Articles

Cecilia Douglas (1772-1862). Art Collector and Slave Owner.

To avoid confusion donor Cecilia Douglas will always be in bold.

In 1862 Mrs Cecilia Douglas (nee Douglas) bequeathed oil paintings and sculptures to the then Glasgow Corporation. The paintings, thirteen in total consisting of an old master, copies of old masters and other originals, initially were on display in the Mclellan Galleries in Sauchiehall Street. Currently they are located in the Glasgow Museum Resource Centre or on display in Kelvingrove Art Galleries.

Figure 1. Willem van Aelst (1627-after 1687). Still Life: Herring, Cherries and Glassware. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (www.artuk.org)
Figure 2. Vincenzo Camuccini (171-1844). The Death of Julius Caesar. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (www.artuk.org).

She and her husband Gilbert represented two different branches of the Douglas family. Hers, according to one source, perhaps wishful thinking, descended from the Douglas Earls of Angus via the Douglas families of Cruixton and Stobbs,[1] Gilbert’s from the Douglases of Mulderg in Ross-Shire.[2] Her mother was a Buchanan, descending from the Buchanans of Leny, Gilbert’s mother was a Robertson,  daughter of a farmer from Balcony (Balconie). Interestingly there is a line of descent chart which shows the Robertson family descending from Edward I of England and his wife, the daughter of the king of France.[3] All pre-eminent families, particularly the Douglases and the Buchanans who were heavily involved in the West Indies in the eighteenth century, owning plantations and dealing in sugar and tobacco.

Gilbert Douglas

Gilbert’s paternal ancestry can be traced back to Hector Douglas, the first of Mulderg, who is mentioned in the 1644 Valuation Roll of the Sheriffdom of Inverness and Ross. He seems to have been the proprietor of the estate from around 1630.He died before 1653, his son Hector succeeding him being ‘retoured as heir of his father’ (legally recognised). Son Hector had married Bessie Gray around 1630 producing at least three sons, however his time as owner of the estate was short lived as he died around 1657, to be succeeded by son Robert. Robert, his brother another Hector who succeeded him, both had no issue the estate passing on to a third brother, first name unfortunately not known. This brother was succeeded by his son Hector who was Gilbert’s great grandfather. Around 1718 the Douglases ceased to own Mulderg, Gilbert’s great grandfather’s eldest son (another Hector) being the last.[4]

The second son was Robert [5] who married Catherine Munro in 1703.[6] She was his second wife and they had three children one of whom was yet another Robert, a farmer in Balcony, who was Gilbert’s father. He married Janet Robertson, daughter of farmer Hugh Robertson also of Balcony, Gilbert being born in 1749. He was baptised in the parish church of Kiltearn in Ross-shire.[7]

Cecilia Douglas

From 1378 to 1660 there were twelve Douglas Earls of Angus, the last one being William Douglas, who became the Marquis of Angus in 1633. No clear connection has been established between the Earls and Cecilia’s father John Douglas, a Glasgow merchant, however I believe his first traceable direct ancestor, and Cecilia’s paternal great great grandfather was Robert Douglas, an Edinburgh merchant who married Helen Hunter in 1665.[8] According to the Douglas Archives website they had a son, Robert of Cruixton, who married Rachael McFarlane, who in turn had a son named William, John Douglas’s father. William was a merchant in Leith. He married Katherine Dunlop of Garnkirk[9] and died in 1772.[10]

John Douglas was born in Leith in 1727.[11] He married Cecilia Buchanan in 1766,[12] the daughter of George Buchanan, a maltman, burgess and guild brother of Glasgow. Her paternal ancestry can be traced back to Walter Buchanan of Leny in the sixteenth century, his grandson Andrew Buchanan of Gartacharn being her great grandfather. She shares this ancestry with Mary Buchanan, the wife of Alexander Speirs, who also was Andrew’s great granddaughter.

Andrew’s son George was a maltman in Glasgow, a member of the Trades House from 1674, where he held a number of positions. At various times he was also a Glasgow Bailie and Deacon Convener of the Trades House. He married twice, his second wife being Mary Maxwell, daughter of Glasgow merchant Gabriel Maxwell. They had ten children, seven sons and three daughters.

The eldest was also George, born in 1686 who followed in his father’s footsteps becoming a maltman in Glasgow. He was also Glasgow Burgh Treasurer at one point and became a Bailie in 1732.[13] He married three times, his third wife Cecilia Forbes, whom he married in 1736,[14] being the mother of Cecilia Buchanan who was born in 1740.[15]

George’s younger brothers Andrew, Neil and Archibald, who was Alexander Speirs’ father in law, were heavily involved in the American tobacco trade becoming Glasgow’s largest tobacco importer by 1730.[16]

The Family of John Douglas and Cecilia Buchanan

John and Cecilia had eleven children, all born in Glasgow, as follows:

·  William, b. October 1766.[17] Matriculated at Glasgow University in 1778.[18] Died before 1828, the Trust deed of Cecilia Douglas, written in 1828 refers to him as her late brother as she bequeathed to his daughter Rosina £250.[19] As the name Rosina in the Scotlandspeople records for that time is rare there is some reasonably strong evidence, but not fully conclusive, that William was a ship’s captain, had married Rosina Service, daughter Rosina being born in 1811.[20] She died in 1912,[21] the widow of Peter Drew whom she married in 1854,[22] her father being described as a master mariner.

·  George, b. May 1768.[23]

·  John, b. May 1768.[24]  What happened to his twin George has not been established except that he matriculated at Glasgow University in 1780 and died young.[25] John also matriculated at Glasgow[26] and afterwards was significantly involved with the sugar trade in Demerara, (British Guiana, now Guyana) probably on his own initially but subsequently with his brothers through the family firm of J. T. and A. Douglas & Co. Probably/possibly his involvement in the trade was through Gilbert Douglas who owned plantations in the West Indies. He actually lived in Demerara around 1800 owning, with his brothers, at least three sugar plantations directly, plus others indirectly as mortgagees.[27] Whilst there he fathered three children, two boys and a girl, with a free creole woman. The second son James, born in 1803, was to have an astonishing career considering his parents never married and his mother was of mixed European and black descent. He came to Scotland with his brother Alexander, possibly with their father, for his early schooling and in 1819 they both went to Canada to work in the fur trade for the North West Company. By 1821 James was working for the Hudson Bay Company. He married Amelia Connelly, who was half native Canadian, half white in 1827 and continued to rise through the Hudson Bay Company, eventually being transferred to British Columbia to run its operation there with a wide range of responsibilities. By 1851 he had been appointed governor of Vancouver Island. When it became officially a crown colony in 1859 he became the first governor of British Columbia, holding the two posts until his retirement in 1864 at which point he became a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. He died in 1877.[28]

Figure 3. Sir James Douglas. From Dictionary of Canadian Biography. (source Wikimedia Commons).

John returned to Glasgow before 1809, probably around 1806/07 as the first time the family firm of J. T. snd A. Douglas & Co., located at 51 Virginia Street, appeared in the Glasgow Post Office Directory was in the 1807 edition.[29] He married Jessie Hamilton, the daughter of a Greenock merchant in 1809[30] and they had at least three children, one boy named for his father and two girls.[31] I have the impression that he returned to Demerara at some point but there is no clear proof of that. He eventually moved to Edinburgh living at Moray Place where he died in 1840. His estate in Scotland was valued at just under £71,500, the majority of it in bank, railway and canal stock.[32] Today that would be worth between £7m and £290m.[33] His estate in England was valued at ‘under £20,000’, being finally settled in 1862, his brother Thomas being by that time the sole surviving executor,[34] John’s wife Jessie having died in 1861 at Moray Place.[35]

·  Robert, b. 20 July 1770.[36] Not mentioned in her 1828 Trust deed presumably having died before then.

·  Cecilia, b. 28 February 1772,[37] more of whom and husband Gilbert to follow.

·  Neil, b. 24 February 1774.[38] Matriculated at Glasgow University in 1786 then  became a partner in Douglas and Brown, cotton spinners.[39] Joined the Rifle Brigade in 1801 as a second lieutenant and had an extremely successful military career. By 1811 he had attained the rank of major and had fought with Sir John Moore in Portugal and Sweden. He was no desk soldier being wounded twice between 1810 (Busaco) and 1815 (Quatre Bas). In June of that year he had commanded his battalion at Waterloo. He continued to progress through the ranks becoming by the end of his career Lieutenant General of the 78th regiment in 1851. He was an aide-de-camp of William IV from 1825 to 1837 and from 1842 to 1847 was governor of Edinburgh Castle.[40] He was awarded many honours being made a Commander of the Order of Maria Theresa in 1815 by the Austrian emperor,[41] in 1831 he was knighted becoming a Knight-Companion of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order,[42] finally becoming a Knight Commander of the Bath. I’ve not been able to clearly identify when he was given this last honour but when he was appointed to Edinburgh Castle in 1842 he was described as a KCB.[43] In 1816 he married Barbara Robertson, the daughter of George Robertson, a banker of Greenock.[44] They had at least one son, Sir John Douglas, who like his father became a soldier. He fought in the Crimean War and was involved in dealing with the Indian Mutiny of 1857. He reached the rank of general in 1880.[45] Sir Neil Douglas died in Brussels in 1853.[46]

Figure 4. Sir Neil Douglas. National Portrait Gallery of Scotland

·  Thomas Dunlop, b. 1 February 1776.[47] He began his business life as an apprentice hat maker with Thomas Buchanan (a relative of his mother?) in Glasgow and by 1801 had his own hat making business located between Brown Street and Carrick Street.[48] Following the partnership with his brothers John and Archibald in 1807 he continued as a hat maker until 1816, the last year he appears in the Glasgow directory as such.[49] From 1823 until 1857/58 he was described as an insurance broker. From 1807 until 1855 he continued to be a partner of J. T. and A. Douglas & Co., that being the last year the company appeared in the Glasgow directory [50]. He married Rose Hunter of Greenock in May 1808,[51] there being, apparently, no children of the marriage. He was a member of the Board of Green Cloth, a Glasgow whist and supper club from at least 1809 and in 1845 bought the Dunlop estate in Ayrshire, which was once owned by the Dunlop family his grandfather William Douglas had married into.[52] He died in 1869 at Dunlop House, his wife Rosina pre- deceasing him.[53] His inventory of assets totalled over £64,000 in Scotland and £176,000 in England, combined total being £241,600.[54] Today this would equate to around £500m in terms of economic worth.[55] In his trust settlement of 1867 he made several bequests to the families of his brothers, other family members, servants, farm hands and charitable institutions, however the most significant beneficiary was Thomas Dunlop Douglas Cunninghame Graham, who I believe was a nephew or great nephew, but not proven.[56]

·  Archibald, b. 10 October 1778.[57] Reliable information about Archibald has been difficult to get, however like his brothers he matriculated at Glasgow University in 1789.[58] He clearly was a partner in the family business but rarely appeared in the Glasgow directory. There is an Archibald Douglas, stocking manufacturer, in the 1801 directory, becoming Archibald Douglas & Co, hosiers by 1807, thereafter no further entries. Similarly his personal life only becomes clear through his Trust settlement of 1860. In the Regality Club of Glasgow publications he is described as a merchant in 1811 and a member of Glasgow Golf Club in 1815.[59] In addition to being a partner in J. T. and A. Douglas and Co. he was also a partner, with brother Neil, in Douglas, Brown and Co., cotton spinners. He purchased the estate of Glenfinnart in Argyllshire in 1845 where lived for the rest of his life.[60] He died there in 1860 and it is in his Trust document that you get primary evidence that he married and had children. He married firstly Christina Riddell in 1810, then Harriet May in 1828, and finally Anna McNeill in 1838. There appears to be children only of the last marriage, namely John, a colonel and Assistant Adjutant General of Cavalry who was his executor and main beneficiary, and daughters Anna Glassford and Eleanor Louisa, who pre deceased him. His estate was valued at over £28,000.[61]

·  James, b. 8 August 1779.[62] Very little known about this brother except he seems to have lived and died in Demerara. The only evidence I have for that is that there is a reference to his death in the July-December 1853 issue of the Official Gazette for British Guiana concerning a share of the Good Hope plantation there being transferred to his brother Thomas Dunlop Douglas.[63] In his sister Cecilia’s Trust deed of 1828 he is described as ‘of Demerara’[64] however it’s possible he may have returned to Glasgow on occasion as in his brother John’s will in 1840 he is described as a merchant in Glasgow.[65] In his only entry in the Glasgow directory in 1850/51 he is described as a partner in the family company his house address given as 234 St Vincent Street. [66]

