770 and 1773. Unfortunately, just over five weeks after the third child Euphemia was born[10], Lady Margaret died on the 29th March.[11]

It’s worth noting at this time that between 1745 and 1767 Glassford had bought three significant properties. The first was Whitehill House purchased c. 1745[12] and sold in 1759,[13] the second was Shawfield Mansion bought the following year for 1700 guineas from William McDowall,[14] and finally the Dougalston Estate, purchased from the Grahame family in 1767.[15]

Figure 3. Whitehill House from The old country houses of the old Glasgow gentry. John Guthrie Smith and John Oswald Mitchell, 1878. Glasgow: James Maclehose & Sons. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk

Figure 2.  Shawfield Mansion © Glasgow City Libraries https://www.scran.ac.uk/database/

 

 

 

 

 

 

In common with the two other major tobacco traders Alexander Speirs and William Cunninghame, Glassford was fabulously wealthy during this period, however, that was not to last, particularly as far as Glassford was concerned.

By the early 1770s the general tobacco trade was not in the best financial health. The business model was such that debt (money owed by the planters to the traders) had grown significantly, resulting in potential working capital and cash flow problems in the longer term. When the War of Independence broke out in 1775 it signalled the end of the trade as it had been. As the war progressed the French market collapsed due to French sympathies lying with the revolutionaries, import volumes dropped and debts were not being paid as settlers probably saw a way out of their debt issues.

What of Glassford’s fortune? His difficulties began before the commencement of the war. He was by nature a gambler both in business and in gaming. In particular a number of disastrous business speculations between 1774 and 1778 fundamentally laid the foundations for the loss of his fortune. He believed the war was essentially an English conflict which should have not involved Scotland. He sided with the revolutionaries, unlike his peers, even to the point of refusing to sell ships to the government to aid the war effort, leaving them berthed in Port Glasgow Harbour. This at a time when he was already in deep financial trouble and could have done with the funds that these sales would have brought.[16]

As 1783 approached Glassford’s financial affairs continued to be problematic and he was in poor health. On the 6th August he created a tailzie (entail) of his Dougalston estate in favour of his son Henry and his heirs thus protecting it from his creditors. On the 14th August he established a trust covering the rest of his property, real and personal, the purpose of which was the winding up of his financial affairs and to further protect the entailed Dougalston estate.[17]

Glassford died on the 27th August 1783, cause of death was given as ’growth in stomach.’[18] He was buried in the Ramshorn Churchyard, where also lie several members of his family.[19] It took a further ten years to sort out his finances, his personal debt amounting to £93,140.[20] Today that sum would equate to somewhere between £11million and £1.1 billion, dependant on the measure used.[21]

On his father’s death Henry, who was the only surviving son of Glassford and Ann Nisbet, succeeded to Dougalston. He was an advocate, was Rector of Glasgow University from 1805 until 1807 and MP for Dunbartonshire from 1806 to 1810.[22] He never married and when he died in 1819[23] his half-brother James, son of Lady Margaret and John Glassford, succeeded him.

James’ succession to Dougalston was not without some difficulty. Henry had amassed significant debt during his life and in 1823 the terms of the tailzie was challenged in the Court of Session, the pursuers claiming the Dougalston estate was liable for these debts. In the event the pursuers lost, two of the five judges finding for the defender, one for the pursuers, and the two others excusing themselves as “they had an interest”![24]

James was also an advocate and legal writer.[25] Despite marrying twice, he died in 1845 [26] without any offspring. He was the last of John Glassford’s sons which meant that in accordance with the tailzie his daughter Jean Gordon would succeed. However, she had died in 1785, which meant that her eldest surviving son, James Gordon, would inherit. A further condition of the tailzie was that the surname Glassford should be adopted by any heir, should that be necessary. James Gordon therefore legally became James Gordon Glassford. By this means the painting began its journey to John Duncan.

James Gordon Glassford died two years later to be succeeded by his brother Henry Gordon, who, as required, adopted the surname Glassford. He married Clementina Napier in 1831[27] and had five children, the eldest being James Glassford Gordon, born in 1832[28]. He inherited Dougalston on his father’s death in 1860[29] and became known as James Glassford Gordon Glassford. As far as I can tell he was the last Glassford owner of Dougalston.

James married Margaret Thomson Bain, the daughter of a banker, in 1861[30]. There was no information found about them in the UK census of 1871 however in 1881 they were living at Over Rankeillour House in Monimail, Fife with ten children. This census also recorded that three of the children (two girls and a boy) had been born in Otago, New Zealand between 1868 and 1872, James being described as a Runholder (lessee of a sheep run) there.[31] This explained their absence from Scotland in 1871.

In 1891 a similar picture emerged with another two daughters now living with the family, one had been born in New Zealand in 1879, the other born in Australia in 1865. Margaret was a widow by then,[32] James having died in 1881.[33] One other crucial piece of information was also evident. Staying with them at 35 Coats Gardens, Edinburgh was a 24 year old visitor by the name of James Duncan.[34]

My first thoughts were along the lines of, which daughter did he marry?  Well he did marry one of the daughters, as it turned out it was not one who had been recorded in either of the 1881 or 1891 censuses.

He married Margaret Edith Gordon Glassford in St Giles, Edinburgh on the 12th June 1894. He was a farmer aged 26, the son of a doctor, she was the daughter of James and Margaret, aged 29, living at 35 Coats Gardens.[35]

Margaret Edith was born in 1864 in New South Wales, Australia.[36] When she returned to the UK is not clear however in 1881 she was living with her aunt Christian’s family in Kent.[37] Christian was the sister of her mother Margaret Bain.

