On the 21st of August 1946 a portrait in oil of Mrs. J. B. McLennan (nee Robina Birnie Lawrence) by Alexander Spottiswoode Duthie was presented to Glasgow Corporation by Mr and Mrs J. Bryce McLennan, Hotel Swisse, Hyeres (Var), France, formerly of Ardoch, Blanefield 1 (2566)
Robina Birnie Lawrence was born at Gowanhill, Rathen, Aberdeenshire on the 23rd April 1868. Her parents, William Jamieson Lawrence, a general merchant and Elizabeth Hall Morgan, the daughter of a shipmaster, had married at St. Clement’s Aberdeen on the 25th of November 1837. 2 Robina was named after her paternal grandmother.
The family remained at Gowanhill and by 1881 Robina had five older siblings and one younger. 3 Sadly, her mother Elizabeth had died of tuberculosis at Bridge of Allan in 1879. 4 Her father was now a merchant, a bakery shop owner and a farmer. 5 However, he died in Aberdeen on the 29th of September 1885 6 and the business was taken over by Robina’s brother William. Gowanhill was now a shop and a farm and the home of William, Robina and their three sisters. The business also employed four ‘servants’. 7
James Bryce McLennan was born on the 26th of December 1869 at 68, Pollok Street, Tradeston, Glasgow. His parents were James McLennan, a ‘commercial traveller’ and Henrietta Bryce. 8 They had married on the 24th of December 1868 in Govan and went on to have seven children. (This was James McLennan`s second marriage; he had a son Andrew born in 1866 by his first marriage to Agnes Watt Logan. Agnes died, aged only nineteen, in the same year that Andrew was born. 9 By the 1881 census the family had moved to 88, Leslie Street, Govan and James` father was now a ‘wholesale wine and spirit merchant’. Ten years later, James was a commercial clerk aged 21 living at 20, South Crescent, Ardrossan with his family. 10 It was probably about this time that James joined his father in the wine and spirits trade. His great grandfather Alexander Bryce founded the firm of Alexander Bryce and Co. in 1812. 11 James McLennan, senior was born in 1838 in Coylton, Ayrshire, the son of an innkeeper. He moved to Glasgow in 1853 to work for a firm of bonded storekeepers. Twelve years later he was employed as a ‘traveller’ for Alexander Bryce and Co. Three years after the death of his first wife, James married Henrietta Bryce the granddaughter of Alexander on Christmas Eve 1868. 12 In 1875 he was appointed as a partner in the firm. The other partners were Alexander Kirkpatrick and Peter Clark both sons-in-law of Alexander Bryce. Alexander Kirkpatrick retired in 1875 and when Peter Clark died in 1882, James McLennan became sole owner of the firm and very wealthy. His eldest son by his marriage to Henrietta was James Bryce McLennan. Father and son were both members of the Trades’ House of Glasgow with James senior elected Deacon Convenor in 1884. In his memory a portrait bust was presented to the House.13 In 1892, as Deacon Convenor, James McLennan purchased part of the façade of the 1796 Adam designed Assembly Rooms (Atheneum) in Ingram Street then under demolition. He presented this to Glasgow and after being moved several times has, since 1991, been located at the entrance to Glasgow Green – The McLennan Arch. 14
On the 21st of December 1898 at the Free Church in Rathen, Aberdeenshire, James Bryce McLennan, wine merchant, married Robina Birnie Lawrence. James` address was Newhall, Dowanhill Gardens, Partick which was his parents` home at the time. 15 In the same year, or very soon thereafter, the couple took over the tenancy of Ardoch, an estate in Strathblane, Stirlingshire owned by Sir Archibald Edmonston, at a yearly rent of £40. 16 They then began to cultivate the garden at Ardoch, which was later to become a showpiece of the district and for which they became well known further afield.
On the 7th of February 1899 James McLennan senior died at his house, Newhall, Hillhead. 17 The firm was bought from the trustees of his estate by James and his brother Andrew and they continued to run the business successfully for many years.
With James having the business to run (in the census of 1901 his occupation is ‘wine and spirit merchant’) responsibility for the garden at Ardoch seems to have fallen, initially at least, to Robina. Within a few years the garden became well established so much so that it was open to the public and advertised in the Press. On the 11th and 12th of September 1909 King Edward VII visited Strathblane and a local newspaper reported: Mrs McLennan of Ardoch, noted for their (sic) fine gardens, which were opened to the public, had created a floral tribute in the form of a crown of red, white and blue flowers. 18
In 1911 when the couple had been married for twelve years, they were employing three servants and a chauffeur. James was still listed as a wholesale wine and spirit merchant. 19 However, in 1916 the firm of Alexander Bryce and Co was wound up 20 presumably giving James the opportunity to devote more time to landscape gardening. Robina and James continued to cultivate the garden and advertised ‘Open Days’ in the Glasgow Herald. This was usually accompanied by a report of the garden in glowing terms. Robina featured in articles in Scottish Country Life:
The following notice appeared in the Glasgow Herald: 21
Mrs. McLennan advertised herself as a landscape gardener/garden designer and had a hand in designing gardens up and down the country. The following newspaper article dated 26 May 1933 is in the donor’s file at the Glasgow Museum Resource Centre as are the two old postcards shown in figures 3 and 4.
A DREAM GARDEN
BLANEFIELD COUPLE`S CLEVER WORK
There is a garden in Blanefield, so lovely that it takes your breath away, and so clever that it might have happened by some divine chance. It belongs to Mr. and Mrs. R. B. McLennan, who for 35 years have made it their life work.
Beyond a sweep of smooth lawn rises the rock garden, ablaze with azaleas and rhododendrons. In the water garden, a tiny stream runs between low banks into a brown pool edged with reeds and golden marigolds. Further on is the “pleasaunce”, a quaint, formal garden of circular green lawns and square flower beds filled with dignified yellow tulips.
Down a mossy path lies the last part of the 13 acres – the woodland garden – where the wild hyacinths lie like a blue mist among the long grasses and the clumps of fern, and the rabbits come out boldly to play.
Although the Blanefield garden was originally begun as a hobby, Mrs. McLennan and her husband have since taken up the work of landscape gardening as a profession. Mrs. McLennan has designed gardens from Inverness to Buckinghamshire.
Looking at the garden in the glory of a May afternoon, one could not but wonder at the beauty of it. If ever an enthusiasm justified itself, this one has. – M.
In 1938, the couple gave up the tenancy of Ardoch 22 and seem to have moved temporarily to The Old Cloth Hall, Cranbrook, Kent. The electoral registers for Cranbrook 23 confirm that they were occupants of the property in 1939, although whether they were owners or tenants is unclear. The property had extensive gardens which would have appealed to them. Their next move was to France. James B. McLennan was described as ‘an ardent Francophile and well-read in French Literature’. 24 In 1938, he presented a bronze statue of Robert Burns to the British Institute at the Sorbonne. Coming from Ayrshire, his ‘ancestors were well acquainted with him (Burns)’. 25 During the occupation the statue was hidden to prevent it being melted down by the Nazis. After the war it was restored and is presently on display at the Sorbonne.
In gratitude for preserving the statue, the Burns Federation presented a set of the Scottish National Dictionary to the Sorbonne in 1946. 26
At some point the couple moved to France settling at Hyeres on the south coast. They were of course caught up in the Nazi occupation and Robina, in particular, suffered a great deal. In a letter written in 1947 on behalf of Dr T. J. Honeyman in reply to J. McLennan Boyd a nephew of the couple he mentions that Mrs McLennan ‘had gone through so much during the occupation and that she had been “such an outstanding figure in the history of landscape gardening’. He was also ‘particularly charmed’ by the merit of the painting. 27
Robina McLennan died at the Hotel Suisse, Hyeres, France on the 15th of August 1946. She was 78. James arranged for her body to be brought back to Blanefield and buried in the churchyard. He inserted a notice of her death in the Glasgow Herald : ‘Ruby (nee Lawrence) loving wife and companion for 47 years of James Bryce McLennan, late of Ardoch, Blanefield, Stirlingshire’. 28
The portrait was presented after her death perhaps as a memorial to her. The artist seems to have been a family member as one of Robina`s brothers was Robert Duthie Lawrence. In the probate of Robina`s will she is described as ‘Lawrence or McLennan Robina Birnie of Old Cloth Hall, Cranbrook, Kent and Hostellerie du Beau Rivage, Carqueiranne, (Var), France’. 29
After his return from France, James McLennan lived on in Strathblane at the Kirkhouse Inn. He died there on the 3rd of March 1950 aged eighty His death was reported by a nephew John McLennan 30 and a notice appeared in the Glasgow Herald. 31
Garnet Wilson joined the family business of G L Wilson’s department store in Dundee and became a distinguished Lord Provost of that city. He donated a portrait of himself painted by Rodrigo Moynihan to Glasgow in 1950. Moynihan was a British artist who was influenced by the French Impressionists, especially Manet, and moved between figurative and abstract work. (1) The University of Dundee holds another portrait of Wilson by Moynihan.
Garnet was born in Cupar, Fife on 24 March 1885 to Gavin Laurie Wilson, draper, and Jessie McCulloch who came from a farming family in Ayrshire. (2) Wilson’s first name Garnet was chosen after General Lord (Garnet) Wolseley came to the rescue of General Gordon in Khartoum in 1884-85. (3) In 1891 the family was living at 29 Crossgate, Cupar.Garnet was then aged six and the household consisted of his father Gavin,younger brother John, sister Jessie, and Gavin’s mother-in-law Janet McCulloch. (4) Garnet’s mother had died in 1888 at the time of Jessie junior’s birth. In 1891 Gavin Wilson married Alison Johnston Russell whose father had moved to New Zealand as a minister.(5)
Garnet was educated at Bell Baxter School in Cupar, then he attendedNewport Public School in Dundee (6) followed by a year at the High School of Dundee, a historic institution which dates its origins back to 1239 and which, reputedly, William Wallace attended. (7)
Instead of going to university he joined the firm of P F & J Husband, solicitors, where he completed a law apprenticeship. (8) However, family loyalties were to play a role in his career and in 1903 he joined his father’s drapery business, G L Wilson’s at the junction of Murraygate andCommercial Street, popularly known as the ‘Corner’, and one of the most prominent stores in Dundee. Opened in 1894, it’s Christmas Grotto was a popular attraction and traded successfully for many years. Garnet’s brother John joined the business on leaving school but then studied for a BA in Engineering and left for America. On a holiday back home in 1913 he decided to stay and rejoin G L Wilson’s. He became known for his kind-heartedness and remained with the store till his death in 1962. (9)
In 1911 Garnet was living at 20 Kilburn Place with his father Gavin, stepmother Alison, brothers John and Gavin, and sisters Jessie, Alison and Dorothy. (10) Jessie became a favourite pupil of Ann Macbeth who taught at Glasgow School of Art and who was associated with Charles Rennie MacKintosh and The Glasgow Style. Jessie excelled in embroidery and pottery.(11)
Local politics became a passion, carrying on the family tradition in supporting the Liberal Party, and he became a member of Newport Council from 1919 to 1929. (12) Newport-on-Tay is a small town in Fife just across the River Tay from Dundee and he lived at 6 Albert Crescent in Newport for much of this period. (13)
In 1925 Garnet married Gladys Marjory Johnson of Longton in Staffordshire and they had three children, Guy, Ian and Jennifer. The family then moved from Newport to St Colms, 496 Perth Road, Dundee, a sizeable Victorian house in the western part of the city and near the waterfront. (14) Garnet became a Town Councillor for Dundee in 1929 and played an active role in its Education Authority, and was chairman of the Education Committee from 1930 to 1935. (15)
In 1940 he was appointed Lord Provost of Dundee and re-elected for a second three-year term in 1943. (16) When the second world war was raging and many parts of the UK were suffering high unemployment, the UK government passed the Distribution of Industry Bill to revitalise designated areas, but Dundee was initially not included. Just prior to the passing of the Bill Garnet persuaded the authorities to include part of Dundee in the scheme and he subsequently persuaded the National Cash Register Company (Manufacturing) Ltd, better known as N.C.R, to set up business there. He was also influential in establishing Dundee Airport, and in 1946 visited the French city of Orleans to attend the ceremony of twinning the two cities. In 1944 Garnet was knighted for his services to Dundee. (17)
Garnet continued to contribute to society especially in education and housing. From 1940 to 1949 he was a member of the St Andrews University Court, 1940 to 1949 was the chairman of the Scottish Special Housing Association, and from 1942 to 1951 was the Vice Chairman of the Advisory Council on Education in Scotland. From 1946 to 1952 he was appointed as the President of University College, Dundee. In 1952 Garnet was appointed as the Chairman of the Glenrothes Development Corporation, which was set up to oversee the creation of one of Scotland’s post war ‘new towns’. He retired from this position in 1960. (18)
In 1970 he performed the official opening of Craigie High School in Dundee. Garnet Road, which leads to the school, was named in his honour. (19)
Having presented his portrait, Mr Welsh suggested that it might hang in the People’s Palace, Glasgow in view of his association with the East End of the city.