·  Colin, 25 November 1781.[67] Matriculated at Glasgow University in 1793 and graduated M.D. in 1802.[68] He is very likely to have died unmarried before 1828 as sister Cecilia does not mention him or any family of his in her Trust settlement of 1828

·  Cathrin, b. 16 January 1784.[69]

As Indicated previously John Douglas senior was a Glasgow merchant. Around 1775 he purchased from John Miller a plot of land in what became Miller Street.[70] In the same year he and two other city merchants were charged by the Sheriff Depute of the County of Lanark, with ensuring that the Clyde from Dumbuck Ford to the Broomielaw had been deepened in accordance with the contract between Glasgow and a Mr. Goldburne, which was confirmed as seven feet at an ordinary neep tide![71]

What kind of merchant he was is not entirely clear as entries in the Glasgow directories don’t always specify. His first entry in the1783 John Tait directory simply says he was a merchant in Miller Street.[72] However in the Jones directories in 1789 and 1790/91 the only John Douglas entry in each states he was a wine and rum merchant, located in Miller Street.[73] Confusingly another source states he was the father of Sir Neil Douglas, which is correct, but then goes on to describe him as an insurance broker.[74]

I have not been able to clearly identify when John Douglas died but it must have been after 1803, the date of his last entry in the Glasgow directory and before 1810, the date of his wife Cecilia’s death where she was described as the relict (widow) of merchant John Douglas.[75]

J. T. and A. Douglas and Co.

The company lasted for just under fifty years, the final entry in the Glasgow directory being in 1854. Its main area of operation had been the sugar plantations it or the brothers owned in Demerara and Berbice in British Guiana. They had an involvement with at least six plantations Union, Better Hope, Enfield, Good Hope, Belmont and Windsor Forest either as owners or mortgagees which collectively had 1155 slaves. Additionally there were five more slaves presumably household for either John or James. When slavery was abolished they claimed compensation, eventually receiving as owners £41517 and a further £48874 from other owners which paid off the outstanding mortgage debt.[76] The total of these sums, £90391, equate today to £392m in terms of economic power.[77] That sum was in addition to the profits they made over the lifetime of the company, the majority of that time investing in human misery to their clear advantage. That misery erupted into a slave rebellion in Demerara in 1823 which was savagely put down by the military with hundreds of slaves killed, those who weren’t being sentenced to 1,000 lashes and hard labour.[78]

Cecilia and Gilbert Douglas

Cecilia and Gilbert married in Glasgow on the 26 January 1794.[79] There were no children of the marriage. As a farmer’s son Gilbert presumably spent his early working life on his father’s farm in Balcony, however there is not a great deal known about his subsequent business activities. At the time of his marriage he was described as a merchant in Glasgow but the usual sources to confirm that such as the city directories, the Merchants House and the Scottish Record Society records of burgesses etc, contain no reference to him. Nor is there any record of matriculating/graduating from the University. What is known is that at the time of his death he owned a cotton plantation called Fairfield in Demerara and a sugar plantation called Mount Pleasant, on the island of St. Vincent, where he had lived for a period.[80] How and when he acquired them has not been discovered.

In 1800 he bought the Douglas Park estate from Major-General John Hamilton of Orbiston,[81] following which he engaged architect Robert Burn to build a mansion on the site of the old Orbiston House based on plans apparently prepared in 1795.[82] He also bought the estate of Boggs from Hamilton a year later. He and Cecilia lived there for the rest of their lives.

He died in 1807 at Douglas Park,[83] his deed of settlement in St. Vincent naming Cecilia and her brothers as trustees of his estate. She specifically was bequeathed half shares in the two plantations as well as life rent of the Douglas Park and Boggs estates.[84]

As it turned out the plantations had debts which Cecilia paid off by continuing to sell the Demerara produce for a time and eventually her half share in the plantation itself.[85]

Figure 5. Orbiston House. From: Smith, John Guthrie and Mitchell, John Oswald. (1878). The Old Country Houses of the Old Glasgow Gentry. 2nd ed. Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons.

The remainder of Cecilia’s life does not reflect that of a typical Victorian lady. She travelled to Italy and lived there for an extended period, she purchased the estate of Orbiston, adjacent to her own and renamed the whole estate and house Orbiston,[86] and she had a number of significant industrial and financial investments which included the Forth and Clyde Canal (£3536), the Bank of England (£7977) and various railway stocks (over £9700).[87] She also retained her half share in the ownership of the St. Vincent plantation which had 231 slaves. When slavery was abolished in 1834 she claimed compensation and in 1836 was duly awarded £3014.[88] She collected art in many different formats, paintings, sculptures, furniture and so on, the collection in due course being donated to Glasgow.[89]

Figure 6. The Tontine Building in 1868, photographed by Thomas Annan. From ‘ Glasgow’s Treasure Chest’ by James Cowan, ‘Peter Prowler’. Published June 1951, page 393.

In December 1860 she came into the ownership of the Tontine building in Glasgow. The Tontine scheme in 1781 financed the reconstruction of the old Tontine Hotel creating what became known as the Tontine Building. Individual shares were purchased at £50 per share, there being a total of one hundred and seven shares sold. Two shares were bought in young Cecilia’s name one of which was by her grandfather William Douglas, the other by Glasgow merchant Alexander McCaul. The objective of the scheme, apart from having a grand civic building, was that the last living share holder would have ownership of it. That turned out to be Cecilia,[90]although it was a close run thing as she was the oldest of four survivors in February of that year.[91]

She died at home in 1862 in her ninety first year, essentially from old age.[92] She left a personal estate valued at just over £40,365. In accordance with her Trust deed her bequests included family and a number of charities and organisations, and individual members of her domestic staff.[93] In accordance with her husband’s Trust deed the Orbiston estate was left to his grandnephew Robert Douglas.[94]

She and her husband are commemorated by a plaque on the wall of St. Bride’s Collegiate Church in Bothwell inscribed as follows:

To the memory of Gilbert Douglas of Douglas ParkBorn 28th May 1749 Died 10th March 1807
and also of Cecilia Douglas of Orbiston his wife
Born 28th Feby 1772 Died 25th July 1862

Before her death she funded a window in Glasgow Cathedral dedicated to her husband and her parents and siblings, which was completed in October 1862, part of it being shown below.[95]

Figure 8. Kind Permission of Heritage Environment Scotland.

In 2013 articles about the paintings bequest to Glasgow appeared in the Herald newspaper, one entitled “The Paintings Sullied by Slavery”. It goes into detail about the Cecilia Douglas fortune being founded on slavery and asks the inevitable question about whether paintings with their financial provenance should ever go on show. A complex question with no easy answer. The following are two telling and moving extracts referring to the conditions on the Douglas plantation in St. Vincent.

‘Slavery conditions on the Mount Pleasant estate on St. Vincent were brutal. Large gangs of slaves would spend much of the day digging holes for the sugar cane and constantly weeding the plantation, with women not spared such physical labour.’

‘The slaves die off because they are being worked in very difficult conditions very hard with inadequate nutrition.’[96]

It’s clear that the fortunes of the family of Cecilia Douglas, both paternal and maternal, came about, either directly or indirectly through the exploitation of African slaves, the extracts above indicating what little regard they had for the enslaved people creating their fortunes.

Glasgow generally has come late to the idea that slavery underpinned the city’s commerce from around the Act of Union to the mid 1800’s. This was a major ‘self-denial’ that persisted well into the twentieth century, the following, which was printed in the Herald in 1883, being typical of the mindset that existed until fairly recently.

The American War of Independence finished the latter (the tobacco lords), but the trading instinct of Glasgow was not to be denied, and prompted no doubt by its favourable situation for the purpose, the merchants of Glasgow embarked largely in the West India (West Indies) trade. The other great sugar ports were London, Bristol and Liverpool, and it is to Glasgow’s lasting honour that while Bristol and Liverpool were up to the elbows in the slave trade Glasgow kept out of it. The reproach can never be levelled at our city, as it was at Liverpool, that there was not a stone in her streets that were not cemented with the blood of a slave. [97]

References.

[1] Douglas Archives. http://www.douglashistory.co.uk/history/index.htm

2] Ross, A.M. (1895) The Genealogy of the Families of Douglas of Mulderg and Robertson of Kindeace and their descendants. Dingwall: A.M. Ross and Co. pp. 9-12.

[3] Ross, op. cit. p.18.

[4] Ross, op. cit. pp. 9-12.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Inveraray and Glenaray. 24 August 1703. DUGLAS, Robert and MONROE, Catherine. 513/  20 174. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[7] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Kiltearn. 28May 1749. DOUGLASS, Gilbert. 070  10 30. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[8] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Edinburgh. 28 March 1665. DOUGLASS, Robert and HUNTER, Helen. 685/1 440 77. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

9] Douglas Archives. http://www.douglashistory.co.uk/history/index.htm

[10] Grant, Francis J. ed. (1899). The Commissariat Record of Edinburgh. Register of Testaments. 1707 – 1800. Edinburgh: Scottish Record Society. p. 78. https://archive.org/details/scottishrecordso03scotuoft/page/78

[11] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Leith South. 11 March 1727. DOUGLAS, John. 692/2 50 286. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

12] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 5 January 1766. DOUGLAS, John and BUCHANAN, Cecilia. 644/1 260 20. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[13] Glasgow’s Benefactors. Alexander Speirs – Tobacco Lord (1714-1782) Part 2. http://glasgowbenefactors.com/

[14] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 29 August 1736. BUCHANAN, George and FORBES, Cecilia. 644/1 250 58. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[15] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 14 February 1740. BUCHANAN, Cecilia. 644/1 120 25. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[16] Glasgow’s Benefactors. Alexander Speirs – Tobacco Lord (1714-1782) Part 2. http://glasgowbenefactors.com/

[17] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 1 October 1766. DOUGLAS, William. 644/1 140 332. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[18] Addison, W. Innes. (1913). The Matriculation Albums of Glasgow University from 1728 to 1858.p. 122. https://archive.org/details/matriculationalb00univuoft/page/n7/mode/2up

19] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 13 December 1862. DOUGLAS, Cecilia. Inventory, Trust Disposition and  Settlement. Glasgow Sheriff Court Wills. SC36/51/44, and Inventory. Glasgow Sheriff Court Inventories. SC36/48/49.  www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[20] Births. (OPR). Scotland. Girvan. 1 September 1811. DOUGLAS, Robina. 594/  20 250. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[21] Deaths. (SR) Scotland. Row, Dumbarton. 14 August 1912. DOUGLAS, Rosina. 503/  79.  www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[22] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 1 September 1854. DREW, Peter and DOUGLAS, Rosina Elizabeth. 644/1 440 503.  www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[23] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 8 May 1768. DOUGLAS, George. 644/1 150 59. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[24] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 8 May 1768. DOUGLAS, John. 644/1 150 59. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[25] Addison, op. cit. p. 128.

[26] Ibid

[27] University College London. John Douglas. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/8520

[28] Ormsby, Margaret A. ‘DOUGLAS, Sir JAMES,’ in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 10, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003. http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/douglas_james_10E.html.

[29] Directories. Scotland. (1807). Glasgow directory. Glasgow: W. McFeat and Co. p. 31. https://digital.nls.uk/directories/browse/archive/90147779

[30] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 15 January 1809. DOUGLAS, John and HAMILTON, Jessie. 644/1 280 97. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[31] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 16 April 1841. DOUGLAS, John. Inventory, Trust Disposition and  Settlement. Edinburgh Sheriff Court Inventories. SC70/1/60. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[32] Ibid.

[33] Measuring Worth (2021). https://www.measuringworth.com/m/calculators/ukcompare/

[34] Testamentary Ancestry. England. 9 April 1862. DOUGLAS, John. National Probate Calendar. (Index of Wills and Administration). 1858 – 1995. p. 147. https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[35] Deaths. (SR) Scotland. Edinburgh. 6 December 1861. HAMILTON, Jessie. 685/1 935. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[36] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 20 July 1770. DOUGLAS, Robert. 644/1 150 208. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[37] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 28 February 1772. DOUGLAS, Cecilia. 644/1 150 311. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[38] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 24 February 1774. DOUGLAS, Neil. 644/1 160 80. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[39] Addison, op. cit. p. 147.