By 1901 James and Margaret were living in Balfour, Menmuir where James farmed. They had two children, daughter Margaret aged five and son John aged three[38] who was in due course to inherit the Glassford family painting. He was born on the 29th April 1897 at Menmuir[39]  and married Nancy Marion Robertson in 1943.[40] They had one child James born in 1944 whilst they were living at Uckfield  in Sussex.[41]

John was awarded an MBE. I believe in 1943.[42] I’m not entirely sure that this date is correct, but it is the best fit for him for the years 1940 to 1955. If this is indeed him, and I believe it is, then he was a pilot officer in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve in 1940, service number 03227. In 1942 he was a Flight Lieutenant and had been with the Administrative and Special Duties Branch before being released from active service.[43]

He subsequently farmed at Cairnhouse in Wigtown and according to the present owner Mr. Colin Craig he remained there until c.1955 when Mr. Craig’s parents took over the farm. Mr Craig also related that John’s son James had died in tragic circumstances and that his wife Nancy and her daughter in law had visited the farm in the 1970s.[44]

In generational terms John was John Glassford’s great, great, great grandson. It’s likely therefore he inherited the painting on his mother’s death in September 1950[45], her father James having previously inherited it along with Dougalston.  On the 23 November he gifted it to Glasgow, which was the end of its journey within the Glassford family.

He died in the Royal Northern Infirmary in Inverness on the 13th August 1966, his normal home address being Allt-A-Bhruais, Spean Bridge.[46]

The Family Portrait

The Glassford family portrait, as might be expected, demonstrates how wealthy John had become with the fine clothing on display and the room’s furnishings, which was within Shawfield Mansion. Much has recently been written about it particularly around the time (2007) when conservation work on the painting was being undertaken at Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum.

The painting contains the surviving children from his first two marriages and his third wife Lady Margaret McKenzie. The conservation work led by conservator Polly Smith established that his second wife Ann Nisbet had originally been included but had been painted out following her death in 1766, suggesting that it was in progress prior to that date or possibly had been completed. Lady Margaret would have been added subsequent to their marriage in 1768, probably early in 1769.

Another figure was also established behind John Glassford’s chair, that of a negro manservant. It had been believed previously that he had been painted out to avoid any family connection to slavery, however it seems that the figure simply faded over time.[47]

I believe the children in the painting to be Jean at the rear to the right of her father, the middle row left to right being Rebecca, Christian, Anne, Catherine and on Lady Margaret’s lap Henry, and standing at the front, John.

Who was the negro servant and by what means did he come to Glassford’s household? Perhaps the answer lies in the following extracts from Frederick County, Maryland Land Records[48] and the Maryland Genealogical Society Records.[49]

Robert Peter or Peters was a Scottish tobacco factor working for John Glassford and Company in Maryland. He began in Bladensburgh circa 1746, moving to Georgetown in 1755. (In 1790 he became the first mayor of Georgetown). He was also John Glassford & Company’s attorney in Maryland. On the 27th September 1756, he bought a negro boy named Jim for 4,000 lbs of tobacco and £2 5s. For this purchase he is recorded as Glassford’s attorney. I think it probable therefore that this purchase was made in the name of the company. Why else record that it was made by the attorney of John Glassford?

Robert Peter bought other slaves but those records I have seen clearly state that the purchases were on his own or his family’s behalf, and they never involved a single slave purchase.

Was ‘Jim’ purchased for Glassford personally? Is he the manservant in the painting? In truth who knows but intriguing none the less.

Bibliography.

Devine, Tom. (1975). The Tobacco Lords. John Donald, Edinburgh.

Devine, Tom. (2003). Scotland’s Empire 1600 – 1815. Penguin.

Payne, Peter (ed.) Studies in Scottish Business History. 1967, Frank Case & Co. (Reprint from the William and Mary Quarterly entitled ‘The Rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco Trade 1707-1775)

Glasgow Past and Present. 3 Volumes. David Robertson and Co. 1884.

References.

[1] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 24 April 1743. GLASSFORD, John and COATS, Anne. 644/01 0250 0082. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[2] Stewart, George (1881) Curiosities of Glasgow Citizenship. Glasgow: James Maclehose. p. 138. https://archive.org/stream/curiositiesofgla00stewuoft#page/138/search/coats

[3] Ewing, Archibald Orr, ed. (1866) View of the Merchants House of Glasgow etc. Glasgow: Bell & Bain. p. 166.

[4] Deaths (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 18 December 1751. COATS, Anne. 644/1 470 166. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[5] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Edinburgh. 5 November 1752. GLASSFORD, John and NISBET, Anne. 685/1 480 196 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[6] Deaths. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 3 January 1777. GLASSFORD, John. 644/01 0590 0005. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[7] Deaths. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 11 April 1766. GLASSFORD, Anne. 644/01 0480 0174. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[8] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. 18 August 1768. GORDON, James and GLASSFORD, Jean. 644/01 0260 0056. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[9] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. St Cuthbert’s, Edinburgh. 24 November 1768. GLASSFORD, John and MACKENZIE, Margaret. 685/02 0160 0212. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[10] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 21 February 1773. GLASSFORD, Euphemia. 644/01 0160 0007.   http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[11] Deaths. Scotland. Glasgow. 29 March 1773. McKenzie, (Glassford) Lady Margaret. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/182330714/margaret-glassford#source

[12] Senex et al. (1884) Glasgow Past and Present. Vol.2. Glasgow: David Robertson and Co. p. 499

[13] Ibid.

[14] Goodfellow, G. L. M. “Colin Campbell’s Shawfield Mansion in Glasgow.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 23, no. 3, 1964, pp. 123–128. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/988232.

[15] Devine, T. M. (1990) The Tobacco Lords. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 181.

[16] Castle, Colin M. (1989). John Glassford of Dougalston. Milngavie and Bearsden Historical Society. p. 22,23 and Oakley, Charles A. (1975). The Second City. Glasgow: Blackie. p. 7,8.

[17] Shaw, Patrick and Dunlop, Alexander. (1834) Cases Decided in the Court of Session 1822-1824. Vol II. Edinburgh: Thomas Clark. pp. 431 to 433. https://books.google.co.uk

[18] Deaths (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 27 August 1783. GLASSFORD, John. 644/01 0590 0131. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[19] Senex et al. (1884) Glasgow Past and Present. Vol.2. Glasgow: David Robertson and Co. p. 295.

[20] Castle, op.cit. p.24.