In the 1946-47 minutes of the Corporation of the City of Glasgow Art Gallery and Museums , it was minuted that the Ex Lord Provost, James Welsh, had presented an oil portrait of himself painted by Joseph Ancill (1896-1976) who was born in Leeds and attended the Glasgow School of Art. He specialised in portrait painting and engraving.
Shortly after writing an earlier draft version of this blog, it was discovered that Dr James Welsh’s grandson David Welsh had already written his grandfather’s biography for his family and after corresponding with him, he suggested that he could give me a wider perspective of his grandfather’s life as well as earlier relatives, information which is not available in the public domain.
Theearly Years of Welsh Family
To give an overall picture of the beginning of the life of the Welsh family in Scotland, it will be appropriate to start with the great-grand parents of our donor, James Welsh. Sometime before the 1841 Scottish census, our donor’s great-grandfather Michael Welsh and his wife Elisabeth McCulley came across to Scotland from Ireland. Both, Michael Welsh and Elisabeth McCulley were born in Ireland in about 1790. According to the 1841 Scottish census , their four children were all born in Low Glen Cairn, West Side, Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, Scotland. They were listed in the census as: William (18) a carpet weaver, Robert (15) a calico printer, Cathrine (12) and Michael (10). There is no record of Michael Welsh in the next census in 1851. Therefore, it is assumed that he died sometime before then. Michael’s eldest son, William, was married to Agnes Johnstone on 3 January 1851 and they were living at 92 Sanbed Street, Dickiesland, Kilmarnock together with William’s mother Elisabeth and his father in-law, William Johnstone (57, also born in Ireland).
William, the grandfather of our donor, continued with his profession in Kilmarnock where they had settled and had their six children. The first two were born in Kilmarnock. After his second child William was born in 1854, he and his family moved to the Paisley area where he started a quilt making business and where his other four children were all born. The 1861 census records all the family’s address as 64 Love Street. William and Agnes settled in Paisley where they were to live for the remainder of their lives. By the time of the 1881 census, William (junior) had left the family home after having married Mary Ann Young on 1 April 1875. In 1881, William and Mary Ann were living at 18 Causeyside Street, Paisley where James was born on 29 January.
Although 1882 was just like any other year for the happily married couple living with their four children, William, our donor’s father, decided to pay a visit to Boston, Massachusetts where his uncle was living. He boarded a Boston-bound ship on 23 February 1882 to see him. However, after receiving a short note from his home, in reply to his own letter in June, and learning that his young son William, who was born in 1876, had died from scarlet fever on 16 June 1882, he sailed for home. Soon after this tragedy, William Welsh and his family including our donor James, who was one year old, moved from Causeyside Street, Paisley to Queen Mary Street in Bridgeton, Glasgow. Perhaps one of the reasons for this move was that the textile industry, aided by the mechanisation of cotton spinning, prospered and the associated trades such as 15 bleach works and dye works were also thriving. The Industrial Revolution took hold in Glasgow at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The manufacture of cotton and textiles, chemicals, glass, paper and soap increased rapidly. Immigrants from the Highlands in the 1820s and later from Ireland in the 1840s formed the workforce.
Early Life of Our Donor
Our donor, James Welsh, was born on 29 January 1881 in Paisley, Renfrewshire as the fourth child of Mr. William Welsh and Mrs Mary Ann Welsh, who went on to have two more children David (born in 1882) and John (born in 1887). Young James had his formative life in Bridgeton. Although, there is very little known about young James’s first few years there, it is known that he went to his first and only school, Hozier Street Public School in 1886 at the age of four and a half years. He did very well at school and was permitted to leave two years early (at the age of 11 rather than 13 according to the education legislation of the day). The only leavening of the school day was a limited amount of singing, drawing, woodwork, cookery and drill. Much of the time was spent learning tables by rote, copying from the board and facing oral tests in English Grammar and arithmetic, allowing little or no opportunity for self-expression. There was also little or no secondary education; the leaving age at the elementary (primary) school being 13 with a mere handful of pupils staying on beyond that birthday. Young James was an exceptionally good pupil and won a prize for being punctual which is still in his family’s possession today.  He was allowed to leave at age 11 indicating that he had attained a high standard of achievement.
It didn’t take long for James Welsh to find work after leaving school. His first job was as a message boy with W & J Martins of Brunswick Street, Glasgow. James stayed with Martins for two years and in 1894, at the age of 13, he was taken on as an office boy with James Templeton & Co., the famous carpet makers with several factories in the Bridgeton area. By the time James started work with the firm, the factory beside Glasgow Green, (the Doge’s Palace), had been built, had collapsed and had been re-built.  But it was the Crownpoint Road factory that saw James rise from the position of office boy to assistant-foreman during his fourteen years with the firm. A newspaper article, written about him some years later, stated that five of the Welsh family were employed with Templeton’s. He certainly made a name for himself in the firm and proved to be a highly respected member of the workforce. When he left the firm in 1908, he was presented with a magnificent roll-top desk which he kept and used all his life.
Political Life and Civic Career
After leaving Templeton’s, James Welsh was now to move in a completely different direction when he became an agent for the insurance company, Scottish Legal Life, where he stayed for four and a half years. The times spent at Templeton’s and Legal Life were James Welsh’s formative years. It was during this period that he attended night school and evening lectures, developed his musical interests, became heavily involved in politics, enjoyed the fellowship of the Clarion Scouts, and became generally involved, as he said later, in the ‘progressive and humanist movements’. He also witnessed the beginnings of the cinema revolution and saw its potential, experiencing at first hand the tragic consequences of alcohol abuse. It was during this period, in 1896, that the family moved from 41 Queen Mary Street, the short distance to 40 Dalmarnock Road, a stone’s throw from Bridgeton Cross, where father, mother and five growing young adults were to be found in the 1901 census.
The year 1910 was a highly significant and pivotal year in James Welsh’s life for three reasons:
His name was to be included for the first time on the electoral register for 1909 -10 and he was entitled to vote in the two General Elections of 1910, helping Labour to achieve its best results up till then, 40 seats in January and 42 in December.
Along with his friend and partner George Smith he was to take the first tentative steps in the cinema world when they converted an empty hall in Alexandria Parade into The Parade Cinema.
But the most important change was to take place on 7 July 1910 – the day of his marriage to Helen Greig in Anderston Registry Office, Minerva Street, Glasgow.
At the age of nearly 30, James Welsh married Helen (Nell) Greig, who had been born on 22 May 1881 in the township of Skene, north of Stonehaven and a few miles to the west of Aberdeen. Her father, Frederick Murray Greig, whose family was very much centred in Stonehaven, was a saddler to trade. Helen retained a warm affection for the villages and the countryside of the North East coast throughout her life. Both before and after their marriage, Mrs Welsh was interested in theatrical entertainment and she was known under the name of Nell Greig as an accomplished actress and elocutionist. In her stage career she appeared in a number of plays some of which were written by her brother Frederic Greig, with whom Nell came to Glasgow around 1901. Frederick Greig’s ambition was to be a playwright. Later rising to prominence in the business world and becoming the General Secretary of the Rotary Club of London, he was perhaps better known as the husband of Teresa Billington, the celebrated suffragette. The 2018 statue of Millicent Fawcett, the suffragist leader and social campaigner, in Parliament Square, London, is a work by the Turner Prize-winning artist Gillian Wearing where the name of Theresa Billington Greig is also carved. 
After their marriage, Mr and Mrs James Welsh lived in 41 Esmond Street, Yorkhill where their only child, Frederick Welsh was born on 31 March 1911. It was a small flat where James had lived before his marriage and it was becoming too small for a growing family. Therefore, they moved in 1914 to a larger place in Smith Street, Hillhead. Built in the 1880s the individual apartments were of varying sizes but the one chosen by the Welsh family was a two bedroom flat with kitchen/living room and bathroom.
At this time, James Welsh started taking an increasingly active interest in politics. In 1913, when the Municipal Elections were held in Glasgow, on the division of the City of Glasgow, James Welsh was the Labour candidate representing Dalmarnock Ward. The election was a victory for Labour and also for James Welsh, as this was the beginning of his political career. He represented the Dalmarnock Ward from 1913-1929. In June 1926 our donor and his family moved and settled in 1 Endfield Avenue, Kelvindale, Glasgow W2.
On the outbreak of war in 1914 James Welsh enlisted for service in the army but was turned down on medical grounds. It was discovered that he had a heart murmur so there was no question of his signing on. He was immensely disappointed.
During the time he was a member of the Corporation of the City of Glasgow, he was a Bailie of the Burgh from November 1920 to November 1923. After resigning from his post in the Corporation in 1929, he stood as a Labour candidate to represent the people of Paisley and he was elected MP for Paisley in May 1929. After 2 years, in 1931, he was defeated by the Liberal Candidate in the general election and withdrew from politics and contemplated not continuing as a Labour candidate in Paisley. After a break of eight years he returned to the Council in 1937 as a representative of the Maryhill Ward and continued his service until 1949 when he did not seek re-election. During this time, he was involved in The Empire Exhibition which was held in Bellahouston Park, Glasgow and opened by King George VI and Queen Mary on 3 June 1938. The opening ceremony held in the Ibrox Stadium was attended by 146,000 people.
During 28 years of membership he gave service in many aspects of local government, but he will be remembered particularly for his outstanding contribution as Convenor of the Parks, Municipal Transport and Parliamentary Committees. He was Lord Provost from 1943 until 1945, in which latter year he was awarded the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws, LL.D by Glasgow University. His period of office as Lord Provost (2 September 1943 – 5 November 1945) was particularly onerous, coinciding as it did with the last two years of the Second World War and all the problems and adjustments which required to be met at that time, but he guided the Council through the difficult period and identified himself with much of the early post-war planning of the city. Apart from his civic duties, he devoted much of his time to the development of the arts and he held numerous offices in various cultural societies and associations. James Welsh stepped down from his post as Lord Provost in November 1945 and did not seek re-election. However, he remained as an elected councillor until 1949 when he retired.