[40] Stephens, H. M. ‘DOUGLAS, Sir Neil, (1774-1853)’ In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/7913

[41] London Gazette (1815) 23 September 1815. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/17064/page/1941

[42] London Gazette (1831) 23 September 1831. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/18853/page/1947

[43] London Gazette (1842) 29 April 1842. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/20095/page/1172

[44] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Greenock. 26 August 1816. DOUGLAS, John and ROBERTSON, Barbara. 564/3 40 450. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[45] Girard, Charlotte S. (1986/87) Some Further Notes on the Douglas Family. (PDF) BC Studies, no.72, Winter 1986-87. University of Victoria, British Columbia. http://www.douglashistory.co.uk/history/Documents/douglas%20family%20notes.pdf

[46] Stephens, H. M. ‘DOUGLAS, Sir Neil, (1774-1853)’ In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/7913

[47] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 1 December 1776. DOUGLAS, Thomas Dunlop. 644/1 160 218. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[48] James Maclehose and Sons. (1891). Minute Book of the Board of Green Cloth. 1809-1820. Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. https://electricscotland.com/history/glasgow/greencloth.pdf

[49] Directories. Scotland. (1816) Glasgow directory. Glasgow: A. McFeat and Co. p. 49. https://digital.nls.uk/directories/browse/archive/90712736

[50] Directories. Scotland. (1854/55) Glasgow directory. Glasgow: William Mackenzie p. 113. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[51] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Greenock. 28 May 1808. DOUGLAS, Thomas Duncan and HUNTER, Rosina. 564/3 40 322. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[52] Girard, Charlotte S. (1986/87) Some Further Notes on the Douglas Family. (PDF) BC Studies, no.72, Winter 1986-87. University of Victoria, British Columbia. http://www.douglashistory.co.uk/history/Documents/douglas%20family%20notes.pdf

[53] Deaths. (SR) Scotland. Ayr, Dunlop. 30 January 1869. DOUGLAS, Thomas Dunlop. 591/  1. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[54] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 26 March 1869. DOUGLAS, Thomas Dunlop. Inventory. Ayr Sheriff Court. SC6/44/34. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[55] Measuring Worth (2021). https://www.measuringworth.com/m/calculators/ukcompare/

[56] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 26 March 1869. DOUGLAS, Thomas Dunlop. Trust Disposition and Deed of Settlement. Ayr Sheriff Court Wills. SC6/46/6. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[57] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 10 October 1778. DOUGLAS, Archibald. 644/1 160 425. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[58] Addison, op. cit. p. 156.

[59] Girard, Charlotte S. (1986/87) Some Further Notes on the Douglas Family. (PDF) BC Studies, no.72, Winter 1986-87. University of Victoria, British Columbia. http://www.douglashistory.co.uk/history/Documents/douglas%20family%20notes.pdf

[60] Devine, T. M. An Eighteenth Century Business Elite: Glasgow West India Merchants etc. In : The Scottish Historical Review Vol 57, No. 168. Part 1 April 1978. pp. 40-67. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/27301

[61] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 22 January 1861. DOUGLAS, Archibald. Trust Deed of Settlement and Inventory. Dunoon Sheriff Court. SC51/32/11. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[62] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 8 August 1779. DOUGLAS, James. 644/1 170 14. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[63] National Archives. The Official Gazette, British Guiana. https://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C2328165

[64] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 13 December 1862. DOUGLAS, Cecilia. Inventory, Trust Disposition and Settlement. Glasgow Sheriff Court Wills SC36/51/44 and Inventory. Glasgow Sheriff Court Inventories. SC36/48/49. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[65] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 16 April 1841. DOUGLAS, John. Inventory, Trust Disposition and  Settlement. Edinburgh Sheriff Court Inventories. SC70/1/60. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[66] Directories. Scotland. (1850/51). Glasgow directory. Glasgow: William Mackenzie. p. 97. https://digital.nls.uk/directories/browse/archive/87832080

[67] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 15 November 1781. DOUGLAS, Colin. 644/1 170 169. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[68] Addison, op. cit. p. 171.

[69] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 16 January 1784. DOUGLAS, Cathrin. 644/1 170 305. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[70] Senex et al. (1884) Glasgow Past and Present. Vol 2. Glasgow: David Robertson and Co. p. 416.

[71] Senex, op. cit. p. 34.

[72] Directories. Scotland. (1783). John Tait directory for the City of Glasgow. Glasgow: John Tait. p.26. https://digital.nls.uk/directories/browse/archive/86338096

[73] Directories. Scotland. (1790/91) Jones Directory of Glasgow. Glasgow: Joseph Galbraith. p.16. https://digital.nls.uk/directories/browse/archive/87868910

[74] Senex, op. cit. Vol 3.p. 410.

[75] Deaths. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 2 July 1810. DOUGLAS, Mrs. John. 644/1 610 44. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[76] University College London. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs

[77] Measuring Worth (2021). https://www.measuringworth.com/m/calculators/ukcompare/

[78] Encyclopedia.com. Demerara Revolt. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/demerara-revolt

[79] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 26 January 1794. DOUGLAS, Gilbert and DOUGLAS, Cecilia. 644/1 270 164. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[80] National Records of Scotland. CS96/4901-2. https://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/research

[81] Smith, John Guthrie and Mitchell, John Oswald. (1878) The Old Country Houses of the Glasgow Gentry. 2nd ed. Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/smihou/smihou079.htm

[82] Dictionary of Scottish Architects. www.scottisharchitects.org.uk/building_full.php?id=421189

[83] Deaths. (OPR) Scotland. Bothwell. 16 March 1807. DOUGLAS, Gilbert. 625/  20 222. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[84] Mullen, Stephen. ‘Douglas, Cecilia (1772-1862)’. In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/66964.

[85] ibid

[86] Ibid

[87] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 13 December 1862. DOUGLAS, Cecilia. Inventory, Trust Disposition and Settlement. Glasgow Sheriff Court Wills. SC36/51/44, and Inventory. Glasgow Sheriff Court Inventories. SC36/48/49. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[88] University College London. Cecilia Douglas. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/27301

[89] Mullen, Stephen. ‘Douglas, Cecilia. (1772-1862)’. In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/66964

[90] Senex et al. (1884) Glasgow Past and Present. Vol. 3. Glasgow: David Roberson and Co. pp. 287-289.

[91]Glasgow Herald. (1860) Last Survivor of the Glasgow Tontine. Glasgow Herald 13 October. p.3. https://www.nls.uk/

[92] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Bothwell, Lanark. 25 July 1862. DOUGLAS, Cecilia. 625/1 94. www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[93] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 13 December 1862. DOUGLAS, Cecilia. Inventory, Trust Disposition and  Settlement. Glasgow Sheriff Court Wills. SC36/51/44, and Inventory. Glasgow Sheriff Court Inventories. SC36/48/49.  www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[94]Mullen, Stephen. ‘Douglas, Cecilia. (1772-1862)’. In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/66964

[95] Glasgow Herald. (1862) Glasgow Cathedral – Completion of the Four Great Windows. Glasgow Herald 13 October. p.4. https://www.nls.uk/

[96] Glasgow Herald. (2013) The Paintings Sullied by Slavery. Glasgow Herald 10 March. https://www.nls.uk/

[97]Glasgow Herald. (1883) The West India Association of Glasgow. Glasgow Herald 1 June. p.9. https://www.nls.uk/

Mrs Anna Bella Baird nee Maltman (1870 – 1963)

On 28 February 1944, an oil painting by Sir John Lavery presented by Mrs Baird of 8 Northbank Terrace, Glasgow, N.W., was accepted by Glasgow Corporation.1 The subject of the painting was Mr. George Ure Baird who was the father-in-law of the donor.

Figure 1. Lavery, John (1885). George Ure Baird (2361) © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

The Donor

Anna Bella Walker Maltman was born at 17 Kelvinhaugh Street, Anderston, Glasgow on 14 January 1870.2 Her father, Thomas Maltman was a drapery warehouseman who had married Anna`s mother Isabella Adam on 6 July 1860 in Glasgow.3 In 1871 the family consisted of Thomas, (who was now a shipping clerk) and Isabella with Magdalena aged 8, Frances 6, John 4 and Anna Bella.4 Ten years later the family was living at 9 Windsor Street, Kelvin, Glasgow. Anna Bella was a scholar, aged 11 and there were two other children, Johanna aged 7 and James aged 2.5  

            In 1891, the twenty-year-old Anna was living at 52 Ardbeg Road, Rothesay with her sisters Frances and Magdalena and brother-in-law, Andrew Adamson who was a photographic artist. Anna was ‘living on private means’.6 On 9 April 1896 Anna married George Callwell Baird at her home, 22 Montgomerie Street, Glasgow. George was a commercial traveller, aged 27, living at his brother`s home, Killadoon, Langside. Anna`s sister Johanna was a witness.7

            By 1901 Anna and George had moved to 2 Albany Street, Kelvinside. They now had a son George Ure Baird aged 3 and employed one servant.8 Ten years later, they were living at 242 Wilton Street, (later 8 Northbank Terrace) and now had three children, George, Dorothy, aged 9 and Thomas, aged 2.9 George senior was now a silk buyer employed by Gilmour & Co. silk merchants of 5 Royal Exchange Square, Glasgow. 10

            George Callwell Baird died in the Western Infirmary, Glasgow on 18 May 1943. He was 75.11 The following year Anna donated the painting of her father-in-law to Glasgow Museums.

            Anna Bella Walker Baird died on 10 December 1963 at 44 Balshagray Avenue, Glasgow. She was aged 93 and the cause of death was ‘senile decay’. Her usual address was that of her son Thomas at 242 Wilton Street.12

The Sitter

            George Ure Baird was born in Saltcoats on 8 January 1832 although the birth was registered in Stevenston. His parents were Hugh Baird, gentleman, and Margaret Anderson.13 On 18 July 1860, George married the nineteen-year-old Mary Helen Robertson at Gothic Cottage in Govan, and the couple took up residence at 3 Osborne Place, Govan. George was a commission merchant in sewing machines and lace.14 By 1881 the family had moved to Cartbank, 45 Netherlee Road, Cathcart. (This small Georgian house consisted of a single storey with a basement. It was described as symmetrical, two ends circled, ashlar, large square bay window on front. Probably circa 1770, with ends added circa 1800).15 The family now consisted of four sons and three daughters.16

It was about this time that the portrait of George Ure Baird was commissioned from John Lavery – probably to help the artist become established. Lavery later said that ‘Mr. Baird was one of my first patrons and his kindness to me still excites my warm gratitude’.17 Lavery`s paintings The Tennis Party and a watercolour Lady on a Safety Tricycle, (now in the government art collection) were painted at Cartbank and dated to 1885.18

Figure 2. Lavery, John. The Tennis Party © Aberdeen Art gallery. (http://www.artuk.org).

At about this time, George Ure Baird moved to a different address. An entry in the Glasgow Post Office directory for 1884/5 is

Baird, George Ure, commission merchant, 62, Queen Street; House, Anglsey Lodge, Langside

         George Ure Baird died of consumption aged 53 at Anglesy Lodge on 21 January 188519 and was buried in the Glasgow Necropolis along with two sons and a daughter who had predeceased him. The inscription on the headstone reads;-

    ‘GEORGE URE BAIRD ANN OGILVY born 22nd April 1873 died 6 March 1875, DAVID ANDERSON born 6th Oct 1870 died 28th March 1875 JESSIE born 3rd Jan 1877 died 9th Aug 1877, GEORGE URE BAIRD born 8th Jan 1832 died 21st Jan 1885, MARY HELEN ROBERTSON wife of the said GEORGE URE BAIRD who died 4th Oct 1903 aged 61’.

His business of commission merchant was carried on by his son Hugh Baird in partnership with Mr. William Ewing. However, the name George Ure Baird was retained. 20

The Painting and the Artist

            John Lavery was born in Belfast in 1856 but was orphaned three years later. At the age of ten he was sent to live with a rich cousin of his aunt who had a pawnshop in Saltcoats.21 George Ure Baird was one of his earliest patrons and the portrait was one of the first painted by Lavery. It may have been commissioned partly to help the artist become established. (It is not clear if the Saltcoats connection is relevant to their relationship since Baird would have moved to Glasgow before Lavery arrived in Saltcoats). However, the present portrait at GMRC is not the one commissioned by Baird.

         Lavery had bought and insured a studio in St.Vincent Street and ‘very shortly afterwards it succumbed to a mysterious fire’. Lavery recalled later that he had completed the original painting at his studio one Saturday evening but was not at all happy with the finished work. On returning to the studio the next day he found the place in flames and the painting destroyed ‘to his secret pleasure’. He pretended to be aggrieved but was secretly pleased with the outcome. More especially since he collected £300 of insurance money with which he financed his departure in 1880 for the Heatherley School of Fine Art in London and then to Paris.22

            Sometime later (1885) he painted the present portrait from a photographic miniature. Unfortunately, it was completed after the sitter’s death and was delivered to his widow. When Mary Helen Baird died on 4 October 1903, the painting passed to her son George Callwell Baird, husband of the donor. There is a letter on file at Glasgow Museums Resource Centre from Lavery to Mr. J. (sic) C. Baird dated 3 October 1931 from 5 Cromwell Place, London in which he says that he will be ‘passing through Glasgow on Monday with an hour to spare’ and stating that he would wish to come and visit and view the painting. The letter was handed in to Kelvingrove in February 1962 by Mr. T. M. Baird the grandson of the sitter.