[21] Measuring Worth (2019). https://www.measuringworth.com/m/calculators/ukcompare/

[22] University of Glasgow. The University of Glasgow Story: Henry Glassford of Dougalston. https://www.universitystory.gla.ac.uk/biography/?id=WH1166&type=P

[23] Deaths.(OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 26 May 1819. GLASSFORD, Henry. 644/01 0610 0228. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[24] Shaw, Patrick and Dunlop, Alexander. (1834) Cases Decided in the Court of Session 1822-1824. Vol II. Edinburgh: Thomas Clark. pp. 431 to 433. https://books.google.co.uk

[25] Wentworth-Shields, W.F. and Harris, Jonathan. (2004) Glassford, James (1771-1845). In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/10806

[26] Ibid

[27] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Linlithgow, West Lothian. 6 August 1831. GORDON, Henry and NAPIER, Clementina. 668/00 0120 0311. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[28] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Linlithgow, West Lothian. 8 December 1832. GORDON, James Glassford. 668/00 0120 0089. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[29] Deaths (SR) Scotland. St. George, Edinburgh. 2 February 1860. GLASSFORD, Henry. 685/01 0136. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[30] Marriages. Scotland. St. Georges, Edinburgh. 10 December 1861. GLASSFORD, James Glassford Gordon Glassford and BAIN, Margaret Thomson. 685/01 0273. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[31]Census 1881 Scotland. Monimail, Fife. 448/ 3/ 13. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[32]Census 1891 Scotland. St George’s, Edinburgh. 685/1 37/ 20, page 20. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[33] Deaths. (SR) Scotland. Monimail, Fife. 2 October 1881. GLASSFORD, James Glassford Gordon. 448/00 0010. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[34] Census 1891 Scotland. St George’s Edinburgh. 685/1 37/ 20, page 21. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[35] Marriages. (SR) Scotland. St Giles, Edinburgh. 12 June 1894. DUNCAN, James and GLASSFORD, Margaret Edith Gordon. 685/ 4 138. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[36] Births. Australia. Births Index 1788 – 1922. 1864. GLASSFORD. Registration Number 2134/1864. https://familyhistory.bdm.nsw.gov.au/lifelink/familyhistory/search/result?4

[37] Census 1881 England. Bromley, Kent. ED 20, Piece 853, Folio 103, page 8. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/

[38] Census 1901. Scotland. Menmuir, Angus. 309/ 1/ 9. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[39] Births. (SR) Scotland. Menmuir, Forfar. 29 April 1897. DUNCAN, John. 309/ 3. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[40] Marriages. (SR) Marriage Index 1916-2005. England. Uckfield, Sussex. July 1943. DUNCAN, John and ROBERTSON, Nancy Marion. Vol. 2b, page 244. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/

[41] Births. (SR) England. Uckfield, Sussex. 3rd Qtr. 1944. DUNCAN, James. Vol. 2b, page 133. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/

[42] London Gazette (1943) 28 May 1943. Issue 36033, Supplement, p. 2431. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/36033/supplement/2431

[43] Forces War Records. John Duncan 03227. https://www.forces-war-records.co.uk

[44] Mrs. H. Lloyd by email. 9 August 2019.

[45] Deaths (SR) Scotland. North Berwick, East Lothian. 23 September 1950. Glassford, Margaret Edith. 713/ 38. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[46] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Lochaber, Inverness. 13 August 1966. DUNCAN, John. 099/2 5. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[47] BBC News Channel. Mystery Slave Found in Portrait. 19 March 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/glasgow_and_west/6466591.stm

[48] Maryland State Archives. Maryland Indexes, (Chancery Papers, Index), 1788-1790, MSA S 1432. 1790/12/013990: Robert Peter vs. William Deakins, Jr., Bernard O’Neal, Edward Burgess, Richard Thompson, John Peters, and Thomas Beall. MO. Contract to serve as securities. Accession No: 17,898-3990. MSA S512-4108   1/36

https://msa.maryland.gov/msa/stagser/s1400/s1432/html/s1432b.html

[49] Maryland Genealogical Society. Bulletin Vol. 36, No.2, Spring 1995. https://mdgensoc.org/

 

 

Edward Nixon Marshall, M.C.

On the 21st November 1944 an oil painting by George Henry, R.A. In a Japanese Garden was presented by Mr. Edward N. Marshall, 8 Cleveden Drive, Glasgow, W.2.

Figure 1. In a Japanese Garden – 1894 (2463). © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

“There was submitted a letter from Mr E. N. Marshall, 8 Cleveden Drive, Glasgow, offering to present to the Corporation the picture “In a Japanese Garden” by the late George Henry, and the committee, after hearing a report from the Director, agreed that the gift be accepted and that a letter of thanks be sent to the donor”. 1

In 1951 Mr E. N. Marshall also donated the following items:

Landscape, 1893, by Alexander Frew (2913), oil on canvas,

A Galloway Landscape, 1889 by Bessie MacNicol, (2914), oil on canvas,

Portrait of James Sellars, architect, 1880, by Georgina M. Greenlees, (2915), oil on canvas

A collection of 29 prints by various artists including Bone, Brockhurst, Cameron, McBey, Smith, Strang, Zorn etc. (PR.1960.23).

A collection of scrapbooks and other items ( OG1953.4)

(Part of this collection is displayed in the “Photographer`s Shop” window at the Riverside Museum, Glasgow and consists of a gift to a Mr and Mrs Paterson on the occasion of their Golden Wedding).

Figure 2. Family Photographs (4596). Photograph A. Macdonald

Figure 3. Locket with Inscription to Mr and Mrs Paterson (4599). Photograph A. Macdonald.

Edward Nixon Marshall was born on the 3rd June 1891 at 5 Spring Gardens, Kelvinside, Glasgow. His father, James Marshall, was a “master flour miller” who had married Mary Carswell Gow on the 6th March 1877. 2 In 1901 the family home was at Woodcroft House, Crow Road, Partick. Edward was a “scholar” aged 9.3 From 1904 to 1911, he attended Loretto School in Musselburgh initially in the Junior School (“Nippers”) and then until the age of 19 when he left from the sixth form. According to school records, he was a prize winner and prefect.4 In 1911 he was a boarder at 41, Linkfield Road, Inveresk, Musselburgh and was therefore presumably still attending Loretto. 5 From Loretto, he went on to Trinity College, Oxford as a Senior Commoner and graduated M.A. in 1914.6

In 1900, Edward`s father had set up his bakery business “James Marshall (Glasgow)”as a limited liability company with himself as managing director and his son James P. Marshall as the only other director. 7 The company manufactured biscuits under the trademarks of “Farola” and “Granola”.  In 1906 two more of Marshall`s sons, Thomas and Allan, joined the company followed in 1908 by his youngest son Edward.