During the time when James Welsh was a member of the Corporation City of Glasgow and later the Lord Provost, T.J. Honeyman was the director of the Art Galleries and Museums of Glasgow. The two men got on extremely well and had a harmonious relationship. It was at this time that a decision was made by Sir William Burrell that his collection (now known as The Burrell Collection) should belong to the City of Glasgow. John Julius Norwich writes in the Introduction to the book The Burrell Collection:
Let there be no mistake about it: in all history, no municipality has ever received from one of his native sons a gift of such munificence as that which in 1944 The City of Glasgow accepted from Sir William and Lady Burrell.
Honeyman also mentions James Welsh in several places in his book Art and Audacity.
Contributions to Glasgow Cinema
Apart from his interest in politics, James Welsh also had an interest in the art movements in Glasgow. Among these was the new form of entertainment of the time, the cinema. One of his close friends, George Smith, shared the same interest. George Smith, a lifelong friend, was a Labourite like himself, who had been born and brought up in the Bridgeton area. Like James Welsh, Smith was deeply involved in the Labour party and was to follow James into the City Chambers where he was to remain a Councillor for many years. This interest in cinema had stemmed from them being staunch socialists and their intense desire to give something to the people rather than their self-monetary interests. Over the years, working together, they managed to raise their name to be amongst the pioneers of cinema in Glasgow at the beginning of the twentieth century. Their venture in this endeavour began in 1910 when James and George rented a hall in Alexandria Parade in Dennistoun and together, they turned it into a cinema and they called it the Parade. One of the first films that was shown was a Western called The Range Rider and also an interest film Glimpses of Bird Life. The prices were 2d and 4d, with separate houses nightly at 7pm and 9pm.  The Parade was very popular with the people of Dennistoun and this encouraged the partners to open another one in 1912. The second cinema was in Church Street, Hamilton and called the Cinema House. It was equally successful. Now, they owned two separate companies – The Parade Picture Houses Ltd and The Hamilton Cinema Company Ltd. So successful was their emerging and growing cinema business that James Welsh felt able to devote all his time to that business and relinquish his position as an insurance agent. By this time the cinema had become a popular form of mass entertainment and picture shows were being held everywhere. In mid-1912, there were about 50 cinemas in Glasgow.
Up until 1921 their two cinemas had been halls, originally built for other purposes. In 1921 the Welsh-Smith partners built their first cinema just round the corner from their existing one in Dennistoun. The (old) Parade had been on Alexandria Parade itself but the New Parade was built at 200 Meadowpark Street, just off the Parade. The cinema was designed by the architect Mr D MacKay Stoddart and was a substantial building with a well finished hall and a lofty auditorium, seating more than 1,400 people. The New Parade cinema was retained by the two partners throughout the twenties but was sold to a Gaumont subsidiary in 1928. During Mr Welsh’s election campaign, located in the Cathcart district on the south side of Glasgow, the new Kingsway Cinema opened on 8 May 1929. It was built for and operated by the independent Kingsway Cinema Ltd. which was owned by a conglomerate of shareholders, among them were James Welsh and George Smith. James Welsh was also named the Cinema Director and George Smith the Manager of the newly formed Kingsway Cinema Ltd. The cinema was designed by noted architect James McKissack in what was described as a Spanish-American style. Inside the auditorium, seating was provided in stalls and circle levels.
This was to be Welsh-Smith’s fourth cinema and the first in south Glasgow. However, on 7 January 1950 it was sold to George Singleton Cinemas Ltd. chain and was re-named the Vogue cinema, a name Singleton gave to all the cinemas in Glasgow that were operated by Singleton’s Circuit.
After building the Kingsway cinema, the architect James McKissack (also responsible for the La Scala) built two more cinemas for Welsh and Smith. The first one was the Mecca Picture House in Balmore Road, Possil built in 1933, to an imposing design by McKissack, to serve the new Corporation housing estate. It was opened in August 1933 and originally seated 1,620, (1,140 in the stalls and 430 in the balcony and served the older tenement area of Possilpark.
The second cinema was one of the most important cinemas built by McKissack. This was the Riddrie Cinema which stands at 726 Cumbernauld Road, Riddrie. Perhaps, at this point, it is worth noting that the former Riddrie (later to become Riddrie-Vogue) cinema is one of the best preserved 1930s suburban super-cinemas in Scotland.  It was listed Category B by Historic Scotland in 2008. This was one of McKissack’s best designs and it seems no expense was spared by Smith and Welsh in its construction. On 7 January 1950, the same date as the Kingsway Cinema was sold to Singleton Circuit, the Riddrie was also sold to the Singleton’s and as before was renamed the Vogue (the Singletons also owned the McKissack-designed Cosmo – now the GFT (Glasgow Film Theatre) – and numerous other cinemas in the West of Scotland). The Riddrie-Vogue remained a cinema until April 1968, when it went over to full time bingo. It must be noted here that combining the two roles of a busy councillor and manager of two cinemas was very time consuming for our donor and it was no surprise that in 1940 Mrs Helen Welsh was appointed Manageress of the Mecca Cinema in Possilpark. Mrs Helen Welsh was a very capable and popular manageress who took to her new role with consummate ease. She dealt firmly but fairly with staff, had a good head for figures and mixed easily with the customers.
She had to make the complicated journey between Kelvindale and Possilpark and back every day the cinema was open. She had to carry the evening’s takings home with her each evening and one night in October 1942, she was the victim of a hold-up in Kelvindale Road. Three men were later arrested and a report of the Sheriff Court case appeared in the News of the World later that year. All three admitted assaulting Mrs Helen Welsh, wife of Mr James Welsh, a Glasgow Town Councillor, and threatening to shoot her. They also admitted assaulting the woman driver of Mrs Welsh’s car, and robbing Mrs Welsh of a handbag containing £96.
The contribution made by our donor, James Welsh, to the world of cinema in Glasgow has been extremely impressive. Without a doubt, James Welsh’s and his colleague George Smith’s names will be among the pioneers of the cinema in this country.
The Final Years
On 2 September 1943, James Welsh was elected Lord Provost of the City of Glasgow. He was the nominee of the Socialist Party. He remained Lord Provost until 5 November 1945 when he demitted his office at midnight of that day. However, The Glasgow Herald of 5 October 1945 reported this news, as well as the all the retiring councillors before the imminent council elections, on 6 November 1945.
His wife, Helen, worked all her life and was always there supporting her husband, especially as the wife of the civic head of the City of Glasgow. In later life, it was an easy transition for her to undertake the supervision of one of the cinemas in which her husband was interested. In the management, especially of the Mecca picture house, she found work agreeable. Mrs Welsh was remembered by the cinema goers as a well-dressed petite lady who wore a different hat every night. Nell Greig Welsh died on 28 February 1945.
Unfortunately, she died too early for her to see her husband receiving his L.LD from Glasgow University on 26 October 1945. The event was reported on page 4 of the Glasgow Herald of Monday, 28 October 1945.
Our donor had long been interested in the Scottish Orchestra. He had also been especially concerned with the promotion of the cultural side of the civic activities, such as the development of music, open air theatres and the Glasgow Art Gallery as he had been the Convener of the Art Galleries. Therefore, almost a year later our donor was again honoured in October 1946 when he was appointed a Member of the Arts Council of Great Britain.
In the announcement of Deaths column of the Glasgow Herald of 17 December 1969, a small notice had appeared announcing that James Welsh died on 16 December 1969 and would be cremated in Linn Crematorium on 19 December 1969. On page 8 of the same newspaper under the columns entitled Death of Lord Provost of Glasgow, an obituary is printed where a summary of his life and achievements are listed and the following sentence was also included:
He combined his work with assiduous attendance at evening classes, studious reading of history, economics and widening his acquaintance with the world of art which his natural taste for music was already a passport.
I should like to acknowledge and thank Mr David Welsh for his help and time in providing me with a wider perspective of the life of our donor, Dr James Welsh, his grandfather in producing this blog. He very generously gave me a copy of his Grandfather’s unpublished biography ‘Just call me Jimmy’ A portrait of my grandfather, Dr James Welsh that he had meticulously and engagingly researched.
 City of Glasgow Corporation Minutes 1946-1947, Mitchell Library, Glasgow.
Although Mrs Grahame (known as Clara) bequeathed these paintings on her death in 1954 the portraits were in fact of members of her husband’s family. Clara’s husband was Lt Colonel John Crum Grahame (1870-1952).
Humphrey Ewing Maclae was born Humphrey Ewing .His father Walter Ewing had inherited Cathkin Estate near Rutherglen in 1790 through Walter Maclae an uncle of his mother Margaret Maclae and had added Maclae to his name at that point.Humphrey Ewing did the same on inheriting Cathkin in 1814.Walter Ewing Maclae had built Cathkin House in 1799 funded in the main through the fortune he had made in the West India Trade. By the 1790s the family owned several sugar plantations in Jamaica and 449 slaves. According to the slavery compensation claims in 1836 Humphrey Ewing Maclae owned at least three plantations which were Dallas Castle Port Royal with 161 slaves; Southfield in St Ann with 195 slaves and Lilyfield in St Ann with 93 slaves.1 John Crum Grahame was Humphrey Ewing Maclae’s great-great-nephew through his mother Agnes Crum. See Figure 4 below.
Thomas Grahame was the son of Robert Grahame of Whitehill, advocate and former Lord Provost of Glasgow and brother of James Grahame.2 He was born in Glasgow in 1792. There is no information on his early life. Although he used the title of major there is no information at this point of his military service which may have been in a militia regiment. He married Hannah Finlay of Castle Toward in 1823 with whom he had three daughters. Hannah died in 1834.3 Thomas moved to England sometime in the late 1830s at about the same time as his father Robert Grahame. In 1847 Thomas married Elizabeth Campbell in London.4 They had no children. The 1851 and 1861 census records his occupation as ‘landed proprietor,stocks and shares’ so he was of independent means. Thomas spent the rest of his life in England . In 1851 he was living in Rickmansworth in Hertfordshire with his wife, three daughters and his ninety-one year old father Robert 5 and in 18616 the family were living in Broadwater in Sussex where Thomas died in 1870.7 Thomas Grahame was the great-uncle of our donor through his father’s family. See Figure 5 below.
Hannah Finlay (1803-1834) was the eldest daughter of Kirkman Finlay (1773-1842). After the death of his father in 1790 Kirkman Finlay took over the running of his father’s business James Finlay & Co,Glasgow Merchants. He moved into the new business of cotton spinning and owned mills in Ayrshire, Stirlingshire and Perthshire. By 1810 he was the largest exporter of cotton yarn to Europe and managed to evade Napoleon’s wartime blockade. He was Lord Provost of Glasgow 1812-15 and 1818 and MP for Clyde Burghs 1812-1819.As well as Castle Toward in Argyll the Finlays had a town House in Queen Street Glasgow.8 Hannah was the first wife of Thomas Grahame of Whitehill and died at the age of 31.
John Crum Grahame (1870-1952)
John Crum Grahame, known as Jack was born in Auldhouse , Renfrewshire on 2 February 1870. He was the son of James Grahame and Agnes Crum. His mother was the daughter of John Crum of Thornliebank and his great -great -grandfather was Archibald Grahame of Drumquassie Drymen in Stirlingshire. Jack was educated at Harrow. He joined the 2nd Battalion Highland Light Infantry in 1892 as a 2nd Lieutenant after serving with the Militia and was promoted to Lieutenant in 1894. He served on the Northwest Frontier in India. In 1900 he was attached to the 1st Battalion West African Frontier Force and took part in the Ashanti Campaign and was Mentioned in Despatches and awarded the Ashanti Medal in 1901. During this period he was promoted Local Captain.