Figure 3. Lavery, John (1885). George Ure Baird (2361) © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 4 Photographic Miniature from the Glasgow Evening News 4 September 1931.

                                    

References

  1. Glasgow Corporation, Committee on Art Galleries and Museum, Minutes, 15February 1944. (Mitchell Library)
  2. Scotland`s People, Birth Certificate
  3. Scotland`s People, Marriage Certificate
  4. Ancestry.co.uk, 1871 Scotland Census
  5. Scotland`s People, 1881 Census
  6. Scotland’s People, 1891 Census
  7. Scotland`s People, Marriage Certificate
  8. Scotland`s People, 1901 Census
  9. Scotland’s People, 1911 Census
  10. Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1911-12
  11. Scotland`s People, Death Certificate
  12. Scotland’s People, Death Certificate
  13. Old Parish Registers, Ayrshire, Family Search
  14. Scotland`s People, Marriage Certificate
  15. http://www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/sc-33943-45-netherlee-road-cartbank
  16. Scotland’s People, 1881 Census
  17. Glasgow Evening News, 4 Sept 1931
  18. www.scotcities.com/cathcart/whitecartwalk.htm
  19. Scotland’s People, Death Certificate
  20. The Edinburgh Gazette, 24 April 1885
  21. Billcliffe, Roger, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/34425
  22. ibid

James Couper (1839-1916)

Mr James Couper of Craigforth, Stirling was a Company Director living on private means.

Figure 1. Portrait of the late Charles Tennant by Andrew Geddes. © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

The Portrait of the late Charles Tennant by Andrew Geddes was received by Glasgow Corporation in 1920. It had been bequeathed by his grandson, James Couper, to his wife Jane as life rent (2) and under the terms of his Will, after her death, was then to be given by his Trustees to Glasgow Corporation.

Figure 2. Statue of Charles Tennant and Obelisk for William Couper. Image © F J Dryburgh

James Couper was born on 13 September 1839 (3) the son of John Couper MD MRCP, Regius Professor of Materia Medica at Glasgow University (4) and his wife Charlotte Couper. His mother was the daughter of Charles Tennant (5) and his father was the son of Tennant’s great friend and associate, William Couper. (6)

The monuments to these men are side by side in the Necropolis in Glasgow. (7)

In the 1871 Census James Couper is living in Glasgow but visiting his parents and he is a manufacturing chemist. (8) James Couper moved to Craigforth in Stirling in1873 as a tenant and eventually as owner in 1904. (9)  In the 1881 Census he is listed as a manufacturing chemist, his wife is Jane, he has two sons, and 8 servants are listed. (10)  Craigforth is an impressive country house now on the M9 looking towards Stirling Castle and the Wallace Monument. Couper was a director of the Steel Company of Scotland and of Messrs Ogston and Tennant. (11) He and his wife were active in local society and contributed to charitable and civic activities in Stirling. (12) In 1878, James and Jane gave the Bishop’s Chair to the newly established Episcopal Church of The Holy Trinity in Stirling. (13)

He was a Director of Stirling Royal Infirmary and of The Albert Hall Company while these were being built. (14)

He died in the Central Hotel in Glasgow on 13 June 1916. (15)

His funeral was attended by many people including his nephew Mr. Charles Tennant Couper. He is buried in Logie cemetery. (16)

Charles Tennant (1768-1838) was a bleacher from Ayrshire with bleach fields in Darnley. (17)  There is a watercolour of the bleach fields by an unknown artist in the collection of Lady Maxwell in Pollok House, Glasgow (18) and a map from 1791 showing their location in the East Renfrewshire Public Library in Giffnock. (19) He went on to develop the first chemical method of bleaching using bleaching powder and to establish the St Rollox works in Glasgow, the first great chemical works in the world. (20)  His son John Tennant (21) developed the firm and built Tennant’s Stalk- a huge chimney in the North of Glasgow. His son was Sir Charles Tennant, an art collector, Liberal politician and industrialist. He was the founder of a family well known in social and political circles. (22) (23)   In 1926 the business became part of Imperial Chemical Industries and in 2008 became part of Atezo Nobel. (24)

References

  1. Archives of Glasgow Museums
  2. National Records of Scotland Wills and Testaments  1916
  3. National Records of Scotland Statutory Births 1839
  4. John Couper The University of Glasgow Story.  https://universitystory.gla.ac.uk/people
  5. National Records of Scotland Wills and Testaments  1840
  6. John Couper The University of Glasgow Story.  https://universitystory.gla.ac.uk/people
  7. The Glasgow Necropolis. http://www.glasgownecropolis.org
  8. National Records of Scotland census 1871
  9. Stirling Advertiser and Journal 3 March 1916. Obituary of James Couper
  10. National Records of Scotland census 1881
  11. Stirling Advertiser and Journal 3 March 1916. Obituary of James Couper
  12. Personal communication Stirling librarian
  13. http://www.holytrinitystirling.org
  14. Stirling Advertiser and Journal 3 March 1916. Obituary of James Couper
  15. National Records of Scotland Statutory Deaths 1916
  16. Stirling Advertiser and Journal 16 March 1916. Funeral of James Couper
  17. Massie, Alan. Glasgow Portraits of a City. London: Barrie and Jenkins,1989
  18. Watercolour of Mr Charles Tennant’s Bleachfields, artist unknown, held in Pollok House, Glasgow.
  19. Map of East Renfrewshire, 1791 showing Mr Tennant’s Bleachfields held in the East Renfrewshire Public Library, Giffnock
  20. Massie, Alan. Glasgow Portraits of a City. London: Barrie and Jenkins,1989
  21. Lindsey, Christopher F. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2014.
  22. Sir Charles Tennant Wikipaedia
  23. Ibid
  24. ibid

George Dickson(1829 -1917)

In August 1918, the Trustees of the late Mr George Dickson presented a painting called Falls of the Dochart, Killin by Sir Alfred East (1844–1913) as a memorial to Mr George Dickson. [1]

Figure 1. Falls of Dochart, Killin. Alfred East (1844-1913). © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (www.artuk.org)

The above painting that was presented to Kelvingrove Gallery, on behalf of our donor, was painted by Alfred East who was born in 1844 in Kettering and died in 1913, four years before our donor George Dickson’s death. By a strange coincidence Alfred East’s family as well as our donor’s family were both in the shoe business. A letter received from a research assistant in the Alfred East Gallery, Kettering, (http://www.kettering.gov.uk) at our request, gave some information regarding Alfred East. In the following lines this information is summarised.

After the death of his father, Charles East, in 1876, Alfred East became a junior partner in the business, with his nephews, Walter and Fred East. In Glasgow, he attended his first evening classes at the Government School of Art. In 1880, he resigned from the family business and with his savings and a part-time job in a bank, he was able to attend the Glasgow School of Art. How long he spent there is unclear, but by 1882 he was in Paris studying at the École des Beaux Arts and, later, the Académie Julién. He painted A Dewy Morning (a Barbizon landscape) in 1882, which was his first work to be exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1883.

It transpired that Alfred East managed his family’s firm’s warehouse and appears to have been the firm’s representative for sales and distribution in Scotland as well as in the north of England. In around 1874, he was sent to Glasgow by his family’s shoe business. It is possible that Alfred East and George Dickson might have met in Glasgow and perhaps the painting that was given to Kelvingrove Gallery and Museum was then bought by George Dickson from Alfred East. But the research assistant mentioned in his letter that he could not find any notes or indicators in the records that such an encounter had ever taken place.

Our donor, George Dickson, was born on 18 October 1829, in Glasgow. His father was James Dickson and mother was Janet Dickson (née Janet MS Nimmo). He was baptised

on 22 November 1829 in the Gorbals district of the city. When he was 10 years old, his family lived in Saltmarket Street, Glasgow.  His father, James Dickson, was a currier, a craftsman who curries leather for shoe making and any other articles such as gloves. [2]

It may be appropriate at this juncture to mention that the Incorporation of Cordiners is one of the fourteen ancient crafts which comprise the Trades House of Glasgow founded in 1605. It has its meetings in the historic Trades Hall designed by Robert Adam in 1791. The Incorporation of Cordiners in Glasgow has been supporting aspiration in the leather trade for nearly five-hundred years, certainly long before it received its Deed of Cause in 1558. [3]

There is not much information available about our donor’s early education, but it is known that there was quite an emphasis on education in Scotland during the nineteenth century. Scotland has long enjoyed an international reputation as historically one of the best-educated countries in the world. The foundation for this reputation was laid in the seventeenth century and was the result of the Calvinist emphasis on reading the Bible. Putting men and women in touch with the word of God was seen by the Scottish authorities and clergy as of paramount importance. To achieve this goal, schools paid for by the Church of Scotland and local landowners were established in all rural parishes and burghs by an Act of Parliament in 1696.

These educational establishments were run by the Church and were open to all boys and girls regardless of their social status. The democratic nature of the Scottish system had so impressed the eighteenth-century writer Daniel Defoe that he remarked while England was a land ‘full of ignorance’, in Scotland the ‘poorest people have their children taught and instructed’. The openness of the Scottish system ran all the way from the schoolroom to the university. A talented working-class boy the ‘lad o’pairts’ (a clever or talented fellow) through intelligence and hard work and by utilising a generous system of bursaries was able to gain a university education, something largely unthinkable in England in the eighteenth century. [4]

Therefore, we can assume that there had been a good education available to George Dickson as he was growing up. He had married Annie Buchanan on 20 February 1857 in Glasgow. [5] The I871 Census shows that, they had 5 children by that date. They were James (13), George B. (11), Robert (8), Oliver (6) and Jessie Ann (2). [6]

Also, in the censuses available during his lifetime, we see that he lived at several different addresses. The address given in the 1871 Census indicates that Dickson and his family lived at 2 Abercromby Terrace. Glasgow. In the 1881 and 1891 censuses, his home address is given as 15 North Claremont Street, Glasgow, then it changed to 8 Sandyford Place, Glasgow where he stayed until his death in October 1917. [7] His death was recorded in the Deaths column of the Glasgow Herald of 13 October 1917. [8]

His death certificate indicates that, he was a boot and shoe merchant, though the certificate could not be traced.  As his father before him was a currier, it appears that he had followed his father’s footsteps into the shoe business. There are also recordings in the censuses during his lifetime that he had been a boot and shoe merchant. His premises were in 449 Argyle Street in Glasgow, which was later extended to include 451 Argyle Street, Glasgow. Furthermore, after his death, when his son Oliver Dickson was in charge, the company was extended further to have many branches throughout Glasgow.[9]

It is interesting to note that our donor lived after the Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815) and during the time when Wellington boots were becoming fashionable in Great Britain. To see how the name of Wellington Boots came into being, the following story can be read online at the following reference. [10]

Acknowledgement

Help of the Archive staff of Mitchell Library, Glasgow and also the Trades House Glasgow is greatly appreciated.

References

[1] Data given by the Gallery Staff.

[2] Family History

https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[3] The Incorporation of Cordiners in Glasgow

https://www.cordiners-glasgow.com/

[4] Scottish Education in the nineteenth Century,

[5] Marriage Certificate,  https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[6] ibid. 1871 census.

[7] ibid. Death Certificate, 11 October 1917,

https://www.ancestry.co.uk

[8] The Glasgow Herald, Deaths Column, 13 October 1917,

[9] Scottish Post Office Directories, https://digital.nls.uk/directories/browse/archive/84702144?mode=transcription

[10] Wellington Boots,

https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/places/walmer-castle-and-gardens/history-and-stories/invention-wellington-boot/

George Edgar Campbell (1899 – 1976)

On 16 October 1950 an oil painting Mimosa (2863) by F. J. Conway was donated to Glasgow Corporation by Mr George Campbell, per Dr. Honeyman. 1

Figure 1. Mimosa © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (http://www.artuk.org)

In 1952, the same donor gave a second painting, Amintas Revived by Sylvia (2959), by François Boucher, (after). 2

Figure 2. Amintas Revived by Sylvia © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (http://www.artuk.org)

This painting has labels on the reverse, ‘19219’; ‘Pictures with Care Dr T. J. Honeyman Glasgow’; ‘G E Campbell’ ‘no. 2/’; ‘5GA’; ‘6013-2’S’. At one time it was in the possession of Asher Ezra Wertheimer a London art dealer. It was sold at Christie’s, London in 1923. 3

                Also in 1952, a companion piece to the above was purchased from George Campbell by Glasgow Corporation. This is Sylvia Saved by Amintas also by François Boucher  (after) (2958)

Figure 3.  Sylvia Saved by Amintas © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (http://www.artuk.org).