During the First World War, Edward Marshall served with the Duke of Wellington`s, Riding Regiment in France and Flanders. He was a 2nd Lieutenant in 1914 and gained the rank of Captain in 1916. He was mentioned in dispatches and was awarded the M.C. in the New Year`s Honours List of 1st January 1918. 8 (This decoration was awarded to Captain Marshall for an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy. However, because the award was made as part of the New Year`s Honours, citation details were not published). 

After the war, Edward returned to work in the family firm which advertised itself as: “Marshall, James (Glasgow), Ltd., millers, proprietors of “Marshalls` Semolina”, and “Farola”, 25, Cumberland St., Calton.; telephone nos., 2637 and 93 Bridgton” 9

Edward was meantime residing at 21 Eglinton Drive, Kelvinside. 10 On the 13th of September 1928 he joined the Merchants` House of Glasgow (fee 21 guineas). He gave the firm`s address as, 2, Orr Place and described himself as a “merchant”. 11 By 1930 he was living at 21, Cleveden Gardens and the firm was now described as “Macaroni Manufacturers” and proprietors of “Marshall`s Semolina” and “Farola”. 12

On the 11th of September 1935, Edward, then aged 44, married Gertrude Maie Hamilton Marshall at 62, Great George Street, Glasgow (the bride`s home). (Edward is described as a “Cereal Food Manufacturer, formerly married to Margaret Rosamund Leigh Gregor against whom he obtained Decree of Divorce). 13 The couple moved to 8, Cleveden Drive, Glasgow and by 1940, Edward had become Managing Director of Jas. Marshall (Glasgow), Ltd. 14 From 1944-46 he was also the Chairman of the Macaroni Section of the Food Manufacturer`s Association. 15

In 1925 Edward had become a governor of Loretto School.  He maintained this association with his old school, becoming in 1946 Vice-chair of Governors till 1952 and Chairman of Governors from 1952 to 1956. He was also the President of the Fettesian-Lorettonian Club in 1951-52 and later, Lorettonian Society President from 1959 to 1963. He ceased to be a governor in 1961.16

Edward Nixon Marshall died on the 13th of March 1970 in a nursing home at 121 Hill Street, Glasgow. He was 78. He had been suffering from chronic bronchitis and emphysema. He was twice married and had been divorced from his first wife Rosamund Gregor. 17 His funeral took place at Glasgow Crematorium, Maryhill on the 17th of March 1970. 18

In his will he bequeathed the painting West Wind, Macrihanish by William McTaggart to Loretto School. The painting hung in the staffroom for many years until it was sold, with the consent of the family, at Gleneagles Hotel in 1998. The sum raised was £35,600, and helped to fund a new Technology Centre and library in the school. 19 Edward Marshall became a member of the Board of Governors of the Glasgow School of Art in 1943. 20 and this probably brought him into contact with leading artists of the day.

Figure 4. Plaque in the Chapel at Loretto School. Courtesy of Irene Molan, Database & Web Administrator, Loretto School

References

  1. Glasgow Corporation, Minutes of Art Galleries and Museums Committee, 17th October, 1944, page 1542
  2. Scotland`s People, birth certificate
  3. ancestry.co.uk., 1901 Census
  4. Records of The Lorettonian Society courtesy of Emma Sinclair, Membership Co-ordinator
  5. ancestry.co.uk., 1911 Census
  6. Records of The Lorettonian Society courtesy of Emma Sinclair, Membership Co-ordinator
  7. Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography, 1860 – 1960, Anthony Slaven, Aberdeen University Press, 1986
  8. London Gazette, 1st Jan 1918, page 41
  9. Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1920-21
  10. ibid
  11. List of Members of the Merchants` House of Glasgow, Robert Anderson & Sons Ltd. 72, Howard Street, 1963; Matriculation Book of the Merchant`s House of Glasgow 1912-, Mitchell Library
  12. Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1930-31
  13. Scotland`s People, marriage certificate
  14. Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1940-41
  15. Records of The Lorettonian Society courtesy of Emma Sinclair, Membership Co-ordinator
  16. ibid
  17. Scotland`s People, death certificate
  18. Glasgow Herald, 14th March, 1970, p16
  19. Glasgow Herald, 29th August, 1998 and 3rd September, 1998
  20. Glasgow School of Art, Archives, GOV 2/18, Board of Governor`s Minute Book, 1937-1945

Lindsay Grandson MacArthur 1873-1956

In 1946 Lindsay MacArthur’s widow, Beatrice Butts Thomson, donated four paintings to Glasgow. Lindsay was an artist and two of these works were his own, The Golden Quarry and Pastorale, Evening. 

MacArthur, Lindsay Grandison, c.1866-1945; The Golden Quarry
Figure 1. MacArthur, Lindsay Grandison; The Golden Quarry; Glasgow. (© CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection)

Lindsay’s father, also Lindsay Grandison, was born in the village of Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire. (1) His mother Catherine McNicol, known as Kate, who hailed from Dublin was Lindsay’s second wife and was twenty- one years his junior. (2) They married in Liverpool in 1860  and shortly moved to Braehead Villa, Oban in Argyll where Lindsay junior was born on 21 April 1865. (3) This was a period when the rail network was expanding, enabling many people to travel to coastal resorts. Oban was already a busy fishing town and ferry port. In 1866 Lindsay senior built the 80 room Alexandra Hotel, on vacant land which is now known as the Corran Esplanade, a prime site overlooking Oban Bay and competed with The Great Western Hotel for the top end of the market. He ran the hotel with his daughter Jane till his death in 1885. He left debts of £2478 of which £1000 was owed to Thomas Lawrie, art dealers in Glasgow, so perhaps Lindsay junior’s interest in art was inspired by his father. The hotel was then managed by Lindsay Senior’s wife until 1897 when it was put up for sale. (4) Although the family had a house at 3 Hampden Terrace in Glasgow, they resided mainly at the Alexandra in Oban in the 1870s. (5) 

blog Alexandra_Hotel,_Oban
Figure 2. Alexandra Hotel, Oban

Lindsay junior appears to have had an early interest in art, attending Glasgow School of Art from 1881 to 1884. (6) In the 1891 census, when he was 25, he is described as a landscape painter. His brother Robert also studied art but by 1891 had become a surgeon. (7) Interestingly the 1881 census reveals that the artist William Black was staying at the Alexandra Hotel. He was a popular novelist whose landscape painting  influenced his writing style such as in White Wings: A Yachting Romance of 1880. (8) 

Lindsay  travelled south in the 1890s and lived in the picturesque village of Broadway in The Cotswolds and became part of a group of artists known as The Broadway Group which was mainly comprised of expatriate American artists. The most prominent member was John Singer Sergeant who produced some of his best known works there such as Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose which was painted in the garden of Russell House in the village. This was the home of American artist Francis Millet who purchased the nearby Abbot’s Grange, a ruined monastery which he converted into a communal artists studio. 