During 1901-2 he saw service with the 3rd Battalion as Local Major on the West African Frontier in Southern Nigeria and was once again Mentioned in Dispatches after the capture of Aro Chuko. He was slightly wounded during this campaign. He was awarded the DSO, the entry in the London Gazette of 12 September 1902 reported:
John Crum Grahame,Captain Highland Light Infantry. For services during the Aro Campaign in Southern Nigeria.
Between 1904 and 1907 Jack served with the Egyptian army and The Sudan Administration.9 It was during this period that Jack married Clara.
Donor. Mrs A. C Grahame 1864-1954
Our donor was born Alice Clara Purvis on 28 July 1864 at Kinaldy House on the Kinaldy Estate near St Andrews in Fife. She was the daughter of John Purvis of Kinaldy (JP) (1820-1909) and Wilhelmina(Mina) Berry of Newport-on-Tay(1827-1905). 10 She was known as Clara. Clara was the youngest of two surviving daughters. Her sister Ethel was born in 186011 and there were four brothers who lived to adulthood-Alex, Herbert, Harry and Robert.12 John Purvis’s father Alexander Purvis (1766-1844) originated from Northumberland. He emigrated to South Carolina after the American War of Independence and set up a store and cotton broking business with his eldest brother John at Charleston, Sumter and Columbia. In Columbia the site of the Purvis premises on the corner of Gervais and Main Street was known as Purvis Corner as late as 1900.The business was very successful and Alexander became an American citizen in 1795. He retired in 1809 and returned to Scotland. He purchased the Kinaldy estate near St Andrews in 1829. His only child John was born in 1820.13
John Purvis(1820-1909) was a landowner and astute businessman. He was a Justice of the Peace, and a director of the Anstruther and Fife Railway. He also had many business interests abroad.For example he invested in The Pacific Sugar Mill Company and a plantation at Kukuihaele in Hawaii (see Appendix) which was later managed by son Herbert14 and investments in New Zealand. According to Aylwin Clark:
JPwas always ready to seize the opportunity to invest in something promising well but then his caution would weigh in reproachfully, reminding him how infrequently there was a pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.15
JP’s investments were worldwide. In the 1870s for example he invested in the Imperial Ottoman Bank, the Natal Colonization Company, the Central Railway Uruguay, the Tay Bridge and Leuchars Extension,the East London Railway,the Kansas and Pacific Railway, the Lanberg and Czarovitz Railway in Rumania and many more.16
1870s. Schooldays at home and abroad.
According to the 1871 Census the Purvis Family were staying at a house in Newport -on -Tay from where Clara’s mother Wilhelmina Berry originated. According to Clark John Purvis was not overly impressed with the way his children were turning out. At one point he wrote in is diary of his depression at the melancholy spectacle of Ethel, Clara and Harry on a Sunday evening as , ‘ devoid of sense as of sensibility’. His main grumble seemed to be that they were not enough like their mother.17
Ethel and Clara appear to have inherited their father’s love of sport and the outdoors rather than the more ladylike pursuits of their mother.
In order to improve the education of his family John took them to Dresden in 1872 for an extended stay presumably to widen their horizons. Clara would have been about ten at this point.18 At this time Dresden was a very popular city with the British and other European visitors and known as ‘Florence on the Elbe’.19 John Purvis was very keen on education both for boys and girls and he was one of the founders of St Leonards School for Girls in 1877. John Purvis was keen that girls,
should betaught matters of substance at school and be challenged to use their minds.20
The staff at St Leonards, headed by Louisa Lumsden, formerly of Cheltenham Ladies College were mostly graduates and encouraged the ideas of plain living and high thinking.
John Purvis was on the School Council for many years and acted as Chairman for the bulk of that time. Clara was a pupil at St Leonards from April 1878 to July 1879 during which time she was in the Upper Third Form.21 One of the teachers at the school, Constance Maynard, kept a diary in which Clara is mentioned several times and not to her credit. Such diary entries as ‘Clara’s ill-concealed smile’ and ‘whose influence was the worst possible’ and ‘rude, loud and on the look-out for fun’ 22 leads us to believe that Clara, aged about thirteen, was not the best behaved of pupils. In fact according to Clark Clara hated school.23
Perhaps part of the reason for this was that from about 1878 to 1880 the rest of the Purvis family was living in Bruges, Belgium or was it simply that she did not respond to being taught matters of substance and to use her mind. It appears that John Purvis’s affairs were undergoing financial difficulties as a result of a series of bad harvests, bad weather and a fall in the price of corn following the repeal of the Corn Laws. Kinaldy was rented out for the shooting while the family moved to Bruges where they could live more cheaply and where John Purvis had family connections.24
Clara joined the family in Bruges for the Christmas holidays in 1878 where she put pressure on her mother to let her leave St Leonards. According to Clark Clara could always persuade her mother to do as she wished and Mina could always influence her husband. As Mina did not approve of the ethos of the school either she was probably won over quite easily. This episode is an early indication of Clara’s character in that she was very strong minded and liked her own way and was often described as ‘difficult’. Clara did not return to St Leonards after July 1879 but was sent to a convent school in Bruges. How she performed there we do not know.25 The family underwent tragedy in Bruges in 1879 when Clara’s younger sister Mona died of pleurisy. This affected John Purvis for the rest of his life as Mona had been a favourite child.26
1880s. The Social Whirl
By the time of the 1881 census the Purvis Family was back at Kinaldy without Clara. She had been sent to The Beehive School in Windsor at the urging of her mother even though the family finances were rather stretched at this time. Correspondence between John Purvis and his wife early in 1880 gives us further indication that Clara was ‘difficult’.
Mina writes in February 1880:
I wish to send Clara to school and this cannot be delayed until we have the money as she will be sixteen in July and she should be at school till she is eighteen. We must borrow what is necessary as I think it is the only chance of making her a girl we can have any comfort in.
John Purvis replied:
As for Clara, though you do not say so I see she is giving you trouble. To spend £500 on sending her to a fashionable boarding school is, in my opinion, just so much money thrown away- she appears to delight in living in a spirit of antagonism to anyone she should be subject to and until she is …less insolent in manner and speech need not care where you send her.27
The Beehive School had been set up by Mariana Alice Browning in 1876 for the education of girls whose brothers were attending Eton College which is also in Windsor. The Beehive School was relocated to Bexhill-on-Sea in 1900.28 According to the 1881 census Clara was one of 27 girls at the school ranging in age from eleven to seventeen. There were four female teachers all in their twenties as well as the headmistress and nine servants at The Beehive.29 There is no information as to how long she stayed there. There is no mention of her in her father’s diaries for quite some time so perhaps Clara did not cause her parents any problems whilst at the school.30
After leaving school Clara lived the social life typical of a young lady of her ‘class’. She loved the outdoors and was a keen tennis player, golfer and foxhunter. She was an excellent horsewoman and a member of the Fife Hunt. Clara excelled at all sports 31 and was a member of the St Andrews Ladies Golf Club and the Fifeshire Lawn Tennis Association. There are many newspaper reports of Miss C. Purvis being successful in the Fifeshire Lawn Tennis Annual Championships.32 She also took part in the social whirl of St Andrews attending, along with other members of her family, the annual Fife Hunt Ball and the Annual Ball of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of which her father was a member.33
Clara benefited from her father’s enthusiasm for travel and in 1885 she accompanied her parents,brother Aleck and sister Ethel on a trip to the Rhineland. They visited Heidelberg, Treves, Spa, Brussels and Bruges. Unfortunately Mina developed bronchitis while the family were in Stuttgart causing great worry to her husband.34
In March 1886 Clara was bridesmaid at her sister Ethel’s wedding to Thomas Jeffrey of Edinburgh.35 There is a family story that Clara was presented at court -presumably when she was about eighteen and possibly in Edinburgh but as yet there is no documentary evidence to back this up.
For an unmarried woman of the time Clara had a lot of freedom visiting her friends on her own and joining her parents on their travels. According to Alwyn Clark,’ she could usually get her own way with her mother and as her mother could usually get JP to do what she wanted then Clara was not being frustrated as may women in her position would have been’.
Clara was now twenty- two but there is little information regarding any romance in her life. However while her father was on his second business trip to Hawaii in 1886-7 Mina took Clara to Cannes about which her mother wrote:
As far as I am concerned I could leave without regret but K(Clara) likes the life greatly.There are a number of pleasant young men, lots of tennis and a dance every week, and she usually meets with a good deal of attention and, as I came for her I shall stay until nearly the end of the month.
According to Clark one of the ‘pleasant young men’ was a Mr Glover whom Clara got to like. When Mina discovered that Mr Glover’s father’s name was over a shop called ‘Tailor and Clothier’ she put an end to the friendship, presumably as being unsuitable. Mina wrote to her husband on 27th December 1886 that Clara felt it very much but that she had given him up and her mother was sorry for her.36
Another trip took place in December 1889 this time to Egypt spending a few days in Malta on the way arriving in Alexandria on Christmas Day37 and then to Shepherd’s Hotel in Cairo where once again Mina was ill.38
1890s. Travel and More Travel
Clara’s diary for the first half of 1890 records lots of socialising in Cairo and Alexandria, numerous mentions of army officers and going to the races. She appears to be having a ball. The Purvises visited Pireaus and Athens, Trieste on April 6,Venice on April 7 followed by a tour round Italy. In May they were in Mainz on the Rhine and were back in London by 21 June where they dined at Hampton Court at whose invitation is not known.39
The Purvis family are nowhere to be found in the 1891 Census. Where were they? According to Clara’s diary for 1891 the family were off again on an extended voyage back to Egypt via the Mediterranean . One of the ships they were on was the SS AgiaSophia which called in at several North African ports. On February 2 the Purvises, ‘lunched with the Rempsters ,intro to Colonel Kitchener’ presumably the Kitchener who later became famous for his service in the Sudan, Boer War and First World War. Clara visited Luxor and ‘Karnak on a donkey’ and on March 30 visited the Bey’s Palace in Tunis. She was back in England in time to attend Ascot on June 11. 40
She was off again in 1893 leaving London on the SS Victoria this time to Gibraltar, Tangiers then to Spain where she spent time in Malaga, Seville, Cordoba and Granada.41 In 1894 she went on a trip to India with a Miss Price where ‘they travelledwidely and were treated royally and did not return until 1896.’42
It is in 1896 that the first references to ‘Mr Grahame ‘appear in Clara’s diary for that year. There are also references to quite a few letters to Mr Grahame who is given the initial “J”.43 Lieutenant John Crum Grahame (Jack)of the 2nd Battalion Highland Light Infantry was to be Clara’s future husband.
By 1898 Jack appears to have become a fixture in Clara’s life. He accompanied Clara and her mother on a trip to Dieppe on 3 June 3 and there are numerous references to her watching Jack fishing at Gilmerton (her brother Robert’s home) and dining at Kinaldy.In 1898 Clara had her portrait painted. A letter written to her brother Herbert in that year illustrates the rather cold relationship she appears to have with her father. She writes:
My portrait which I think your father rather depreciated (sic) is thought a very good likeness. No doubt it is a well-painted picture and will therefore do credit to the family gallery. Your father is obdurate about having his done so there is no use fighting him.44 It seems sad she could not just call him ‘Father’.