            The artist F. J. Conway (Ferdinand Joseph Conway) 4 was born on 19 January 1888 in Paddington, London. 5 He was the son of the British art dealer Asher Ezra Wertheimer and his wife Flora. Asher had inherited premises in London from his father Samson. Ferdinand  and his older brother changed their name to Conway ‘perhaps to avoid anti-German sentiment during the First World War’. 6 He became known as Bob Conway, artist, and writer. John Singer Sargent was commissioned by Asher to paint twelve portraits of his family between 1898 and 1908. Nine of these portraits are now in the Tate Britain Gallery in London.

Figure 4, Essie, Ruby, and Ferdinand, Children of Asher and Mrs Wertheimer,John Singer Sargent, 1902. © Tate Gallery. (http://www.artuk.org)

When Conway died on 1 April 1950, he left his house, Tarras, Crawley Drive, Camberley, ten thousand pounds, ‘and all my personal chattels’ to his friend George Edgar Campbell. He also instructed his trustees to pay George Edgar Campbell during his lifetime, the income from his estate. 7 Although not specifically mentioned in his will, it is likely that the two donated paintings were among his ‘personal chattels’ since Conway and Campbell shared the same house for many years.

            George Edgar Campbell was born on 9 December 1899 in Liverpool. 8 His parents, Thomas Campbell and Margaret Farrell were Scottish. He was christened at Edge Hill on 10 January 1900. 9 In 1911 he was living at 85 White Rock Street, Liverpool, the youngest of the family of four sisters and four brothers. His eldest brother Thomas Matthew Campbell aged 33, a railway van man, was head of the family his mother having been widowed. An uncle, Robert Edmond Farrell was also living with them. 10

            On 20 August 1917, George, aged seventeen, joined the White Star Line shipping company as a steward and sailed to New York aboard the RMS Adriatic. He is described on the ship’s manifest as ‘Scotch’. 11 The following year from 1 to 25 June he served as an ordinary seaman in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) on HMS Vivid 3 based at Devonport. From 26 June to 20 October, he was based at HMS Victory 6. Like H.M..S Vivid, this was a land-based establishment and not an actual ship. (At this time, Crystal Palace was used as a Royal Navy training establishment and was given the name HMS Victory 6). He returned to HMS Vivid on 21 October 1918 and remained there until discharged with a disability on 6 February 1919 and was paid a war gratuity.12 The RNVR records describe him as being 5’10”, 38” chest with light brown hair, grey eyes and a fair complexion. His character was VG and his ability Satisfactory.

            After his war service, George enrolled in the Regent Street Polytechnic to study sculpture. After five years he passed the exams of the Royal College of Art and won the Whitechapel Prize for sculpture. On completing his studies, he travelled in Italy, Switzerland and the USA and lived for a time in France. 13 He continued to sculpt and between 1934 and 1937 he completed at least three works, Virginia (1935), Helen (1936) and A Youth (1937) which were shown at the Royal Scottish Academy (RSA) of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture exhibitions between 1935 and 1937. His address at that time was 26 Holland Villas Road, London, W14. Between 1934 and 1966 he exhibited one or two works per year (twenty-two times in all) at the Royal Academy of Arts summer exhibitions. 14

            ‘Bob’ Conway commissioned a house to be built at 32 Newton Road, Paddington from the architect Denys (later Sir Denys) Lasdun. The house was completed in 1938 and was occupied by Conway and Campbell till at least 1943.15

Figure 5. The house at 32 Newton Road, Paddington, London. © Copyright Jim Osley, licensed for reuse under the Creative Commons  Licence.

The house was bought in the 1950s by the cartoonist Ronald Searle and his wife Kaye Webb. It was remarked that the house was,

‘built for a pair of bachelor artists, (unknown artistically, but extremely wealthy) it was topped by a splendid studio favoured by north light, as the estate agents say, and a fine terrace overlooking half of Paddington. As Searle remarked to his friend David Arkell, ‘If one had to overlook half of Paddington, this was the way to do it.’ 16

The Searles found that ‘the cellar was full of stuff left by the previous owners (including several Lucian Freuds, which they returned)’.17

It is not clear that the ‘previous owners’ were Conway and Campbell since in 1943 they were in residence at Tarras, Crawley Drive, Camberley. In that year George Campbell exhibited Archangel Gabriel at the RSA. 18

            George Campbell again saw service in WW2. He was promoted to lieutenant on 23 June 1941 and, as part of the Royal Naval Reserve, was stationed at the shore base HMS Lucifer in Swansea. 19 This was the base for a mine sweeping trawler fleet tasked with ensuring the Bristol Channel was kept free of mines. 20

            When Conway died in 1950, he left an estate valued at £83,690 with George Campbell one of his trustees and main beneficiary, He was buried in St. Peter’s Churchyard, Frimley, Surrey. 21 George Campbell had two nephews and a godson living in Sydney 22 and on 22 November 1951, he travelled first class to Australia aboard the P&O steamship Strathnaver. His London address was now 37 Holland Park Road, W.14. 23

On his return he continued to exhibit at the Royal Academy summer exhibitions, and he also executed a large amount of religious works. He became an Associate Member of the Royal Society of British Sculptors (RSBS) in 1941 and organized Children in Sculpture for the society in 1947. Two years later he served as a Member of Council. He was elected a Fellow of the RSBS in 1951. 24 In the same year, Glasgow Corporation bought one of his sculptures, Torso from the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts Exhibition. 25

Figure 6. Torso – Sculpture in Wood by George Edgar Campbell, 1944 (S.265). © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (http://www.artuk.org)

George Edgar Campbell died on 11 May 1976 at 71 Marsham Court, Marsham Street, London, SW1. He was seventy-six.26                                              

            On 10 March 2021, a 44.5 inch, bronzed, plaster maquette by Campbell, of Judith at the Well was put up for auction with an estimate of £1500 – £2000. It was unsold. 27

Figure 7. Judith at the Well

References

  1. Catalogue of Donors to Glasgow Museums, Glasgow Museums Resource Centre
  2. Ibid
  3. Toutziari, Dr. Georgia, National Inventory of Continental European Paintings, Culture and Sport Glasgow (Museums): Kelvingrove Museum
  4. Information from his will published 15 June 1950
  5. “Find A Grave Index,” database, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:7JW8-TWZM : 3 August 2020), Wertheimer, ; Burial, Frimley, Surrey Heath Borough, Surrey, England, St. Peter’s Churchyard; citing record ID 197025066, Find a Grave, http://www.findagrave.com.
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wertheimer_portraits
  7. Information from his will published 15 June 1950
  8. ancestry.co.uk, Royal Naval Reserve Service Records Index, 1860-1955, http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk
  9. FamilySearch.org., England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975
  10. ancestry.co.uk, Census 1911, England
  11. ancestry.co.uk, New York, U.S., Arriving Passenger and Crew Lists (including Castle Garden and Ellis Island), 1820-1957
  12. https//www.forces-war-records.co.uk
  13. Stevenson, Hugh, Catalogue of Sculpture Collections, Glasgow Museums Resource Centre, August 2008
  14. ‘George Edgar Campbell’, Mapping the Practice and Profession of Sculpture in Britain and Ireland 1851-1951, University of Glasgow History of Art and HATII, online database 2011 [http://sculpture.gla.ac.uk/view/person.php?id=msib6_1204564125, accessed 12 Nov 2021]
  15. http://architectuul.com/architecture/house-in-newton-road
  16. Russell Davies in http://ronaldsearle.blogspot.com/
  17. Ibid
  18. ‘George Edgar Campbell’, Mapping the Practice and Profession of Sculpture in Britain and Ireland 1851-1951, University of Glasgow History of Art and HATII, online database 2011 [http://sculpture.gla.ac.uk/view/person.php?id=msib6_1204564125, accessed 12 Nov 2021] This gives George Campbell`s address from 1943
  19. Forces Records, UK Navy List, February 1942.
  20. https://rootschat.com>forum
  21. https://www.findagrave.com/
  22. Information from his will, published 30 July 1976
  23. ancestry.co.uk, UK and Ireland, Outward Passenger Lists, 1890-1960
  24. ‘George Edgar Campbell’, Mapping the Practice and Profession of Sculpture in Britain and Ireland 1851-1951, University of Glasgow History of Art and HATII, online database 2011 [http://sculpture.gla.ac.uk/view/person.php?id=msib6_1204564125, accessed 12 Nov 2021]
  25. Catalogue of Donors to Glasgow Museums, Glasgow Museums Resource Centre
  26. Information from his will, published 30 July 1976
  27. https://auction.gorringes.co.uk/

John Douglas Campbell White M.D. (1871 – 1940)

Dr. John Douglas Campbell White was heir to his uncle, Lord Overtoun. He donated four paintings to Glasgow Museums in 1935. (1)

Figure 1. The Tryst by  Sir John Noel Paton RSA © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

J D C White was born at Hayfield House, Rutherglen on 18 August 1871, to John Orr White and Fanny Campbell White (2) who were second cousins and came from a family of industrialists. The family moved to London. His father died on 22 January1879 (3) but his mother continued to live in London. (4) He was educated at Charterhouse School where he did well. (5) He then attended Trinity College Cambridge and in his five years there he was awarded a BA First Class in the Classical Tripos (1894) and also in the Theological Tripos (1896). He proceeded to an MA in 1899. (6) He went to the London Hospital where he was a House Physician and qualified MRCS and LRCP. (7) In 1905 Cambridge awarded him an MD. (8) He did not go into medical practice but joined the Lister Institute to undertake research. This was made possible in 1908 because he was his uncle Lord Overtoun’s heir and on his death inherited his estate in Dunbartonshire. (9)

Figure 2. Loch Ericht by Henry John Boddington © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

 His research was mainly into the social aspects of venereal disease and he was a member of the British Social Hygiene Council. (10) In the following years he published and lectured quite widely. In the First World War he was a Captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps. (11) In 1922 he was sent by the army to Constantinople to conduct an anti-venereal disease campaign. (12) From 1923 he was Chairman of the Council of the Tavistock Clinic. (13)He was a committed Christian and continued to take an interest in religious affairs. He had been ordained a Deacon in the Church of St Peters in Eaton Square, London in 1898. (14)  He was Chairman of the Council of the Modern Churchmen’s Union from 1923 to 1930.  (15)

Figure 3. Dog in the manger by Walter Hunt © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

In 1898 he married Lucy Agnes McClure (16) and they had a son. He died at Harrow-on the-Hill on 25 March 1940. (17) His life is summed up in the BMJ obituary: ‘Circumstances made it possible for him to do unpaid jobs; training made him competent to look on sociological problems from both ethical and physiological viewpoints.’ (18)

Figure 4. Where’s my Good Little Girl   by  Thomas Faed RA © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums Collection

Paintings donated to Glasgow Museums:

Oil. Thomas Faed RA. Where’s my Good Little Girl

Oil. Henry John Boddington.  Loch Ericht

Oil. Walter Hunt. Dog in the manger

Oil. Sir John Noel Paton RSA. The Tryst

The Family Inheritance

The White family members were industrialists and chemical manufacturers in the west of Scotland. They combined business acumen with strong religious beliefs and a commitment to civic service. (19) The family had come out at the Disruption in the Church of Scotland and clung to the ethics of the Free Church.

In the early years of the nineteenth century, brothers James and John White established a factory to make soda and soap in Shawfield, Rutherglen near Glasgow. By 1830 they were producing potassium dichromate, used as a mordant for the dye industry. By 1850 the site covered 200 acres and employed 500 men. It was a very successful business, a near monopoly, because of the large textile factories within Glasgow and Paisley. (20) James was well known in business and for philanthropy and his statue now stands in Cathedral Square, Glasgow. (21)

Their sons, John Orr White, son of James and John Campbell White, son of John, carried on the business but it was John Campbell White who became best known. (22) He studied at Glasgow University, graduating MA and studied law before entering the business. (23) Over the years he left others to run the business and devoted himself to philanthropy and religious causes and gave much time and money to charity. He was a powerful figure in the Liberal Party and became Baron Overtoun in 1893. He developed his estate in Dumbarton at Overtoun which he had inherited from his father.

The chrome business was successful but it was a dirty business. Little heed was paid to the well-being of workers or to the disposal of toxic waste. In 1899, the workers went on strike and their cause was taken up by Keir Hardie. This became a cause célèbre with much criticism of Lord Overtoun and can be followed in the Scotsman. (24) (25 ) (26 )(27) Opinions are divided about how much Lord Overtoun was involved.   Eventually a compromise was reached and the workers returned to work with improved conditions of employment but the legacy of chrome persisted in ill health and environmental damage.