Sargent, John Singer, 1856-1925; Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose
Figure 3. Sargent, John Singer; Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose 1885-6; Tate; digital image © Tate released under Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported).

One of Millet’s best known works is Between Two Fires of 1892 which depicts a puritan standing between two rather confident kitchen maids. The puritan figure is modelled on Lindsay MacArthur who is described by a contemporary as ‘a highland landscape artist with a sardonic biting humour, a quick temper and fierce loyalties.’ (9)

Between Two Fires c.1892 by Francis Davis Millet 1846-1912
Figure 4. Francis Davis Millet, Between two Fires, 1892 digital image © Tate released under Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported)

Another of Millet’s paintings The Black Sheep, in The New Bedford Library, Massachusetts, and of a similar setting to Between Two Fires includes the same character modelled on MacArthur. Millet’s last return to the USA was, unfortunately, in 1912 when he boarded The Titanic and was last seen helping women and children as she sank. The bohemian Broadway Group had a reputation for the high life, with singing and drinking regularly breaking the peace of the village. The writer Edmund Gosse describes…’Nothing we do scandalises the villagers…one of the Americans was chased down the village street, screaming all the time and and trying to escape up lamp-posts and down wells. Not a villager smiled, they only say ‘them Americans is out again’. (10)

While at Broadway MacArthur designed a bookplate (National Galleries Scotland) for Lady Maud Bowes-Lyon, aunt to Her Majesty The Queen Mother. She lived at Orchard farm in the village and frequently hosted concerts in her music room (she was an accomplished violinist) and held regular art exhibitions. (11)

One of MacArthur’s donations Pastorale, Evening may have been painted during his stay in the Cotswolds, and he exhibited thirteen paintings at The Royal Academy between 1893 and 1904. (12)

MacArthur, Lindsay Grandison, c.1866-1945; Pastorale, Evening
Figure 5. MacArthur, Lindsay Grandison; Pastorale, Evening.(© CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection)

The 1901 census places MacArthur at Spencer Street, London and little is known of his whereabouts in the following few years. However, he appears to have spent time travelling as many of his paintings from this period are landscapes and seascapes of Palestine and Ceylon with a few from France. He does not appear to have dated his work.

In 1934 Lindsay married Beatrice Butts Thomson in Chelsea. Beatrice was born in 1873 in Japan to British parents. (13) Her first husband, John Leslie Thomson was a landscape artist from Aberdeen and trained at The Slade in London He was a member of The New English Art Club and requested an invitation to one of Whistler’s famous 10 0’Clock lectures. He died in 1929. (14) They lived at 1 Hornton Street, Kensington. (15)

After their marriage Lindsay and Beatrice lived at 9a St Mary Abbot’s Place, Kensington and over the next few years Lindsay exhibited at Royal Scottish Academy with landscapes of England, Galilee and Ceylon. (16)

Lindsay died in Surrey in 1945 aged 80. (17) In 1946 Beatrice was living at 37 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edinburgh and she gifted paintings to public collections around Scotland with the majority going to Kirkcaldy Galleries. Around half of the donations were painted by Lindsay Grandson MacArthur, with the remainder by her first husband John Leslie Thomson. (18) It would appear that both artists were influenced by the French Impressionists, depicting fleeting moments of time and displayed a remarkably similar style to each other.

Thomson, John Leslie, 1851-1929; Seascape, Anglesey
Figure 6. Thomson, John Leslie; Seascape, Anglesey; (© CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection)

Beatrice moved to Devon, to the market town of Honiton where she died in 1956. (19)

DS

References

1. (Census, 1881, 677356) http://search.ancestry.co.uk

2. (Census, 1881, 644/9 61/21) https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

3. (Births,Lindsay Grandson MacArthur 523/000023) https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

4.  Fiona Morrison, Bournemouth University Thesis, http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22514/

5. (Census 1871, 560/00004/00027)  https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

6. Glasgow Schoo; of Art, archives@gsa.ac.uk

7. (Census 1891, 52300002/00001)  https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Black_(novelist)

9. https://www.cotswolds.info/arts-crafts-antiques/broadway-artists.shtml

10. https://www.cotswolds.info/arts-crafts-antiques/broadway-artists.shtml

11. http://www.broadwaymanor.co.uk/blog/page/2/

12. Royal Academy (libraryinformationdesk@royalacademy.org.uk)

13. England and Wales Marriages 1837-2005,  https://search.findmypast.co.ukBMD/M/1934/3/ AZ/000990/030

14. University of Glasgoe, https://www.whistler.arts.gla.ac.uk/correspondence/people/biog/?bid=Thom_JL&firstname=&surname=thomson

15. (Census 1911, 2frg), https://search.findmypast.co.uk

16. Royal Scottish Academy, https://collections@royalscottishacademy.org

17. England and Wales Deaths, https://search.findmypast.co.uk/record?id=bmd1945

18. https://artuk.org

19. England and wales Deaths, https://search.findmypast.co.uk/record?id=bmd2f1945

John Sawers (1862-1945)

Pinks Charles Rennie MacKintosh
Figure 1. Pinks: Charles Rennie Mackintosh. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection

In December 1941, John Sawers donated eight watercolours and three drawings to Glasgow’s collections, including a striking watercolour, Pinks, by Charles Rennie MacKintosh. (1)

John Sawers was born in 1862 and died in 1945. He married Mary Watson in 1888 and they had three children, two daughters and a son.(2)

John Sawers, with his father Thomas and his brother George, was part of a well-known fish, game and poultry business within the city of Glasgow and beyond.  The firm had branches in Birmingham and other English cities, as well as eight branches in Glasgow.  There is also a Sawers in Belfast, which exists to this day. The company had a flair for publicity. For example, its fleet of vans were nicknamed after fish –  Miss Haddock, Miss Crab and Miss Plaice.