1900-1905. A Difficult Time
Clara was back at Kinaldy by the time of the 1901 census along with her parents and youngest brother Robert who was at home possibly recovering from wounds he had received in 1900 fighting in the Boer War. Clara was thirty -seven by this time. These years were not happy ones as in 1900 Clara’s mother had a severe stroke which affected her speech. A trained nurse, Margaret McKenzie, was also living at Kinaldy presumably to take care of Mina.45 John Purvis had become very deaf by this time and
was unable to discuss matters with Mina because he could not understand her slurred speech. This was a very unhappy time for him as on top of Mina’s illness he and Clara did not enjoy a good relationship.
Part of the problem appears to have been the worry over the financial provision her father would make for her after her parent’s death. This issue was made more pressing when The Amicable Life Insurance Company refused to insure John Purvis’s life in Clara’s favour after he had undergone a medical examination in Edinburgh. J P wrote in the spring of 1901:
I was kept in hot water with respect to Clara’s provision,giving rise to much acrimony and unpleasantness and in order to avoid matters coming to an impasse I yielded…much against my better judgement.
This appears to mean Clara was put in charge of running the household.46
No other members of the family were living at Kinaldy at that time and Clara seems to have used her new authority to its utmost. Although Clara’s brothers Aleck and Herbert recognised the misery Clara was causing their father they did not confront her even though Aleck admitted that ‘Father leads a dog’s life in his own house’.
She behaved rather strangely in several ways according to the family papers. For example she accused her brother Herbert’s children, Arthur and Inez, of stealing when they were visiting their grandparents at Kinaldy which angered Herbert’s wife greatly. Apparently the butler had complained that Arthur had taken food from the press. When questioned by Herbert the butler denied making any such complaint. Clara forbade the children to be given anything without her orders. Even more strange was a short note in the family archives from Clara’s youngest brother Robert to Herbert telling him:
Mother asks me to tell you she hopes you come out today and that when you come you will lock your bicycle up in the School Room. This is because Clara puts pins in the tyres when it is left in the lobby.
Clara also read her father’s letters and diaries and treated the servants very unfairly. So bad was the situation that in November 1904 the butler, gardener and coachman had gone before JP knew they had been given notice. By 11th July 1905 JP had been more or less driven from his own house. He wrote to his son Herbert from the Monifeith House Hotel,
I have thought it expedient to evacuate the house …. Your Mother is now so much under the evil influence of Clara that I thought more prudent on the fifty-third anniversary of our wedding to clear out.47
Of course there are always two sides to every family dispute but Clara’s behaviour does seem rather inexplicable.
As we have seen Clara had met John Crum Grahame(Jack) around 1896 when he began to appear in her diaries. Jack is recorded in various newspapers as attending social functions with the Kinaldy Party from that time.48 He also accompanied Clara and her parents on a visit to Harrogate in 1902. It is unclear how they met but Clara’s brother Harry was also in the Highland Light Infantry so perhaps they met through him. It appears to have been a long courtship. Perhaps the Boer War and other military offences postponed thoughts of marriage or there may have been another reason. Correspondence between brothers Harry and Herbert tells us:
The Mother told me yesterday that it is her belief that Clara is waiting for the Father’s death in order to marry Grahame ,intending thereby to profit by the clause in Father’s will, which gives a larger allowance if she is unmarried at her death.49
1905-1914 Married at Last
The marriage between Clara and Jack Grahame took place in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh on 27 July 1905. Any friction between Clara and her father appears to have been put aside and the bride was given away by her father. As there is no mention of Mina in the press report of the wedding we can presume she was too ill to attend. The reception was held at the Roxburgh Hotel in Edinburgh after which the couple left for a honeymoon in the Austrian Tyrol.50 At this time Jack was attached to the Egyptian Army serving in the Sudan and Clara returned to Kinaldy after the honeymoon, presumably to take care of her mother. Relations between father and daughter do not appear to have improved as in his diary for 30 September 1905 JP wrote:
Do not see how I can continue to live here while Clara is at the head of affairs-setting everyone by the ears and making mischief continually.51
It is difficult to account for this state of affairs but everything was about to change. On October 14th 1905 Mina lapsed into a coma and died at midnight. Clara wrote in her diary on Sunday 15 October :
My Mother died just at midnight with her hand in mine. She looked up just before death and gave me a sad loving look and I think recognised the others.52
JP was eighty-six two days later. Clara moved to Gilmerton the home of her youngest brother Robert but not before dismissing all the servants without consulting her father. She also took with her items which did not belong to her according to her father.53This matter was eventually sorted out only with the intervention of William Kirk an Edinburgh lawyer who was also a relative and this seemed to put an end to the battle between Clara and her father.54
Kinaldy House was rented to JP’s eldest daughter Ethel and her husband Tom Jeffreys and JP moved to the Imperial Hotel St Andrews and then to a house in Queens Gardens St Andrews. JP’s eldest son Aleck took over the running of the Kinaldy Estate.56
The couple returned to Kinaldy after the honeymoon and on 7 September Jack left for the Sudan.56 It was not until January 1906 that Clara set off to join him. She was in Cairo by February where she sees the local sights and socialises with other army types. She arrived in Khartoum in Sudan on Thursday 15 March via Luxor and sees Jack who looks ill.57
In 1908 Jack was posted to India and Clara went with him. Entries in her diary record the journey thus:
January 16thpassed Malta, January 24th passed Aden,30th January arrived in Bombay,3rd February arrived Dinapore after which Jack left for Barrackpore.
Clara joined him on 10 March and they enjoyed some socialising in Calcutta. They were still in Calcutta in November 1908 and appear to have stayed there for a further year.58 By this time Jack had been promoted to Major.59
John Purvis died on 21 June 1909 in a nursing home in Edinburgh60 and Clara inherited Lingo Estate which her father had purchased in 1852. Lingo Estate adjoins the Kinaldy Estate to the south west.61 This was to be the home of Clara and Jack until 1952.62
In 1910 Jack was with the Second Battalion HLI in Cork.63 He also took part in the Coronation Ceremony of King George Vth in 1910 after which he was awarded the Coronation Medal.64 In 1911 he was appointed Superintendent of the Military Prison in Cork. 65 There is no information regarding Clara’s whereabouts during this period and she does not appear to be in the Census records for England, Scotland or Ireland. By 1913 and with war looming Jack was commanding the Third Battalion HLI, a Special Reserve Battalion based in Hamilton.66 Jack was in command of the troops during the visit of George Vth and Queen Mary to Hamilton in July 1914.67
An advertisement had appeared in the Situations Vacant section of the Scotsman on 30 May 1914 asking for a house sewing maid from early June for a small house in Lanarkshire to serve a lady and gentleman. Particulars were to be sent to Mrs J C Grahame at 31 Dover Street, London. This suggests that Clara and Jack would be living near to the Hamilton Depot and also that they had a base in London. The advertisement also tells us that a cook and butler were also employed.,
War Years 1914-18
On 19 August 1914 Jack was promoted Temporary Lieutenant Colonel of the 10th (Service) Battalion HLI which he had raised organised and trained. In May 1915 he and his battalion were sent to France.68 Clara appears to have spent at least some time in London as on June 5 1915 an advertisement appears in the Hamilton Advertiser asking for donations for comforts for the 10th Battalion HLI and that donations be sent to Mrs J C Grahame wife of Lt Colonel Grahame at the Dover Street address.
An entry in Clara’s diary for 25 September 1915 tells us that Jack was badly gassed at the Battle of Loos. In January 1916 he was Mentioned in Dispatches for ‘gallant and distinguished conduct in the field’.69 He continued to command the 10th battalion until March 1916 when he was invalided home presumably because of the cumulative effects of front line service. Later entries in Clara’s diary inform us that she went to visit him in hospital in Dublin and brought him back to England on the night boat.70 What Clara does not mention, perhaps because she was preoccupied with Jack, was that her nephew John,son of Clara’s brother Herbert, was killed on 25 September71 and her brother Harry was wounded while commanding the 15th Battalion HLI and for which he won the DSO.72
Jack returned to the front in December 1916 in command of the 10th/11th HLI, then the 12th Battalion, later the 9th Battalion (The Glasgow Highlanders). Finally he assumed field command of his old battalion the 2nd HLI. Also in December 1916 he was promoted to full Lt Colonel.73 In April 1917 at the Battle of Arras Jack was severely wounded and this put an end to his front line service until the end of the war.74 There is no information at this point as to Clara’s activities during the war.
In October 1919 Jack attended the funeral of Major General Scrase- Dickinson who had been invalided out of the HLI after the Battle of Loos in October 1917 and never recovered. Scrase -Dickinson had been best man at Jack and Clara’s wedding in July 1905.75
Jack retired from the army in 192176 as a result of his wounds and he and Clara lived at Lingo House until 1951.There are few snippets of information about Jack and Clara during the 1920s. On 1 January 1927 The Scotsman reported a break-in at Lingo House on 18/19 November when James Taylor of no fixed abode stole an Indian tweed overcoat, scarf, lady’s coat, three postage stamps and two message bags. Taylor was sent to prison for six months.
There is little information about Jack and Clara in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Clara’s brother Robert owned the nearby Gilmerton and Brigton Estates while her brother Harry lived at Kinaldy which he had bought from his elder brother Alexander in 1921.77 One presumes there would be contact between the siblings. Clara’s great nephew John Purvis remembers cycling over to Lingo to visit Clara and despite her fearsome reputation does not remember having any problem with his great-aunt and describes Jack as ‘quitedelightfully easy going‘.78 There are numerous mentions in the local press about Jack’s salmon fishing on the River Tay. One day in February 1935 he caught a 20lb salmon79, in January 1937 a 22lb fish80 and in January 1939 a 27lb salmon.81
In November 1940, 551 acres of the Lingo Estate was requisitioned for war use.82 According to his obituary Jack played his part in the Home Guard from 1940 until 1944.83
According to family legend Clara continued to be a force to be reckoned with. One story relates how a visitor to Lingo during the war found the local post lady sitting in the hall. When asked why she replied that she had been ordered by Mrs Grahame to wait until she had finished her correspondence so the post lady could take it with her to the post office.84
In 1949 Jack made a claim to the General Claims Tribunal for damage done during the requisition period. He was awarded £1500. At a different tribunal, the Land Court in 1951, the Secretary of State put in a claim for £3430 for improvements done during the requisition period. This was reduced to £2150 and was upheld by the Land Court. A case of two tribunals looking at an issue from different points of view as the judges commented. The final outcome of the matter is unknown.85
Jack and Clara sold Lingo in October 1951 and moved to an apartment in Cameron House Arden Dunbartonshire86 where they lived until Jack’s death on 19 August 1952.He was buried in Dunino Churchyard with representatives of the Highland Light Infantry honouring him.87
Clara moved back to Fife and lived in a flat at Strathvithie House, Dunino. She died two years later on 17th August 1954 and was buried in Dunino Churchyard alongside Jack.88
As well as the three paintings she donated to Glasgow Museums Clara donated to the 2nd Battalion HLI a silver bowl which Jack had won in Jersey riding his horse Sir James. To the regimental depot she left a testimonial for valor signed by King George V after the 1914-18 war along with an oak display table and a French cabinet containing Jack’s manuscripts with maps and portraits of the history of the 74th Highland Regiment. After several bequests the residue of her estate which was £24,714 was used to set up the John Grahame of Lingo Memorial Trust which is still used to help the families of former HLI soldiers especially for education purposes.89
Appendix. The Hawaii Connection
Archibald Scott Cleghorn whose family came from Anstruther in Fife, had gone out to Honolulu with his father in 1851 to set up a dry goods business. He stayed on after his father’s death and expanded the business. He married Miriam K Likelike, his second wife, whose brother David became the King of Hawaii in 1874. As David had no children the Cleghorn’s daughter Victoria Kaiulani (Princess Kaiulani) became heir presumptive to the throne of Hawaii. Hers is an interesting but sad story. She returned to Hawaii after a British education only to see her country annexed by the USA in 1893 and died in 1899 at the age of twenty-three.90
Clara’ brother Herbert had gone out to Hawaii in the late 1870s to join his father’s cousin Robert Purvis who had invested in a sugar plantation in Hawaii, John Purvis having given Herbert £1000 to start him off. The investment at Kukuihaele was extended to include a sugar mill.91
The Cleghorn family were related to the Sprots of Strathnivie, the estate which bordered Kinaldy and so were neighbours of the Purvises.92 Nancy Sprot was a bridesmaid at Jack and Clara’s wedding.93Through that connection the Purvis family became close to Princess Kaiulane . She was godmother to Herbert’s daughter Inez and gave her a napkin ring made of silver Hawaiian coins as a christening gift. This gift is still in the possession of the Purvis Family. Clara must have known her, as she signed Kauilane’s autograph book sometime in the 1880s, probably during the time the princess was at school in Britain.94
My grateful thanks to Clara’s great -nephew John Purvis and his wife Louisa for welcoming me into their home and sharing information about the history of Purvis Family which John has been researching for many years. I am particularly grateful for his discovery of Aylwin Clarks biography of Clara’s father John Purvis of Kinaldy. Thanks also to their son Rob who also welcomed me into his home and gave me permission to use wonderful family photographs and portraits. Rob was also responsible for extracting invaluable information from Clara’s diaries which I used in Clara’s story. Last but not least I must thank Angela Tawse, Librarian of St Leonard’s School, St Andrews for confirming Clara’s attendance at the school and for putting me in touch with the Purvis family. JMM
In 1947, the portrait of Adam Carter Hay was offered to Glasgow museums by the lawyer acting for Jesse Henderson Hay on the instructions of her late husband that the painting should be given to Glasgow museums to hang in the People’s Palace (1). The painting was a portrait by Maurice Greiffenhaggen of Adam C Hay painted on the occasion of his retirement from R and J Dick.