In 1903 Lord Overtoun gave public parks to Dumbarton and to Rutherglen, both called Overtoun Park. For this he was made a Freeman of Dumbarton (28) in 1903 and of Rutherglen in 1905. (29)

In 1908 Lord Overtoun died childless and the estate and his art collection passed to his nephew. (30)  Dr John Campbell Douglas White also inherited a religious belief and a sense of duty to society.

 In 1935 the estate was given to Dumbarton by Dr White and some paintings were given to Glasgow and Dumbarton. (31)

  1. Minutes of Glasgow City Council 1935
  2. National Records of Scotland Statutory Births 1877
  3. Ancestry .co.uk
  4. Census England and Wales 1880
  5. Venn J.A, Alumni Cantabriensis London England. Cambridge University Press, 1922-1954
  6. BMJ 20 April 1940 p673. Obituary
  7. Ibid
  8. Ibid
  9. National Records of Scotland Statutory Deaths 1908
  10. BMJ 20 April 1940 p673. Obituary
  11. Venn J.A, Alumni Cantabriensis London England. Cambridge University Press, 1922-1954
  12. BMJ 20 April 1940 p673. Obituary
  13. ibid
  14. Venn J.A, Alumni Cantabriensis London England. Cambridge University Press, 1922-1954
  15. BMJ 20 April 1940 p673. Obituary
  16. Venn J.A, Alumni Cantabriensis London England. Cambridge University Press, 1922-1954
  17. Ancestry.co.uk
  18. BMJ 20 April 1940 p673. Obituary
  19. Ritchie, Lionel Alexander. ‘John Campbell White, Lord Overtoun’ in Slaven, A              A Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography. Aberdeen. Aberdeen University Press,1986. Page 293
  20. ibid
  21. Memoirs and Portraits of 100 Glasgow Men
  22. Who’s who in Glasgow in 1909
  23. ibid
  24. The Bailie. The Man you Know June 1889
  25. The Scotsman 29 June 1899
  26. The Scotsman 5 July 1899
  27. The Scotsman 5 August 1899
  28. Who’s who in Glasgow in 1909
  29. ibid
  30. Wills and Probate. London, England
  31. Personal communication Dumbarton Librarian


Jessie Whyte Craig (1856 – 1950)

On 18 November 1950, fifteen oil paintings, three watercolours and one pastel were received by Glasgow corporation having been bequeathed by Miss Jessie Whyte Craig through Messrs. Frame and Macdonald, 5 Fitzroy Pl., Glasgow, C.3. 1 Fourteen of the oil paintings are shown below, the fifteenth has been presumed stolen.

Figure 1. Campbell, Colin Cairns Clinton; Sweet William in a White Vase. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 2. Campbell, Colin Cairns Clinton; Sweet William in a Lustre Jug. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 3. Algie, Jessie; Rambler Roses; © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 4. Muir, Anne Davidson; Primulas in a Blue and White Vase. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 5. Muir, Anne Davidson; Spring Bouquet. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 6. Dobson, Cowan; Old Lady Reading. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 7. Morris, May; Rocky Cove. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 8. Perman, Louisa Ellen; Red and White Roses. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 9. Hornel, Edward Atkinson; Children on the Sands. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 10. Hornel, Edward Atkinson; Two Girls and Swans at a Pool. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 11. McGhie, John; Rocky Seascape; Glasgow Museums. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 12. Wylie, Kate; Wallflower. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 13. McKinna, Mary E. Tait; Nasturtiums in a Lustre Jug. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)
Figure 14. Carrick, William Arthur Laurie; Iona. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

The watercolours were ‘By the Sea‘ by Robert Eadie R’S’W., ‘Pink Roses‘ by James G. Lang and ‘Kintello Village‘ by Charles A. Sellar. The pastel is ‘Delphiniums‘ by M. Hamilton.                                                     

Jessie Whyte Craig was born in ‘the village of Bothwell’, on 8 October 1856, the second child of Robert Craig, an accountant, and Agnes Brown.  Robert, Jessie’s older brother was born in Tradeston on 3 February 1855. 2 Jessie’s birth was registered in Bothwell and Glasgow where the family home was at 163 Eglinton Street, Tradeston.3 Her younger brother George was born on 2 February 1861 and her sister Jane on 2 September 1863. 4 In 1861, the family was living at Shields Road Junction Cottage with the four-year-old Jessie ‘an accountant’s daughter’. 5 In the following two years the children became orphaned when first their father died followed by their mother Agnes on 9 April 1865 at 42 Grant Street. She was thirty-three. 6 The children appear to have been taken into the care of their maternal grandparents, George and Janet Brown (both born in 1800) living at 79 Eglinton Street. By 1871, Robert was an apprentice clerk with Jessie, George and Jane, scholars. Also living with them and their grandparents, was their unmarried aunt, Jessie Brown who was twenty-six. 7 By 1881, the family had moved to 109 Eglinton Street with Jessie Brown now the head and housekeeper. Jessie Craig had her occupation listed as ‘milliner’ with her sister Jane aged seventeen, still a scholar. George Craig was an ‘analytical chemist’ living as a lodger at 387 Craigston Square, Auchinleck, Ayrshire.8

  George Craig became a tenant at 9 Hampden Terrace, Cathcart 9 *and by 1901, his two sisters, Jessie, and Jane as well as his aunt Jessie Brown had moved in with him. 10 There is no occupation given for Jessie in the census. Jessie Craig remained domiciled at 9 Hampden Terrace for the rest of her life, living on ‘her own account’. 11 When her brother George died in the early 1930s, Jessie took over the tenancy. 12

            Jessie Whyte Craig died aged 94 at 9 Hampden Terrace on 10 October 1950. Her death was reported by her cousin Jean Craig Renton whose address was in Canford Cliffs in Devon. 13 She was buried in Cathcart Cemetery on 12 October 1950. 14 The following month, Glasgow received the bequest of nineteen pictures.

  • 9 Hampden Terrace was probably built about 1880 and consists of three storeys and a basement and large external staircase. It is now category C listed.

References

  1. Glasgow Corporation, list of donors held at Glasgow Museums Resource Centre
  2. Scotland’s People, Birth Certificate
  3. Ibid
  4. Ibid
  5. Scotland’s People, Census 1861
  6. Scotland’s People, Death Certificate
  7. Scotland’s People, Census 1871
  8. Scotland’s People, Census 1881
  9. Scotland’s People, Valuation Roll, Cathcart, 1895
  10. Scotland’s People, Census 1901
  11. Scotland’s People, Census 1911
  12. Scotland’s People, Valuation Roll, Cathcart, 1935
  13. Scotland’s People, Death Certificate
  14. Glasgow Herald, 11 October 1950, p1

                  

 

                                   

     

 

Helen Murray (1868 – 1959)

On 22 June 1946, a painting entitled Nurse and Child (2557) in oils by R. C. Crawford was presented by Miss Murray of 15 Belhaven Terrace, Glasgow. 1

Figure 1. Crawford, Robert Cree; Woman and Child; © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection. (http://www.artuk.org)

On ArtUK the painting is entitled Woman and Child by Robert Cree Crawford and is dated to about 1895 – 97.

The initial problems with researching this donor were that she was listed simply as ‘Miss Murray’ with no first name or initial given. Also, she could not be located at the address given in the Glasgow Post Office Directories spanning the years 1944 to 1949.

However, in March 2014, a distant relative of the artist visited the Glasgow Museums Resource Centre (GMRC) to view the painting. She was able to identify the child in the painting as Helen, youngest daughter of the artist Robert Cree Crawford. 2 It then seemed possible that ‘Miss Murray’ might be the woman in the picture – the child`s nurse/governess. On checking the 1891 Census 3 there was listed at 46 St. James Street, Hillhead, along with the Crawford family, an ‘Ellen Murray’ who was single, aged 23 and employed by the family as a nurse. She had been born in England. There was no Helen Crawford but there were six children under the age of eleven, one of whom was deaf, so it would have been appropriate to employ a governess.

By 1901, the family had moved to 12 Derby Crescent, Kelvinside and in the census of that year 4 there appears, ‘Helen Murray, governess, single, aged 31’ in the Crawford household. There is also a Helen C(harlotte) Crawford, daughter of Robert and born in 1892.

        So, assuming the child in the painting is Helen Charlotte aged about five, the painting must have been completed about 1897 when Helen Murray would have been about 28 and a ‘governess’.

            By the time the picture was painted Helen would have been with the family for ten years. Perhaps it was a birthday/anniversary present? In his will, Robert Cree Crawford left everything to his wife but there is no mention of this painting. 5 It is also a possibility that Helen Charlotte was named after a favourite nurse/governess as there seemed to be no other ‘Helens’ in the family. If this is so it shows that Helen Murray was held in high regard by the family.

Helen Murray was christened on 11 March 1868 in Everton, Liverpool. 6  Her father, David Murray was a joiner from Canonbie in Dumfries who had married Mary Beattie in Canonbie on 29 August 1862. 7 The couple and their eldest daughter, Jane moved to Liverpool around 1865 and lived there for about the next ten years. In the 1871 census 8 they were at Toxteth Park, Liverpool, and ‘Ellen’, aged 3, now had a brother Robert. By 1881 they had moved back to Scotland to Carrutherstown Village, Dalton, Dumfries. 9 Helen was now thirteen and a ‘scholar’. She had, in addition to Jane and Robert, two younger siblings, George and Mary. Ten years later, Helen, aged 23, was employed by Robert Cree Crawford as a ‘domestic servant, nurse’ and was living with the Crawford family at 46 St. James Street, Hillhead. 10 The donated painting was completed about 1897. By 1901 the family had moved to 12 Derby Crescent, Kelvinside and in the census of that year Helen`s occupation is ‘governess’, aged 31. 11

Robert Cree Crawford married his first cousin, Sophia Jean Cree. His ‘in-laws’ (or uncle and aunt) lived at ‘Woodneuk’, Rahane near Garelochhead. His father-in-law (uncle) died in 1894 and his mother-in-law (aunt) in 1903. 12 Sometime after this the Crawford family moved to Rahane, and Helen went with them. In the census of 1911 for ‘Woodneuk’ she is described as a ‘lady help’ aged 42.13 However, the family must have kept the house at 12 Derby Crescent as this was described as his usual address when Robert Cree Crawford died in 1924.

Sophia Jean Crawford died intestate in 1929 at ‘Woodneuk’ leaving £3123, 5s 5p. Her two daughters Sophia Cree Crawford and Helen Charlotte Crawford were granted confirmation, and both gave their address as Woodneuk, Rahane. 14, 15 The following year Helen Murray was in residence at 15 Belhaven Terrace, Glasgow 16. She was now 62 and had been employed by the Crawford family for over 40 years. She presented the painting to Glasgow in 1946 when she was 78.

Helen Murray died at 2 Lorraine Road, Glasgow – a nursing home – on 8 March 1959. She was 91. Her usual address was still 15 Belhaven Terrace. 17

MURRAY – At a nursing home, Glasgow on 8th March, 1959, Helen Murray, 15,

Belhaven Terrace, Glasgow, W2 – Funeral tomorrow (Wednesday) at 12.10 p.m. from Messrs Wylie & Lochhead, Ltd., 31, Bath Street to Glasgow crematorium, Maryhill arriving at 12.30 p.m.; friends desirous of attending phone …..; no flowers or letters please. 18

Helen Charlotte Crawford died, unmarried, in 1979 at Callender. She was 87.19

References

  1. Catalogue of Donations to Glasgow, Glasgow Museums Resource Centre (GMRC)
  2. Information in the Object File at GMRC
  3. Scotland`s People, Census 1891
  4. Scotland’s people, Census 1901
  5. Scotland`s People, Wills and Testaments, Robert Cree Crawford,
  6. Births and Christening Records, Old Parish Registers, Family Search, England
  7. Scotland’s People, Marriage Certificate
  8. Ancestry.co.uk, Census, England, 1871
  9. Scotland’s People, Census, 1881
  10. Scotland’s People, Census, 1891
  11. Scotland’s People, Census, 1901
  12. Scotland’s People, Death Certificates
  13. Scotland’s People, Census, 1911
  14. Scotland`s People, Death Certificate
  15. Confirmations and Inventories, Mitchell Library, Glasgow
  16. Scotland’s People, Valuation Roll, 1930
  17. Scotland’s People, Death Certificate
  18. Glasgow Herald, Death Notices, 10 March 1959
  19. Scotland’s People, Death Certificate

Stella Alston (1881-1970)

In 1930 a portrait of John Thomas Alston of Moore Park (1780–1857) by John Graham Gilbert (1794-1866) was gifted to Kelvingrove Gallery by Mrs. Stella Alston. John Thomas Alston had been Provost of the City of Glasgow between 1820 and 1822. A copy of the painting is depicted below.