The firm was the biggest buyer in the Glasgow Fish Market and could apparently “command any exotic sea creature, such as a shark, porpoise, turtle or monkfish as a centrepiece for their displays in Howard Street.” (3) The Oyster Bar within the fish emporium in Howard Street was legendary, and the gentlemen of Glasgow would congregate here to sample the wares and meet their fellow Glaswegians. It was the only licensed fishmongers in Scotland, so the city gentlemen could have their seafood with a glass of ale or porter.

When the Howard Street shop opened in 1890, a large banquet was held and many influential tradesmen and merchants in the city were invited. It was noted that “the banquet was given in almost regal style”. (4)

Figure 3.

Figure 2.

Figure 4,

Figures 2, 3, 4. Tiled Panels from Sawers’ Howard Street shop and the shop interior. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection

Many newspapers carried the story of the wonderful establishment and praised its designer, Mr J Winton Mackie, who was assisted by Mr John Sawer. “There is no more magnificent fish shop in Europe, and the splendours of the suggestive tiles and granite slabs must be inspected in order to be appreciated.” (5) The tiled panels, created for the shop by Doulton of Lambeth, attracted a great deal of attention and fortunately, when the firm folded in 1960 after attracting the attention of corporate raiders, Glasgow Museums rescued the entire tiled scheme and part of the mosaic fascia from the front of the shop.

Sawers also published an annual fish and game calendar and a cookbook ” Our Table Fishes: How to Choose and Cook Them”. (6)

In the early 1900s John Sawers bought a plot of land in Giffnock known as the Hollows. Here he built a house known as Eastwood Hollows. The house was designed by Andrew Balfour and was a fine example of an Art and Crafts House. (7) Balfour was articled to James Boucher and, during his apprenticeship, won a studentship to Glasgow School of Art (GSA). After finishing his apprenticeship Balfour worked with John Burnet. (8) The picture below shows the house and presumably the three children seated are the Sawers children.

Sawer House 1.jpg
Figure 5. Eastwood Hollows Exterior and Garden. https://archive.org/details/academyarchitect19londuoft/page/102

Figure 6. Eastwood Hollows Interior 1. https://archive.org/details/academyarchitect19londuoft/page/105

Figure 7. Eastwood Hollows. https://archive.org/details/academyarchitect19londuoft/page/102

 

John Sawers made a beautiful garden round his house, with a pond, a pergola and a greenhouse where he grew vines. The house was demolished, in the 1960s allegedly to make way for a road and a roundabout. (9)

Figure 8. Eastwood Hollows Interior 2.  https://archive.org/details/academyarchitect19londuoft/page/105.

John Sawers was more than just a fishmonger. He was clearly an art lover and in his obituary is mentioned as being an artist in his leisure moments. His obituary also states that he was “a pioneer of colour photography”.(10) He liked to surround himself with beautiful art, including his house in Giffnock. Even within his working environment Sawers incorporated art. His art can now be enjoyed by a wider audience thanks to his generous donation to Glasgow Museums.

References

1.Glasgow Corporation Minutes Nov 1941- May 1942 p.428

2.Scotland’s People: scotlandspeople.gov.uk

3. King, Elspeth (1991) The People’s Pictures, The Story of Tiles in Glasgow, Glasgow: Glasgow Museums

4. Stratten and Stratten (1891) Glasgow and Its Environs, Glasgow: Stratten and     Stratten

5.The Baillie: October 1890 P4

6. Glasgow University Library, Special Collections.

7. Koch, Alexander, ed. (1901). Academy Architecture. Vol.19. London: Academy Architecture. pp 102,. 105.

8. Dictionary of Scottish Architects http://www.scottisharchitects.org

9. Giffnock Library Family History Centre: Memories and Information from the       Mary D. Gardiner Archive, 23 rec 2092, April 2008

10. The Glasgow Herald: 18th April 1945

 

 

 

 

Swedish Donation 1911 Erik Eriksson Etzel, Sweden

In 1911, from the 2nd May to the 4th November, the Scottish Exhibition of History, Art and Industry was held in Kelvingrove, Glasgow. The exhibition was formally opened on the 3rd May by the Duke of Connaught (brother of the late King Edward VII) and his wife.[1] It was not on the same scale as the exhibitions of 1888 and 1901 however over its course it attracted 9.4 million visitors. Its central point was the Stuart Memorial in Kelvingrove Park surrounded by a number of palaces, the principal one being the Palace of History which was modelled on Falkland Palace. It was divided into four galleries, one of which, the West Gallery, dealt with the historical ties between Sweden and Scotland.

Figure 1. Site Plan 1911 Exhibition – from Study Group website. http://www.studygroup.org.uk/Exhibitions/Pages/1911%20Glasgow.htm

One of the exhibition’s key objectives was to fund the creation of a Chair of Scottish History and Literature at Glasgow University, which was achieved, the Chair being founded in 1913. [2], [3]

Between 1909 and 1911 a number of visits between the two countries had been made to determine what the Swedish/Scottish exhibition should contain. The Swedish committees were led by Professor Oscar Montelius, of Uppsala University, a noted pre-historian and archeologist, and Dr. E.E. Etzel of Stockholm and Uppsala University. The convener of the Scottish committee was John S. Samuel. [4], [5]

The agreed Swedish exhibits included the following items:

  • from Professor Montelius, prehistoric artefacts from graves and tombs in Sweden, similar to objects found in Scotland
  • a collection of medals struck in honour of celebrated Scotsmen, from the Swedish Academy of Science
  • pistols, guns and daggers made in Scotland and taken to Sweden by Scottish soldiers of fortune, loaned by the Royal Armoury in Stockholm
  • heraldic shields of Swedish Nobles of Scottish extraction. These were replicas of the originals and they were to be used again at the ‘Scots in Sweden ‘exhibition held in the Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh in 1962.[6]
  • genealogical documentation of Scots who had lived and stayed in Sweden. This information was eventually published in The Scottish Historical Review in 1912, taken from work carried out by Dr. Etzel and given to the magazine by John Samuel.[7]
  • portraits of Swedish and Scottish Royalty which included two copies of portraits from the Royal Gallery in Gripsholm Castle, being the work of Swedish artist John Osterlund (1875-1953), completed between 1900 and 1910. These were the paintings eventually gifted to Glasgow at the end of the exhibition by Dr. Etzel.[8]