Jessie Henderson Smith was born to John Smith and Agnes Marion Smith née Ferrier on the 12 November 1893 in Cardross. (2) Her father was a headmaster and her parents had been married in Kirkliston. (3) Little is known of her early life and education and she first appears in the 1901 Census (4) visiting Newington with her mother and older sister. She was the second wife of Adam Carter Hay and their marriage certificate (5) of 12 March 1926 describes her as a private nurse. Her husband died on the 13 September 1936. (6) She is next found travelling to Montréal in 1937. (7) When and where she died is not known.
Adam Carter Hay has been described in the Bailie as the archetypal example of “rags to riches”. (8) He was born on 16 May 1861 to William Hay, harbour labourer, and his wife Margaret Campbell living in Clyde Street, Glasgow. (9) He was with the Dick Company for 47 years starting as an office boy, then becoming a labourer proceeding to foreman and finally retiring as managing director. The Bailie has described him as being” an outstanding personality controlling a great business who retained the affection and loyalty of all grades of his employees”.(10) They attribute this to his knowledge of the business from A to Z. He was also a well-known figure in the business and social life of Glasgow; a member of Trades House and a Mason and a member of the other charitable organisations. Particularly as President of the Bridgeton Burns Club he was the moving spirit in raising £1150 for the Erskine House Hospital for Disabled Sailors and Soldiers in October 1917.
To understand the working life of Adam Hay one must describe the firm set up by the Dick Brothers. This is very fully chronicled in “100 years of Gutta-percha, R and J Dick Ltd” by Aird and Coghill Ltd Glasgow. (11) R and J Dick were from Kilmarnock. (12) They moved with their parents to Glasgow at an early age and John was apprenticed to an upholsterer and Robert to a jeweller but it was the coming of gutta-percha which made their fortune. Gutta-percha was rubber from Singapore. They made rubber soled shoes – 34,000 per week at the height of production – in the Greenhead works on Glasgow Green. In the 1840s, adequate insulation was needed for the transatlantic cables and gutta-percha proved ideal for this. They worked successfully with William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, on developing these cables.
The next opportunity came with the increase in the number of manufacturing industries and the need for transmission belts in factories. In the 19th century power transmission was achieved solely by leather belting but this was not entirely satisfactory. In 1885 Robert Drake produced a driving belt made from rubber. Gutta percha was not suitable for this because it was too soft but a vegetable gum known as balata was found in South America. Thus the balata belt industry was born and became global.
Adam Hay (13) was recognised as an expert in belting and he superintended important installations in many of the great factories on the continent notably in France, Spain and Germany. He also took a leading part in the establishment and opening up of the Passaic factory, New Jersey.
On the death of James Dick, in 1902, the business was left to a number of his old employees, among whom was Mr Adam Hay. He resigned in 1920 but on the death of the then managing director, he was reappointed and remained in post until his death.
He married twice. His first wife with whom he had four daughters was Ellen Todd(14) and after her death he married Jessie Henderson Smith in 1926.(15) He died on the 13th September, 1936.(16) The date of death of Jessie Hay is not known.
Minutes of Glasgow City Council 17th May 1947
National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Births 1893
National Records of Scotland Census 1901
National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Marriages 1926
National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Deaths 1936
Ancestry.co.uk Passenger Lists 1937
The Bailie. Men you know.2444. August 20th 1919
National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Births 1861
Miss Christina Russell left four paintings to Glasgow in 1927. (1) They were Lochranza Castle by William Beattie Brown; Arcady by Cecil Ray; Glenn Affric by Horatio McCulloch and Kirkcudbright by James G Laing.
Christina Russell can be seen as a not atypical female donor to Glasgow Museums at the beginning of the twentieth century. It is much easier to define her by the details of male relatives’ lives and by the houses in which she lived than to find anything about her own interests and pursuits. She was born on 24 July 1877 in Glasgow (2) to Thomas Russell and his wife Jessie, née McGregor, then living in Bute Terrace, Queens Park, Glasgow. Her father was a retail fruit merchant who sold from the Old Fruit Market in Glasgow in partnership with William Turnbull and their names may be seen on the balcony in the Old Fruit Market. (3)
The business was dissolved in 1923 on the retirement of three of the Turnbull brothers and continued by Thomas Russell, the son, as sole owner(4). There were three other children, Catherine ((1876 to 8 June 1961)(5), Thomas (1879 to 8 February 1927)(6) and Alexander (1883 to 19 January 1915).(7) Christine lived in the family home all her life moving from Kinning Park to Govan, 29 Princess Square,(8) and then finally to Newark Drive in Pollokshields. (9) In the next 10 years family members died and she was left alone.Her brother Alexander had married Margaret Ritchie in London in 1912(10) and moved back to Glasgow to Fotheringay Road where he died in 1915. (11) Her father, Thomas, died in April 19, 1915. (12) His obituary said that he had been a Justice of the Peace and one time Chairman of the Agricultural Society.(13) Her mother, Jessie, died in July 1925 (14) and her brother, Thomas, died in July 1927.(15) Her sister-in-law, Margaret Russell lived in Terregles Avenue.(16)
The Wills of Thomas senior ((17) and of his son Thomas (18) show that both were successful businessmen. It was after the death of her brother Thomas that she gave these four paintings to Glasgow. Was this the reason for the donation? There is no information about the purchase of these paintings and who was the art lover.
Christine Russell died on 1 November 1939(19) and her ashes are buried in the family lair in Cathcart Cemetery. Unfortunately the gravestone is face down but details were available from East Renfrewshire Council(20).
Glasgow City Council Minutes.
National Records of Scotland Statutory Births 1877
On the 18 October 1950, three oil paintings were presented to Glasgow by Mrs Carola Yapp of 14 Clareville Court, Clareville Grove, London, S.W.7.
The paintings were an oil by Cora J. Gordon (1879 – 1950), France – The Village on the Hills (2685) and two oils by Jan (Godfrey Jervis) Gordon (1882 – 1944) – The Melon Guzzlers (2866) and The Gypsy Singer (2867).
“There was submitted a letter from Mrs. Carola Yapp offering two paintings by Jan Gordon and one by Cora Gordon as gifts to the Corporation. There was also submitted a report by the Director and the committee agreed that the paintings be accepted and that an expression of thanks be conveyed to the donor”.1
Carola Florence Stanuell was born in Dublin on the 6 August 1893. She was the second child of Charles Athill Stanuell, a Dublin solicitor, and Ida Marion Turner. Ida who was from Buxton in Derbyshire was the elder sister of the artist Cora Gordon.2 In addition to being a solicitor, Carola`s father was also a wealthy landowner and was secretary of the Incorporated Law Society of Ireland from 1913 to 1917. At the census of 31 March 1901 the family was living at 7 Clyde Road, Pembroke West in Ballsbridge, a well-to-do area on the south side of Dublin. The household consisted of Charles aged 48, Ida, 32 and their two daughters, Dorothy Helen 8 and Carola Florence 7 and three servants.3
On the 18 December 1918 Carola Stanuell married Charles Peter Yapp a lieutenant in the Bedfordshire Regiment in St. Bartholomew’s Church on Clyde Road, Dublin where Carola had lived as a child.4 After their marriage the regiment was posted to India where the couple remained for about four years. On 23 September 1922 they arrived back in Plymouth having sailed from Bombay. Charles’ occupation on the ship’s manifest was “army” while Carola’s was “domestic”. He was 27 she was 29. They took up residence in Great House Court, East Grinstead.5
In 1928 Carola gave birth to a son Peter Michael Stanuell Yapp in Kensington, London.6 From about 1932 till World War II, the family lived at Flat 5, 16 Emperor’s Gate, Kensington with Carola’s sister Dorothy Helen (and briefly, her mother Ida Marion) residing with them.7 After the war Charles, Carola and Peter moved to 14 Clareville Court.
After Carola’s husband Charles died in London in 1955 aged 59 8 her sister Dorothy moved in with her. By this time her son Peter had married and was living in Kingston, Jamaica and on 23 May 1958 Carola sailed from London to visit Peter and his wife Rita. Her address in the UK on the ship`s manifest was White House Hotel, Earls Court, London. She is listed as having “no occupation”.9 The visit seems to have gone well with Rita subsequently describing her mother-in-law as “a very sweet lady”.10
After spending some months in Kingston she flew to La Porte, Texas on 5 August, 1958 and then on to Miami. Her address was Stewart House, London.11 Returning to Kingston she sailed to London arriving on 26 September 1958. Her address was now West Heath Road, Hampstead and her occupation “housewife”.12
Carola Florence Yapp died on 24 July 1971 aged 78 in Hendon, Greater London.13
It remains a mystery as to why these three paintings were donated to Glasgow by a woman who was born in Dublin and spent most of her life in London. Jan Gordon died in 1944 and when Cora Gordon died six years later their paintings and artefacts appear to have been dispersed. There is a possibility that before her death Cora had asked her niece Carola to gift the three paintings to Glasgow because of a prior connection to the city 14 although nothing was mentioned specifically in her will. In any event the paintings were duly presented to Glasgow three months after Cora’s death.