Figure 1. Graham-Gilbert, John; John T. Alston (1780-1857), Provost of Glasgow (1820-1821). © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

ur donor Stella Alston was born at 3 De Vere Gardens, London in 1881. Her parents were Mr Charles Parbury and Mrs Annie Parbury from Australia. [1]

Mr Parbury was an Australian merchant, who traded between India and Australia. However, they lived most of their time in London. Stella was one of nine children and she was brought up in London’s De Vere Gardens, one of the very fashionable areas of London where many artists and writers lived. Some of those notable residents were writer Henry James, poet Robert Browning and H. Kempton Dyson (1880–1944), English structural engineer, civil engineer, architect, editor and author. [2]

On 16 July 1903 our donor Stella Parbury married Mervyn Campbell Stephen who was also from Australia and whose grandfather was the famous member of the Australian Legislature Sir Alfred Stephen (1802-94). [3]

Mervyn Campbell Stephen had studied law at Trinity College, Cambridge and had become a barrister. Their daughter Sheila Annie was born on 28 November 1904. The Stephen Family, then sometime in between 1905 and 1911, had moved to Eastbourne as the 1911 English Census records that their residence was 15 Jevington Gardens, Eastbourne. However, Mr. Mervyn Campbell Stephen died suddenly on 20 October 1912, at the young age of 36, leaving Stella a widow and mother of a young child. [4]

Later in 1914 Stella married again. [5] Her husband was Mr. George Alston whose previous wife Mary Charlotte Thompson had died in 1912.

George Alston’s father was a tea planter in Ceylon (present day Sri Lanka). The tea plantation in Ceylon was called Craighead, which was the name of the Alston family home in Scotland. [6] George Alston was a relative of John Thomas Alston, the Lord Provost of Glasgow and the subject of our painting.

After researching his genealogy, it was discovered that John Thomas Alston was, in fact, the grand uncle of Stella’s husband George Alston (i.e. brother of his grandfather). [7] John Thomas Alston was born in Glasgow, one of six children of John Alston (1743–1818), a bank cashier with the Thistle Bank, and his wife, Patrick Craigie (sic).The family later lived at 56 Virginia Street, Glasgow.John Thomas moved to separate lodgings at Clyde Street in 1818. In 1820 he succeeded Henry Monteith as Lord Provost of Glasgow. He then bought Moore Park, a simple Georgian villa by David Hamilton in the Broomloan district of Glasgow. The house was photographed in 1870 by Thomas Annan just prior to its demolition for railway improvements in the city. After that he was known as John Thomas Alston of Moore Park. [8]

Returning to our donor’s life, Stella and George Alston, after their marriage, lived in Newbury, Berkshire, England. However, later they moved to Duns in Berwickshire, Scotland where they lived together in Nesbit House until George’s death on 5 June 1930. [9]

Stella’s daughter, Sheila Annie Stephen, after her first marriage to Mervyn Campbell Stephen, married Sir David George Home of Blackadder on 5 January 1933. [10] He had been born on 21 January 1904. His father was Sir John Home of Blackadder, 12th Baronet, and his mother was the Hon. Gwendolina Hyacinth Roma Mostyn.

Sir David George Home was educated at Harrow School, Harrow, London and graduated from Jesus College, Cambridge University in 1925 with a Bachelor of Arts BA. He succeeded as the 13th Baronet Home, of Blackadder, on 19 October 1938. [11] He fought in the Second World War and gained the rank of Temporary Major in the Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders. He was admitted to the Royal Company of Archers and was the director of Edinburgh & Dundee Investment. Sir David and Sheila Annie had four children. [12]

After her husband’s death in 1930, Stella Alston returned to England and lived in London. She died there on 3 May 1970 and her death notice was in The Times of 6 May 1970. She was widowed twice before she was fifty and had seen two world wars.

Our donor’s son-in-law Sir David Home died on 17 January 1992 and his wife, Sheila Annie, soon after on 16 May 1992. They are both buried in the Grange Cemetery Edinburgh. [13]

References

[1] London, England, Church of England Births and Baptisms, 1813-1920 Kensington and Chelsea St Stephen, Kensington 1847-19011891 English Census.

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Vere_Gardens

[3] Ancestry.co.uk   search for Alfred Stephen, Lt. Governor NSW, Sir C.B.;K.C.M.G.

[4] Death cert. Mervyn Campbell Stephen in Ancestry.co.uk 

[5] The Westminster, London, England, Church of England Marriages and Banns, 1754-1935 (Ancestry.co.uk)

[6] 1871 Scotland Census . Ancestry.co.uk.

[7] Alston family tree search: Ancestry.co.uk.

[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Thomas_Alston

[9] George Alston’s Death Cert. (ScotlandsPeople.co.uk)

[11] https://www.werelate.org/wiki/Person:David_Home_(6)

[12] http://www.thepeerage.com/p7700.htm#i76991

[13] https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/The_grave_of_the_Home_baronets%2C_Grange_Cemetery%2C_Edinburgh.jpg

Mrs Anne D. Houstoun of Johnstone Castle (1865-1950)

Harvie, Robert, d.1781; Arthur Connell (1717-1775), Provost of Glasgow (1772-1773)
Figure 1 Arthur Connell Lord Provost of Glasgow 1772 – 1774. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

On 17 May 1947 Mrs. Houstoun, through her solicitors, donated to Glasgow Museums two oil paintings by the artist Robert Harvie. The subjects were Lord Provost Arthur Connell of Glasgow (1772-1774) and his wife Magdalen.

Note: to avoid confusion Mrs Houstoun and her birth name Anne Douglas Stirling will always be in bold.

These notes discuss her and her husband’s family background, and hopefully, will show how these paintings came into her possession.

Figure 2 Mrs Magdalene Connell. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

Both she and her husband came from long established landed and titled families whose histories can be traced back to, at least, the sixteenth century. She descended from the Stirlings* of Drumpellier through her father and also from the Kippendavie branch through her mother, he from the Lairds of Johnstone. She was not the only daughter of the Stirling family who married a Houstoun, but more of that later.

*Spelling of this surname can also be Sterling.

The Drumpellier Stirlings.

The Drumpellier Stirling’s ancestor appears to have been Robert Stirling (d.1537) of Bankeyr and Lettyr. A further seven generations between 1537 and 1777 inherited these estates, [1] this line producing a number of notable individuals including a Lord Provost of Glasgow, John Stirling (1728-1730), who when a Baillie in 1725 was arrested along with other magistrates and the Lord Provost because of the Shawfield riot in Glasgow caused by the imposition of a malt tax, [2] and Walter Stirling, his nephew, (1723-1791) who, on his death in 1791, bequeathed his house in Miller Street, his books, and £1,000 to establish Stirling’s Library, the first free public library in Scotland.[3]

John Stirling’s son William was born in Glasgow on 29 July 1717. [4] He was a Glasgow merchant, founding the cloth printing company of William Stirling and Sons c.1750, being the first to import Indian cotton printed in London, to Glasgow.[5] By the mid nineteenth century it was the largest of its kind in Scotland.[6] He married Mary Buchanan in 1747,[7] the daughter of Andrew Buchanan of Drumpellier.[8] The Drumpellier estate came into the Stirling’s hands when William’s son Andrew bought it from his mother’s brother James Buchanan in 1777 when the American War of Independence ruined the Buchanan business (Buchanan Hastie and Co.) in the American colonies.[9]

Figure 3 Andrew Stirling. © Mrs Stirling-Aird

Andrew was born on 14 February 1751 in Glasgow.[10] He attended the Grammar School of Glasgow between 1760 and 1764.[11] On 26 May 1778 he married Anna Stirling, daughter of Sir Walter Stirling of Faskine and Dorothy Willing (born in Philadelphia in 1735)[12], in St. George the Martyr, Queen Square, Camden.[13] According to the record of marriage Andrew was already living in the parish.

Figure 4 Anna Stirling. © Mrs Stirling-Aird

He and Anna had sixteen children, eight boys and eight girls born between 1779 and 1798. His sons included an admiral of the Royal Navy who became the first Governor of Western Australia.[14]

Initially he was a partner in the family business William Stirling and Sons, however in 1792 he left the partnership having set up his own commission house, Stirling, Hunter and Co. in London.[15] The venture was successful for a while however in 1808 he ran into financial difficulties and sold Drumpellier back to the Buchanan family.[16] He and his brother John were also shareholders in the company building the Monkland Canal. Initially James Watt had been involved in supervising the necessary work however it was not completed as planned and the company ran out of money.

In 1782 the company was auctioned off and with others the brothers bought it, the Stirlings owning just under 50%. By 1789 Andrew owned over two thirds. From that date, and as a result of his energy and foresight, the canal was extended eastwards to Calderbank and westwards to Port Dundas.[17] He was also a significant user of the canal, exporting coal mined from his land and bringing in dung and lime by return to support his agricultural activity.[18]

Andrew died at Pirbright Lodge in Surrey and was buried in St. Michaels and All Angels Churchyard in Pirbright on the 5th April 1823.[19] Anna also died at Pirbright and was buried on 11 June 1830.[20]

His fourth son was Charles Stirling, whose granddaughter Anne Douglas Stirling, the donor of the paintings, was in due course to marry into the Houstoun family. He was born on 16 June 1788 at Drumpellier,[21]  and educated at Westminster School [22]. He married his cousin Charlotte Dorothea Stirling, the daughter of Admiral Charles Stirling of Woburn in Surrey[23] in 1827. [24] They had seven children the third of whom was General Sir William Stirling. In 1835 Charles bought the estate of Muiravonside in Stirlingshire and developed the agriculture of the estate.[25] In 1826 he was also a partner in the Thistle Bank.[26] He died at Muiravonside House on the 25th August 1867 from heart disease.[27]

Charles’s son William was born on the 4th August 1835.[28] He attended Edinburgh Academy and then the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich.[29] He was appointed to Woolwich in November 1849, age 14 years and three months, passing his probationary examination in December 1850. He progressed through the Academy satisfactorily finally being promoted second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery on 22 June 1853.[30]

Figure 5 Sir William Stirling. Courtesy of Clan Stirling Online. http://old.clanstirling.org/wiki/General_Sir_William_Stirling,_KCB.,_R.A.

He married twice, his first wife being Anne Douglas Sylvester Stirling whom he married in 1864.[31] Her father was Sylvester Douglas Stirling of Glenbervie, and of the Kippendavie Stirling family.[32]

The Kippendavie Stirlings.

The Kippendavie branch of the family was established in 1594 when Archibald Stirling was given the estate of Kippendavie by his father, Sir Archibald Stirling of Keir and Cadder.[33] From this branch of the family came a number of individuals who, along with their Keir cousins were heavily involved in the sugar trade in the West Indies. Patrick and John Stirling, great, great grandsons of Archibald Stirling,[34] in turn, owned a sugar plantation in Jamaica called Content. Patrick had succeeded his father to Kippendavie and lived in Jamaica from about 1753 where he managed the plantation. He died however with no heirs in 1775 and is buried there, his brother John succeeding him to Kippendavie and Content.[35]

John, the father of Sylvester Douglas Stirling,[36] became a senior partner in Stirling Gordon & Co. This company was formed c.1750 by Arthur Connell and James Somervill and was known as Somervill Connell & Co. In 1780, five years after Connell died, it became Somervill Gordon & Co, finally in 1795, Stirling Gordon & Co.[37] It’s clear therefore that there was a business connection between Arthur Connell and the Stirlings of Kippendavie. Later that connection was strengthened through a marriage between the two families.

Between 1835 and 1837 the partners of Stirling Gordon & Co., (including two other sons of John Stirling, Charles and William) were awarded £15,616 as compensation for the loss of their slave labour when slavery was abolished in 1833. The company had four estates or plantations, including Content, with a total of 665 enslaved individuals.[38] At current values the amount awarded would be worth between £1.4m and £57m dependant on the measure used.[39]

Sylvester Douglas Stirling married Anne Craigie Connell in 1830.[40] She was the daughter of David Connell, the son of Arthur and Magdalen Connell, born in 1759. [41] He died in 1819, his death registration stating that he was buried in “Provost Connell’s lair”.[42] This marriage is the means by which the Connell paintings came into the possession of the Stirlings and ultimately Anne Douglas Stirling.