The first portrait was that of ‘Mary Queen of Scots as a Child’, which had been discovered during a Scottish deputation to Sweden in 1909. The catalogue of the exhibition described it as ‘a unique and valuable portrait of Mary Stuart… its existence had not previously been recorded by any historian of the period of history to which it belongs.’ The original artist was unknown and the date attributed to the painting was 1577.[9]

The other was a portrait of King Gustavus Adolphus II. Again the original artist was unknown although it had been annotated with the initials ‘G.T.’ and dated 1630.

The entry in the exhibition catalogue regarding Gustavus Adolphus is interesting in that he is described as the ‘Lion of the North and Bulwark of the Protestant religion, the hero of the 30 years war, that awful period of bloodshed, rapine and robbery that devastated Germany in the early part of the 17th century.’ It also added that his victorious armies included 13,106 Scotsmen.[10]

Figure 2. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

In an attempt to find out more about the original paintings I contacted the National Museum of Sweden. The initial response from the Museum confirmed there was a painting of ‘Maria Stuart’ in the Royal Gallery collection; inventory number NMGrh 1142, artist unknown. In a very comprehensive second reply I was informed that the museum did not now consider it to be a portrait of Mary Stuart and that it depicted an unknown girl. The inscription on the painting they believe to be later, the date of 1577 questionable and that the girl does not resemble Mary. They now list the painting as ‘possibly 16th century, or a later copy after a painting from the 16th century – Unknown child’.[11]

With reference to the painting of Gustavus Adolphus, there are a number of such paintings in museum collections in Sweden, none of which seemed to be the original we were looking for. It was suggested that as Osterlund had spent most of his life in Uppsala it may be that the original lay there, possibly within the University. I contacted Uppsala University who were able to confirm that they had a portrait, very similar to the Osterlund copy, which had been painted in the 17th century. It did not however give an exact date, and the artist is recorded as ‘The Monogramist P.G.’ who, it was thought, may be Pieter de Grebber.

Figure 3. King Gustav Adolphus II © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

In appearance this painting fits the bill very well, and it’s possible, maybe probable that it is the one Osterlund copied, although the copy is darker in some areas.[12], [13]

In a letter to the Lord Provost of Glasgow, Sir Archibald McInnes Shaw, dated 20th November 1911 Dr. Erik Erikson Etzel formally gifted the two Osterlund copies to Glasgow.

Little is known about Dr. Etzel except that he was a D.Ph. probably from Uppsala University. He was born in 1868 in Karlskoga, Sweden. In 1902 he lived in Stockholm which is where died in 1964. [14], [15]

John Smith Samuel was the private secretary to Lord Provost McInnes Shaw, and had held that position for 10 years serving others in that office. He was elected to the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1902, held various other civic positions and was a member of the Glasgow Art Club. He was appointed Knight of the Royal Order of Vasa by Professor Montelius on behalf of King Gustav V of Sweden in 1910.[16], [17]

Professor Oscar Montelius, was born in Stockholm in 1843. He studied history and Scandinavian languages at Uppsala University between 1861 and 1869. He was attached to the Museum of National Antiquities, Stockholm, from 1863 and was appointed professor in 1888. He was the Museum’s director from 1907 to 1913. Still controversial is his theory, the “Swedish typology,” suggesting that material culture and biological life develop through essentially the same kind of evolutionary process. In 1911 he was Director General of the Swedish Board of National Antiquities. He died in Stockholm in 1921.[18], [19]

John Osterlund was born in 1875 in Stockholm and was mainly known as a landscape artist and conservator of paintings, particularly church paintings. He died in 1953. [20]

[1] Glasgow Herald (1911) Glasgow, Exhibition Opened. Glasgow Herald. 4th May pp 9, 10. Mitchell Library, Glasgow

[2] The Scottish Exhibition of  History, Art and Industry:  http://www.studygroup.org.uk/Exhibitions/Pages/1911%20Glasgow.htm

[3] Glasgow University: http://www.universitystory.gla.ac.uk/biography/?id=CB0018&type=C

[4] Glasgow Herald (1910) Swedish Visitors in Glasgow. Glasgow Herald. 31st August p. 7b, c. Mitchell Library., Glasgow

[5] Glasgow Herald (1911) Scottish Flints at the Glasgow Exhibition. Glasgow Herald. 17th April p.11c. Mitchell Library, Glasgow

[6] Glasgow Herald (1962) Scots in Sweden Exhibition. Glasgow Herald. 10th August p.14d, e. Mitchell Library, Glasgow

[7] The Scottish Historical Review. (1912) Vol. 9, Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. p. 268. https://archive.org/stream/scottishhistoric09edinuoft#page/268/mode/2up;

[8] Palace of History Exhibition Catalogue. Mitchell Library, Glasgow reference 272126 GC 606.4 (1911).

[9] Ibid

[10] Ibid

[11] Karlsson, Eva Lena (2012) Gustavus Adolphus II. E-mail to author.

[12] Thornlund, Asa (2012) Gustavus Adolphus II. E-mail to author.

[13] Thornlund, Asa (2012) Gustavus Adolphus II. E-mail to author.

[14] Forsberg Family Tree. http://forsberg.foppa.nu/individual.php?pid=I5158&ged=Family%20Forsberg:

[15] The Scottish Historical Review. (1912) Vol. 9, Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. p. 268. https://archive.org/stream/scottishhistoric09edinuoft#page/268/mode/2up

[16] Eyre Todd, George (1909) Who’s Who in Glasgow 1909. Glasgow: Gowans and Grey Ltd. Glasgow Digital Library. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/eyrwho/eyrwho1601.htm:

[17] Glasgow Herald (1910) Swedish Visitors in Glasgow. Glasgow Herald. 31st August p. 7b, c. Mitchell Library, Glasgow

[18] Encyclopaedia Britannica: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Oscar-Montelius:

[19] Karlsson, Eva Lena (2012) Gustavus Adolphus II. E-mail to author.