Glasgow Corporation Minutes, 18th October 1950 – Mitchell Library, Glasgow
ancestry.co.uk, UK Incoming Passenger Lists 1878 -1960
Family Search, England and Wales Birth Registration Index, 1837-2008
ancestry,co.uk, London Electoral Registers 1832 – 1965
ancestry.co.uk, England and Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007
ancestry.co.uk, UK Outward Passenger Lists, 1890-1960
Personal communication via Ken Bryant
ancestry.com, Florida Passenger Lists 1898-1963
ancestry.co.uk, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878 – 1960
ancestry.co.uk, England and Wales National Probate Calendar, 1858-1995
Suggestion from Ken Bryant. Ken has spent many years researching the life and works of Jan and Cora Gordon. http://www.janandcoragordon.co.uk/. He still keeps in touch with some members of the family including Rita Yapp.
In November 1950 a Mr. John Duncan M.B.E., of Cairnhouse, Wigtown, donated to Glasgow Museums an oil painting of the Glasgow Tobacco Lord John Glassford and his family. How did it come about that a farmer, born in the small parish of Menmuir, Angus in 1897, had in his possession that particular painting which was begun around 1765 and completed sometime after Glassford married his third wife in December 1768?
As it turns out it was not by purchase but by direct descent through the Glassford family to him. These notes will tell the story of the painting’s journey to John Duncan and also comment on the people it portrays.
Firstly, it may be useful to relate some of the history of John Glassford and his marriages.
His first marriage was to Anne Coats whom he married in 1743.  Her father Archibald Coats, a Glasgow merchant, along with Bailie George Carmichael, was taken hostage in 1745 by Bonnie Prince Charlie to ensure the terms he enforced on Glasgow were implemented. These demands included “six thowsand shirt cloath coats, twelve thowsand linnen shirts, six thowsand pairs of shoes and the like number of pairs of tartan hose and blue bonnets.”
John and Anne had five children, all but one dying in infancy. Daughter Jean, born in 1746, was to become a ‘staging post’ for the painting’s journey. Anne died a few weeks after giving birth to her fifth child in 1751.
Less than a year later in 1752 Glassford married Ann Nisbet the daughter of Sir John Nisbet of Dean. They had six children, born between 1754 and 1764, all of whom, with the exception of the fifth child John, survived into adulthood. Ann Nisbet died in April 1766 from child bed fever.
In 1768 there were two Glassford family marriages. The first was that of daughter Jean who married James Gordon on the 18th August. This marriage was key to the painting getting to John Duncan.
The second was when Glassford married his third wife Lady Margaret McKenzie, daughter of the Earl of Cromarty, on the 7th December. There were three children of this marriage, born between 1770 and 1773. Unfortunately, just over five weeks after the third child Euphemia was born, Lady Margaret died on the 29th March.
It’s worth noting at this time that between 1745 and 1767 Glassford had bought three significant properties. The first was Whitehill House purchased c. 1745 and sold in 1759, the second was Shawfield Mansion bought the following year for 1700 guineas from William McDowall, and finally the Dougalston Estate, purchased from the Grahame family in 1767.
In common with the two other major tobacco traders Alexander Speirs and William Cunninghame, Glassford was fabulously wealthy during this period, however, that was not to last, particularly as far as Glassford was concerned.
By the early 1770s the general tobacco trade was not in the best financial health. The business model was such that debt (money owed by the planters to the traders) had grown significantly, resulting in potential working capital and cash flow problems in the longer term. When the War of Independence broke out in 1775 it signalled the end of the trade as it had been. As the war progressed the French market collapsed due to French sympathies lying with the revolutionaries, import volumes dropped and debts were not being paid as settlers probably saw a way out of their debt issues.
What of Glassford’s fortune? His difficulties began before the commencement of the war. He was by nature a gambler both in business and in gaming. In particular a number of disastrous business speculations between 1774 and 1778 fundamentally laid the foundations for the loss of his fortune. He believed the war was essentially an English conflict which should have not involved Scotland. He sided with the revolutionaries, unlike his peers, even to the point of refusing to sell ships to the government to aid the war effort, leaving them berthed in Port Glasgow Harbour. This at a time when he was already in deep financial trouble and could have done with the funds that these sales would have brought.
As 1783 approached Glassford’s financial affairs continued to be problematic and he was in poor health. On the 6th August he created a tailzie (entail) of his Dougalston estate in favour of his son Henry and his heirs thus protecting it from his creditors. On the 14th August he established a trust covering the rest of his property, real and personal, the purpose of which was the winding up of his financial affairs and to further protect the entailed Dougalston estate.
Glassford died on the 27th August 1783, cause of death was given as ’growth in stomach.’ He was buried in the Ramshorn Churchyard, where also lie several members of his family. It took a further ten years to sort out his finances, his personal debt amounting to £93,140. Today that sum would equate to somewhere between £11million and £1.1 billion, dependant on the measure used.
On his father’s death Henry, who was the only surviving son of Glassford and Ann Nisbet, succeeded to Dougalston. He was an advocate, was Rector of Glasgow University from 1805 until 1807 and MP for Dunbartonshire from 1806 to 1810. He never married and when he died in 1819 his half-brother James, son of Lady Margaret and John Glassford, succeeded him.
James’ succession to Dougalston was not without some difficulty. Henry had amassed significant debt during his life and in 1823 the terms of the tailzie was challenged in the Court of Session, the pursuers claiming the Dougalston estate was liable for these debts. In the event the pursuers lost, two of the five judges finding for the defender, one for the pursuers, and the two others excusing themselves as “they had an interest”!
James was also an advocate and legal writer. Despite marrying twice, he died in 1845  without any offspring. He was the last of John Glassford’s sons which meant that in accordance with the tailzie his daughter Jean Gordon would succeed. However, she had died in 1785, which meant that her eldest surviving son, James Gordon, would inherit. A further condition of the tailzie was that the surname Glassford should be adopted by any heir, should that be necessary. James Gordon therefore legally became James Gordon Glassford. By this means the painting began its journey to John Duncan.
James Gordon Glassford died two years later to be succeeded by his brother Henry Gordon, who, as required, adopted the surname Glassford. He married Clementina Napier in 1831 and had five children, the eldest being James Glassford Gordon, born in 1832. He inherited Dougalston on his father’s death in 1860 and became known as James Glassford Gordon Glassford. As far as I can tell he was the last Glassford owner of Dougalston.
James married Margaret Thomson Bain, the daughter of a banker, in 1861. There was no information found about them in the UK census of 1871 however in 1881 they were living at Over Rankeillour House in Monimail, Fife with ten children. This census also recorded that three of the children (two girls and a boy) had been born in Otago, New Zealand between 1868 and 1872, James being described as a Runholder (lessee of a sheep run) there. This explained their absence from Scotland in 1871.
In 1891 a similar picture emerged with another two daughters now living with the family, one had been born in New Zealand in 1879, the other born in Australia in 1865. Margaret was a widow by then, James having died in 1881. One other crucial piece of information was also evident. Staying with them at 35 Coats Gardens, Edinburgh was a 24 year old visitor by the name of James Duncan.
My first thoughts were along the lines of, which daughter did he marry? Well he did marry one of the daughters, as it turned out it was not one who had been recorded in either of the 1881 or 1891 censuses.
He married Margaret Edith Gordon Glassford in St Giles, Edinburgh on the 12th June 1894. He was a farmer aged 26, the son of a doctor, she was the daughter of James and Margaret, aged 29, living at 35 Coats Gardens.
Margaret Edith was born in 1864 in New South Wales, Australia. When she returned to the UK is not clear however in 1881 she was living with her aunt Christian’s family in Kent. Christian was the sister of her mother Margaret Bain.
By 1901 James and Margaret were living in Balfour, Menmuir where James farmed. They had two children, daughter Margaret aged five and son John aged three who was in due course to inherit the Glassford family painting. He was born on the 29th April 1897 at Menmuir and married Nancy Marion Robertson in 1943. They had one child James born in 1944 whilst they were living at Uckfield in Sussex.
John was awarded an MBE. I believe in 1943. I’m not entirely sure that this date is correct, but it is the best fit for him for the years 1940 to 1955. If this is indeed him, and I believe it is, then he was a pilot officer in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve in 1940, service number 03227. In 1942 he was a Flight Lieutenant and had been with the Administrative and Special Duties Branch before being released from active service.
He subsequently farmed at Cairnhouse in Wigtown and according to the present owner Mr. Colin Craig he remained there until c.1955 when Mr. Craig’s parents took over the farm. Mr Craig also related that John’s son James had died in tragic circumstances and that his wife Nancy and her daughter in law had visited the farm in the 1970s.
In generational terms John was John Glassford’s great, great, great grandson. It’s likely therefore he inherited the painting on his mother’s death in September 1950, her father James having previously inherited it along with Dougalston. On the 23 November he gifted it to Glasgow, which was the end of its journey within the Glassford family.
He died in the Royal Northern Infirmary in Inverness on the 13th August 1966, his normal home address being Allt-A-Bhruais, Spean Bridge.
The Family Portrait
The Glassford family portrait, as might be expected, demonstrates how wealthy John had become with the fine clothing on display and the room’s furnishings, which was within Shawfield Mansion. Much has recently been written about it particularly around the time (2007) when conservation work on the painting was being undertaken at Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum.
The painting contains the surviving children from his first two marriages and his third wife Lady Margaret McKenzie. The conservation work led by conservator Polly Smith established that his second wife Ann Nisbet had originally been included but had been painted out following her death in 1766, suggesting that it was in progress prior to that date or possibly had been completed. Lady Margaret would have been added subsequent to their marriage in 1768, probably early in 1769.
Another figure was also established behind John Glassford’s chair, that of a negro manservant. It had been believed previously that he had been painted out to avoid any family connection to slavery, however it seems that the figure simply faded over time.
I believe the children in the painting to be Jean at the rear to the right of her father, the middle row left to right being Rebecca, Christian, Anne, Catherine and on Lady Margaret’s lap Henry, and standing at the front, John.
Who was the negro servant and by what means did he come to Glassford’s household? Perhaps the answer lies in the following extracts from Frederick County, Maryland Land Records and the Maryland Genealogical Society Records.
Robert Peter or Peters was a Scottish tobacco factor working for John Glassford and Company in Maryland. He began in Bladensburgh circa 1746, moving to Georgetown in 1755. (In 1790 he became the first mayor of Georgetown). He was also John Glassford & Company’s attorney in Maryland. On the 27th September 1756, he bought a negro boy named Jim for 4,000 lbs of tobacco and £2 5s. For this purchase he is recorded as Glassford’s attorney. I think it probable therefore that this purchase was made in the name of the company. Why else record that it was made by the attorney of John Glassford?
Robert Peter bought other slaves but those records I have seen clearly state that the purchases were on his own or his family’s behalf, and they never involved a single slave purchase.
Was ‘Jim’ purchased for Glassford personally? Is he the manservant in the painting? In truth who knows but intriguing none the less.
Devine, Tom. (1975). The Tobacco Lords. John Donald, Edinburgh.
 Goodfellow, G. L. M. “Colin Campbell’s Shawfield Mansion in Glasgow.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 23, no. 3, 1964, pp. 123–128. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/988232.
 Devine, T. M. (1990) The Tobacco Lords. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 181.
 Castle, Colin M. (1989). John Glassford of Dougalston. Milngavie and Bearsden Historical Society. p. 22,23 and Oakley, Charles A. (1975). The Second City. Glasgow: Blackie. p. 7,8.
 Shaw, Patrick and Dunlop, Alexander. (1834) Cases Decided in the Court of Session 1822-1824. Vol II. Edinburgh: Thomas Clark.pp. 431 to 433.https://books.google.co.uk
 Maryland State Archives. Maryland Indexes, (Chancery Papers, Index), 1788-1790, MSA S 1432. 1790/12/013990: Robert Peter vs. William Deakins, Jr., Bernard O’Neal, Edward Burgess, Richard Thompson, John Peters, and Thomas Beall. MO. Contract to serve as securities. Accession No: 17,898-3990. MSA S512-4108 1/36
On the 21st November 1944 an oil painting by George Henry, R.A. In a Japanese Garden was presented by Mr. Edward N. Marshall, 8 Cleveden Drive, Glasgow, W.2.
“There was submitted a letter from Mr E. N. Marshall, 8 Cleveden Drive, Glasgow, offering to present to the Corporation the picture “In a Japanese Garden” by the late George Henry, and the committee, after hearing a report from the Director, agreed that the gift be accepted and that a letter of thanks be sent to the donor”. 1
In 1951 Mr E. N. Marshall also donated the following items:
Landscape, 1893, by Alexander Frew (2913), oil on canvas,
A Galloway Landscape, 1889 by Bessie MacNicol, (2914), oil on canvas,
Portrait of James Sellars, architect, 1880, by Georgina M. Greenlees, (2915), oil on canvas
A collection of 29 prints by various artists including Bone, Brockhurst, Cameron, McBey, Smith, Strang, Zorn etc. (PR.1960.23).
A collection of scrapbooks and other items ( OG1953.4)
(Part of this collection is displayed in the “Photographer`s Shop” window at the Riverside Museum, Glasgow and consists of a gift to a Mr and Mrs Paterson on the occasion of their Golden Wedding).
Edward Nixon Marshall was born on the 3rd June 1891 at 5 Spring Gardens, Kelvinside, Glasgow. His father, James Marshall, was a “master flour miller” who had married Mary Carswell Gow on the 6th March 1877. 2 In 1901 the family home was at Woodcroft House, Crow Road, Partick. Edward was a “scholar” aged 9.3 From 1904 to 1911, he attended Loretto School in Musselburgh initially in the Junior School (“Nippers”) and then until the age of 19 when he left from the sixth form. According to school records, he was a prize winner and prefect.4 In 1911 he was a boarder at 41, Linkfield Road, Inveresk, Musselburgh and was therefore presumably still attending Loretto. 5 From Loretto, he went on to Trinity College, Oxford as a Senior Commoner and graduated M.A. in 1914.6
In 1900, Edward`s father had set up his bakery business “James Marshall (Glasgow)”as a limited liability company with himself as managing director and his son James P. Marshall as the only other director. 7 The company manufactured biscuits under the trademarks of “Farola” and “Granola”. In 1906 two more of Marshall`s sons, Thomas and Allan, joined the company followed in 1908 by his youngest son Edward.
During the First World War, Edward Marshall served with the Duke of Wellington`s, Riding Regiment in France and Flanders. He was a 2nd Lieutenant in 1914 and gained the rank of Captain in 1916. He was mentioned in dispatches and was awarded the M.C. in the New Year`s Honours List of 1st January 1918. 8 (This decoration was awarded to Captain Marshall for an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy. However, because the award was made as part of the New Year`s Honours, citation details were not published).
After the war, Edward returned to work in the family firm which advertised itself as: “Marshall, James (Glasgow), Ltd., millers, proprietors of “Marshalls` Semolina”, and “Farola”, 25, Cumberland St., Calton.; telephone nos., 2637 and 93 Bridgton”9
Edward was meantime residing at 21 Eglinton Drive, Kelvinside. 10 On the 13th of September 1928 he joined the Merchants` House of Glasgow (fee 21 guineas). He gave the firm`s address as, 2, Orr Place and described himself as a “merchant”. 11 By 1930 he was living at 21, Cleveden Gardens and the firm was now described as “Macaroni Manufacturers” and proprietors of “Marshall`s Semolina” and “Farola”. 12
On the 11th of September 1935, Edward, then aged 44, married Gertrude Maie Hamilton Marshall at 62, Great George Street, Glasgow (the bride`s home). (Edward is described as a “Cereal Food Manufacturer, formerly married to Margaret Rosamund Leigh Gregor against whom he obtained Decree of Divorce). 13 The couple moved to 8, Cleveden Drive, Glasgow and by 1940, Edward had become Managing Director of Jas. Marshall (Glasgow), Ltd. 14 From 1944-46 he was also the Chairman of the Macaroni Section of the Food Manufacturer`s Association. 15
In 1925 Edward had become a governor of Loretto School. He maintained this association with his old school, becoming in 1946 Vice-chair of Governors till 1952 and Chairman of Governors from 1952 to 1956. He was also the President of the Fettesian-Lorettonian Club in 1951-52 and later, Lorettonian Society President from 1959 to 1963. He ceased to be a governor in 1961.16
Edward Nixon Marshall died on the 13th of March 1970 in a nursing home at 121 Hill Street, Glasgow. He was 78. He had been suffering from chronic bronchitis and emphysema. He was twice married and had been divorced from his first wife Rosamund Gregor. 17 His funeral took place at Glasgow Crematorium, Maryhill on the 17th of March 1970. 18
In his will he bequeathed the painting West Wind, Macrihanish by William McTaggart to Loretto School. The painting hung in the staffroom for many years until it was sold, with the consent of the family, at Gleneagles Hotel in 1998. The sum raised was £35,600, and helped to fund a new Technology Centre and library in the school. 19 Edward Marshall became a member of the Board of Governors of the Glasgow School of Art in 1943. 20 and this probably brought him into contact with leading artists of the day.
Glasgow Corporation, Minutes of Art Galleries and Museums Committee, 17th October, 1944, page 1542
Scotland`s People, birth certificate
ancestry.co.uk., 1901 Census
Records of The Lorettonian Society courtesy of Emma Sinclair, Membership Co-ordinator
ancestry.co.uk., 1911 Census
Records of The Lorettonian Society courtesy of Emma Sinclair, Membership Co-ordinator
Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography, 1860 – 1960, Anthony Slaven, Aberdeen University Press, 1986
London Gazette, 1st Jan 1918, page 41
Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1920-21
List of Members of the Merchants` House of Glasgow, Robert Anderson & Sons Ltd. 72, Howard Street, 1963; Matriculation Book of the Merchant`s House of Glasgow 1912-, Mitchell Library
Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1930-31
Scotland`s People, marriage certificate
Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1940-41
Records of The Lorettonian Society courtesy of Emma Sinclair, Membership Co-ordinator
Scotland`s People, death certificate
Glasgow Herald, 14th March, 1970, p16
Glasgow Herald, 29th August, 1998 and 3rd September, 1998
Glasgow School of Art, Archives, GOV 2/18, Board of Governor`s Minute Book, 1937-1945
In 1946 Lindsay MacArthur’s widow, Beatrice Butts Thomson, donated four paintings to Glasgow. Lindsay was an artist and two of these works were his own, The Golden Quarry and Pastorale, Evening.
Lindsay’s father, also Lindsay Grandison, was born in the village of Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire. (1) His mother Catherine McNicol, known as Kate, who hailed from Dublin was Lindsay’s second wife and was twenty- one years his junior. (2) They married in Liverpool in 1860and shortly moved to Braehead Villa, Oban in Argyll where Lindsay junior was born on 21 April 1865. (3) This was a period when the rail network was expanding, enabling many people to travel to coastal resorts. Oban was already a busy fishing town and ferry port. In 1866 Lindsay senior built the 80 room Alexandra Hotel, on vacant land which is now known as the Corran Esplanade, a prime site overlooking Oban Bay and competed with The Great Western Hotel for the top end of the market. He ran the hotel with his daughter Jane till his death in 1885. He left debts of £2478 of which £1000 was owed to Thomas Lawrie, art dealers in Glasgow, so perhaps Lindsay junior’s interest in art was inspired by his father. The hotel was then managed by Lindsay Senior’s wife until 1897 when it was put up for sale. (4) Although the family had a house at 3 Hampden Terrace in Glasgow, they resided mainly at the Alexandra in Oban in the 1870s. (5)
Lindsay junior appears to have had an early interest in art, attending Glasgow School of Art from 1881 to 1884. (6) In the 1891 census, when he was 25, he is described as a landscape painter. His brother Robert also studied art but by 1891 had become a surgeon. (7) Interestingly the 1881 census reveals that the artist William Black was staying at the Alexandra Hotel. He was a popular novelist whose landscape paintinginfluenced his writing style such as in White Wings: A Yachting Romance of 1880. (8)
Lindsaytravelled south in the 1890s and lived in the picturesque village of Broadway in The Cotswolds and became part of a group of artists known as The Broadway Group which was mainly comprised of expatriate American artists. The most prominent member was John Singer Sergeant who produced some of his best known works there such as Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose which was painted in the garden of Russell House in the village. This was the home of American artist Francis Millet who purchased the nearby Abbot’s Grange, a ruined monastery which he converted into a communal artists studio.
One of Millet’s best known works is Between Two Fires of 1892 which depicts a puritan standing between two rather confident kitchen maids. The puritan figure is modelled on Lindsay MacArthur who is described by a contemporary as ‘a highland landscape artist with a sardonic biting humour, a quick temper and fierce loyalties.’ (9)
Another of Millet’s paintings The Black Sheep, in The New Bedford Library, Massachusetts, and of a similar setting to Between Two Fires includes the same character modelled on MacArthur. Millet’s last return to the USA was, unfortunately, in 1912 when he boarded The Titanic and was last seen helping women and children as she sank. The bohemian Broadway Group had a reputation for the high life, with singing and drinking regularly breaking the peace of the village. The writer Edmund Gosse describes…’Nothing we do scandalises the villagers…one of the Americans was chased down the village street, screaming all the time and and trying to escape up lamp-posts and down wells. Not a villager smiled, they only say ‘them Americans is out again’. (10)
While at Broadway MacArthur designed a bookplate (National Galleries Scotland) for Lady Maud Bowes-Lyon, aunt to Her Majesty The Queen Mother. She lived at Orchard farm in the village and frequently hosted concerts in her music room (she was an accomplished violinist) and held regular art exhibitions. (11)
One of MacArthur’s donations Pastorale, Evening may have been painted during his stay in the Cotswolds, and he exhibited thirteen paintings at The Royal Academy between 1893 and 1904. (12)
The 1901 census places MacArthur at Spencer Street, London and little is known of his whereabouts in the following few years. However, he appears to have spent time travelling as many of his paintings from this period are landscapes and seascapes of Palestine and Ceylon with a few from France. He does not appear to have dated his work.
In 1934 Lindsay married Beatrice Butts Thomson in Chelsea. Beatrice was born in 1873 in Japan to British parents. (13) Her first husband, John Leslie Thomson was a landscape artist from Aberdeen and trained at The Slade in London He was a member of The New English Art Club and requested an invitation to one of Whistler’s famous 10 0’Clock lectures. He died in 1929. (14) They lived at 1 Hornton Street, Kensington. (15)
After their marriage Lindsay and Beatrice lived at 9a St Mary Abbot’s Place, Kensington and over the next few years Lindsay exhibited at Royal Scottish Academy with landscapes of England, Galilee and Ceylon. (16)
Lindsay died in Surrey in 1945 aged 80. (17) In 1946 Beatrice was living at 37 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edinburgh and she gifted paintings to public collections around Scotland with the majority going to Kirkcaldy Galleries. Around half of the donations were painted by Lindsay Grandson MacArthur, with the remainder by her first husband John Leslie Thomson. (18) It would appear that both artists were influenced by the French Impressionists, depicting fleeting moments of time and displayed a remarkably similar style to each other.
Beatrice moved to Devon, to the market town of Honiton where she died in 1956. (19)