[20] Ibid.

William Kennedy (1836-1899)

dr blog kennedy
Figure 1. William Kennedy, © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections

William Kennedy is best known as a successful businessman and for playing a major role in the fledgling shale oil industry of central Scotland in the mid-nineteenth century. He bequeathed one painting to Glasgow, The Sacrifice of Marcus Curtius by Luigo Garzi, in 1899.

Garzi, Luigi, 1638-1721; The Sacrifice of Marcus Curtius
Figure2. The Sacrifice of Marcus Curtius 1715-20 by Luigi Garzi 1638-1721                                          © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (http://www.artuk.org)

William was born in Biggar, South Lanarkshire in 1836 to William, an innkeeper and Mary Scott.(1) Little is known of his early years but he moved to Glasgow when aged sixteen and joined the firm of P & R Fleming, ironmongers which had branches at 29 Argyle Street and 18 Stockwell Street. He then moved to Henry Field and Son of Buchanan Street.(2)

dr blog kennedy
Figure 3. Henry Field & Son, advert from Post Office Glasgow Directories 1859-60, Mitchell Library

The first gas lighting in Glasgow was introduced in 1805 and by the mid-nineteenth century there was huge demand for gas heating and lighting in homes and Fields was well placed for the fitting of pipes, meters and other equipment. The city’s gas manufacturing and supply industry was placed under municipal control in 1869. While at Fields mineral oil was becoming a popular fuel for lighting and William assisted with its development with enthusiasm. He ensured that the best oil lamps on the market were stocked in the shop and he promoted the sale of lighting oil all over Scotland and the North of Ireland.(3)

William married Margaret Law from Linlithgow in 1860 (4) and they had three girls and a boy (also William). They were living at 39 Devon Street, Glasgow in 1861(5) and lived in Govan and Pollokshields areas for many years, and were residing at a detached villa at 32 Newark Drive in Pollokshields by 1891.(6)

James ‘paraffin’ Young was the pre-eminent ‘Father of the Oil Industry ‘ who succeeded in producing, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, a fluid which resembled paraffin wax and in 1851 his Bathgate works became the first commercial oil-works in the world.(7) William Kennedy succeeded Young in continuing to develop manufacturing processes for new products and markets.

In 1861 William joined West Calder Oil Company and stayed with them for seven years producing paraffin. He then became actively associated with Oakbank Oil Company, West Lothian and was general manager until 1877. In that year The Broxburn Oil Company was formed for the purpose of acquiring, from Robert Bell,  his rights as lessee of the oil, shales and other minerals of Lord Cardross, at Broxburn in Linlithgowshire. Bell was a pioneer of the shale industry and was the first in Scotland to distil oil from shale.  William was appointed Managing Director of Broxburn Oil Company on its foundation, at a time when fierce competition from USA and Russia made life difficult for many businesses. He remained as its managing Director till his death in 1899. The Broxburn works were the first to challenge the scale of Youngs Addiewell Works and it was equipped to undertake all processes necessary to transform shale into a full range of oil and wax products, including the manufacture of candles. The works site covered an area of 250 acres and employed approximately 1700 workers. The modern equipment enabled the company to stay ahead of the competition for the next ten years. (8)

drBroxburnWorksArchiveImage1
Figure 4. Broxburn Oil Works, circa 1910. Creative Common Licence. c. Almond Valley Heritage Trust. Creative Commons Licence © Almond Valley Heritage Trust, http://www.scottishshale.co.uk

Prior to 1876 William was appointed  Secretary to the Scottish Mineral Oil Association and was subsequently elected as its President. He was also a director of Niddrie and Benhar Coal Company Limited, the Glenboig Union Fireclay Company Limited and the National Insurance Company of Great Britain. He also entered local politics as a county councillor for Linlithgowshire and was a Justice of the Peace for the same county.(9)

In the 1890s  William moved to 21 Huntly Gardens, a fine townhouse in Glasgow’s west end.(10) In ailing health he died on 20th May 1899 leaving a significant estate of £44,600.(11) In his Will he left the painting The Sacrifice of Marcus Curtius 1715-20 to Glasgow.(12) At the time of his death it was attributed to Nicholas Poussin, an influential French baroque artist. It is now attributed to Luigi Garzi who was influenced by Poussin’s classical style while in Rome. The scene depicts the young Roman who sacrificed himself to the gods of Hades. 

This painting was previously owned by John Bell who, with his brother Matthew, founded J and M P Bell & Co, the largest pottery in Scotland in the mid-nineteenth century and which produced a wide range of high-quality products for the home market and for export. John amassed a huge collection of paintings and objects during his lifetime for North Park House, which he had built adjacent to the Botanic Gardens in Glasgow (later used as the home of the BBC). He died intestate in 1880 and his collection of around 800 paintings was sold at auctions in Glasgow, Edinburgh and London. The sales catalogues list paintings by Titian, Rubens, Caravaggio, Canaletto, Raphael, and many more apparently by world=renowned artists. However, many of his paintings are now thought to be copies, and some fakes, but he did achieve sales of £50,000 in a struggling market.(13) William Kennedy may have purchased The Sacrifice of Marcus Curtius at one of these auctions and it is one of only a few objects to remain in Glasgow from Bell’s collection.

DS

References

(1) http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk births, 793/000070 0296 Kelso

(2) Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography  “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”

(3) The Baillie, vol XLV111 No 1237, July 1896, “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”

(4) http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk, marriages, 644/100175

(5) http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk, census 1861 644/933/8

(6) http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk, census 1891 644/14037/00014

(7) www.engineeringhalloffame.org, Scottish Engineering hall of Fame/James Young

(8) Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography  “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”

(9) The Baillie, vol XLV111 No 1237, July 1896, “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”

(10) https://www.glasgowwestaddress.co.uk/Huntly_Gardens/21_Huntly_Gardens.htm

(11) Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography  “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”

(12) http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk, sc36/51/122 Glasgow Sheriff Court Wills

(13) Mitchell Library, Sales Catalogues John Bell Jan 1881, “©CSG CIC Glasgow Museums and Libraries Collection: The Mitchell Library, Special Collections”