Sir William and Anne Douglas had two children the eldest of whom was Anne Douglas Stirling, born in Edinburgh in 1865. [43] She was in due course the sole executor and beneficiary of her maternal grandmother’s (Anne Craigie Connell) estate when she died in 1899, which I believe brought the Connell paintings into her ownership.[44] Further evidence of the Stirling/Connell familial ties is given by the 1901 census where Anne Douglas Stirling is registered as living (not visiting) with her cousin Arthur K Connell in Brockenhurst, Hampshire.[45]

Sir William’s military career spanned 52 years during which he saw action in the Crimea, India, China and Afghanistan.[46] Following the Afghan campaign in 1879 he was awarded Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB),[47] and in 1893, whilst Governor and Commandant of the Royal Military Academy he was made a Knight Commander of the Order, (KCB).[48]

He became Lieutenant of the Tower of London in 1900,[49] retiring from that position and the army on half pay in 1902.[50] He died on the 11th April 1906 at Ochiltree, Folkstone[51] and is buried in Cheriton Road Cemetery, Folkstone.[52]

The Houstouns of Johnstone.

Anne Douglas Stirling married the sixth Laird of Johnstone George Ludovic Houstoun at St Peter’s, Eaton Square, London on 10 November 1903.[53] His family ancestry can be traced back to Sir Ludovic Houstoun of that ilk, whose great-great-great grandfather, Sir Peter Houstoun was killed at Flodden. Sir Ludovic had two sons, the eldest and heir being Patrick, who was created a baronet in 1668. His second son was George, who became the first Laird of Johnstone.[54] It is from George that Anne Douglas Stirling’s husband is descended.

The fourth Laird of Johnstone was another George Houstoun who succeeded his father Ludovic who had succeeded his father, also Ludovic.[55] He was born on the 8th September 1744, his mother being Jane Rankine.[56] He succeeded his father at the age of 14 in 1757 and in 1779 he married Mary McDowall,[57] daughter of William McDowall, M.P. of Garthland. They had two sons, Ludovic and William born in 1780 and 1781 respectively.[58]

During his time as Laird, George extended Johnstone Castle, was involved in coal mining at Quarrelton, had lime works at Floor Craig and cotton mills on his estate.[59] He was also a founding partner of the Paisley Union Bank in 1788 along with nine others.[60] In 1838 the bank was taken over by the Union Bank of Scotland.[61] He died on the 31st December 1815[62] and was succeeded by his son Ludovic. He left estate valued at £29,750, in economic power terms worth over £155 million today.[63]

Ludovic married Ann Stirling, daughter of John Stirling of Kippendavie and Kippenross in 1809.[64] They had one son, another George, more of which later. He carried on with the businesses his father had established and in the 1861 census, when he was 80 years old it was recorded that he farmed 120 acres, employed 55 miners and 12 labourers in his coal works, 14 miners, 14 labourers, 2 joiners and 2 blacksmiths in the lime works and in his three mills 156 males and 276 females. Clearly a major employer in the area.[65]

He was a J.P. for the Abbey Parish in Johnstone and in 1831 he was appointed Deputy Lieutenant of Renfrewshire.[66]

His wife Ann’s sister Jane Stirling was a pupil of the pianist Frederic Chopin. She had met him around 1827 in Paris, which she visited annually with another sister Kathrine. She became a close friend of the pianist and in 1844 he dedicated his two Nocturnes Opus 55 to her. In 1848 she and Katherine were instrumental in bringing him to London for a series of concerts. He was subsequently invited to Scotland arriving in Edinburgh in early August, eventually staying in Johnstone Castle as a guest of the Houstoun’s for a couple of days in September.[67]

Figure 6. by Richard James Lane. 1830s-1840s NPG D3275 © National Portrait Gallery London. https://www.npg.org.uk/collections

Ludovic and Ann’s son George was born on 31 July 1810.[68] He attended Eton[69] and in 1828 matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford.[70] He was an officer in the Renfrew Yeomanry Cavalry and in 1831 was commissioned as Captain[71]. He was a Conservative candidate in the Parliamentary elections in 1835 for the County of Renfrew but lost by 68 votes to Sir Michael Shaw Stewart. Sir Michael died early in 1837 and George won the subsequent by-election by 170 votes. Later that year there was a general election and he again won the seat. He remained an MP until 1841 when he decided not to stand again in the coming election.

George was the heir apparent to the Lairdship, however in 1843 he collapsed and died whilst on a shoot at Invercauld in Aberdeenshire.[72] In the transept of Paisley Abbey there is a plain stone tablet, executed by Mossman, over his grave surmounted by a sand glass which is inscribed “George Houstoun, only child of Ludovic Houston and Ann Stirling of Kippendavie – born 31st July 1810, died 14th September 1843.” [73]

In addition to his personal business activity Ludovic, as might be expected, was involved in a number of enterprises at various times. He was a director of the West of Scotland, Fire Insurance Company, a director of the Johnstone Coffee and News Room, within the Black Bull Inn, on the management committee of the Glasgow, Paisley and Ardrossan Canal and a founder member of the Flax Growers Society of Scotland.[74] He died on the 3rd October 1862 at Johnstone Castle.[75]

As he had no surviving offspring and as his brother William had died in 1856[76], his nephew George Ludovic Houstoun became the sixth and last Laird of Johnstone.

William had married Marion Douglas Russell in 1845 at Gargunnock.[77] Her mother was yet another Stirling, Mary Stirling, daughter of John Stirling of Kippendavie and sister of Ludovic’s wife Ann.[78]  William was 64 years old at the time of the marriage which was probably prompted by the death of his nephew George in 1843. With no prospect apparently of his brother Ludovic and his wife having more children he was the only option for the continuation of the title. Sadly it was doomed to fail.

His bride, his niece, was c. 23 and they had four children, George Ludovic, born on the 15th October 1846,[79] William James b. 1848[80] Mary Erskine b. 1850 [81] and Ann Margaret b. 1852.[82] In 1851 the family was living in Cartside House in Johnstone, William described as a cotton spinner employing 532 men and women in his mills and a JP.[83]

The Last Laird.

George Ludovic Houstoun entered Rugby School on the 31st August 1860. His house was ‘Mayor’ so named after the house master R.B. Mayor. He remained there until 1863,[84] having become Laird the previous October at the age of 16 on the death of his uncle. He matriculated at Queens College, Cambridge in 1866, in due course graduating MA.[85]

He joined the Renfrewshire Militia also in 1866 as a lieutenant, retaining a military connection until c. 1911 when he joined the Veteran Reserve (Territorial Force Association of Renfrew) having attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and being associated with the 4th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.[86] He was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of the County of Renfrewshire in 1873, relinquishing the role in 1922.

He also appears to have had significant political connections and may also have been involved with the Colonial Office between 1877 and c.1900. His papers are lodged in the Mitchell Library in Glasgow and contain a wealth of information in respect of his activities in South Africa and his interest in Cyprus where he had an estate near Kyrenia in Northern Cyprus.[87]

It seems he spent some time in South Africa being appointed in 1877 Commissioner for the District of Rustenberg in the Transvaal and as a Justice of the Peace. He was present in Somboti, Swaziland, in 1895, witnessing the King’s signature on a letter to Queen Victoria and in 1900 he was in Bulawayo where he received a letter from Arthur Balfour who corresponded with him often, as did other political figures. He also exchanged letters with General Gordon of Khartoum and also with the writer H. Rider Haggard between 1889 and 1891.[88]

The information in the preceding three paragraphs comes from the Houstoun Family of Johnstone papers in the Glasgow City Archives held in the Mitchell Library. The papers, contained in three boxes, are extensive and date from 1630 to 1912, reference TD263.

In the censuses of 1891[89] and 1901[90] he is recorded as staying with his sisters Mary and Ann at Johnstone Castle living on his own means, his brother William James having died in 1866.[91] It may therefore be that his involvement in colonial affairs was sporadic and informal however, in terms of his correspondence, he exchanged information and comments on a number of subjects dealing with the British presence in Africa.

When he married Anne Douglas Stirling in 1903 she brought to the marriage a significant ‘fortune’ having some £13,000 of her own money and the expectation of an inheritance from her mother’s trust fund when her father died, as per her parent’s Marriage Settlement in 1864, and also from him.[92]

They lived for a period at Johnstone Castle until c.1912 when they moved permanently to their estate in Kyrenia, apparently due to Lloyd George’s Land Tax reforms which had begun in 1909.[93]

He had been interested in establishing a Scottish Episcopalian Church in Kyrenia for some time having between 1887 and 1891 began to seek financial support from wealthy friends with the aim of raising £1,000 to do so.[94]  He seems to have had a good response, whether he reached his target however is not clear. No action seems to have been taken until 1912 when St Andrews Episcopalian Church was built, the land being donated by Houstoun and the church being built by Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Eldred McDonald, he being the District Commissioner for Kyrenia.[95]

Figure 7 St Andrews, Kyrenia, Cyprus. http://www.standrewskyrenia.org/

Houstoun was also involved in founding the local hospital and along with a number of other philanthropic activities, trying to improve local farming. In support of this he also established an Agricultural Show.[96]

The Church is still in existence and appears to be very active. Its current vicar is the Reverend Wendy Hough.[97]

Figure 8 Houstoun Cemetery, Kyrenia, Cyprus. http://www.standrewskyrenia.org/

He died in Kyrenia in 1931[98], his wife surviving him until 1950,[99] also dying in Kyrenia. They are both buried in the small Houstoun Cemetery there.[100]

Their marriage was childless and as his two sisters Mary Erskine and Ann Margaret died unmarried, Mary in Cannes in 1904[101] and Ann in Edinburgh in 1925[102], the Houstoun line begun by George Houstoun in the mid-1600s ended.

[1] Sterling, Albert Mack. (1909). The Sterling Genealogy. Vol.1 New York: The Grafton Press. pp. 158-162. https://archive.org/stream/sterlinggenealog01ster#page/n1/mode/2up

[2] Smith, John Guthrie and Mitchell, John Oswald. (1878). The Old Country Houses of the Old Glasgow Gentry. 2nd ed. ‘Drumpellier’ .Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/smihou/smihou036.htm

[3] Glasgow Librarian. (1888). Catalogue of Stirling’s and Glasgow Public Library. Glasgow: Robert Maclehose. pp. xiii – xvii. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433089893816;view=1up;seq=1

[4] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 27 July 1717. STIRLING, William. 644/1 90 320. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[5] Reid, Robert. (1884) Glasgow Past and Present Vol. 3 Glasgow: David Roberson and Co. p. 374.

[6] National Museum of Scotland. Firms that made Turkey Red. https://www.nms.ac.uk/collections

[7] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 20 September 1747. STIRLING, William and BUCHANAN, Mary. 644/1 250 98 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[8] Sterling, op.cit. pp. 158-162. https://archive.org/stream/sterlinggenealog01ster#page/n1/mode/2up

[9] Smith, John Guthrie and Mitchell, John Oswald. op.cit. ‘Drumpellier’.

[10] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 14 February 1751. STERLING, Andrew. 644/1 121/5. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[11] Reid, op.cit. p.424.

[12] Macfarlane Families & Connected Clans Genealogy. http://www.clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info/genealogy/TNGWebsite/getperson.php?personID=I27371&tree=CC

[13] Marriages. (PR) England. Bloomsbury, London. 26 May 1778. STERLING, Andrew and STIRLING, Ann. Collection: London, England, Church of England Marriages and Banns, 1754-1931. http://ancestry.co.uk

[14] Sterling, op. cit. pp.163-165.

[15] London Gazette (1792) 22 September 1792 Issue 13470, p. 809. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/13470/page/809

[16] Sterling, op.cit. pp. 163-165.

[17] Thomson, George (1945) The Monkland Canal: A sketch of the Early History. Monklands: Monkland Library Services Department

[18] Sinclair, Sir John. (1793) The Statistical Account of Scotland. Vol. 7. Edinburgh: William Creech. pp. 373, 374. http://stataccscot.edina.ac.uk/static/statacc/dist/volume/nsa/

[19] Burials (PR) England. Pirbright, Surrey. 5 April 1823. STIRLING, Andrew. Collection: Surrey, England, Church of England Burials, 1813-1987. Reference Number PI/4/1. http://ancestry.co.uk

[20] Burials (PR) England. Pirbright, Surrey. 11 June 1830. STIRLING, Anna. Collection: London, England, Church of England Deaths and Burials, 1813-2003  http://ancestry.co.uk

[21] Births (OPR) Scotland.  Old Monkland or Coatbridge. 16 June 1788. STIRLING, Charles. 652/ 10 263

http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[22] The Gentleman’s Magazine. (1867) Deaths. The Gentleman’s Magazine. Vol. IV. July – December 1867. p. 542. https://archive.org/stream/gentlemansmagazi223hatt#page/542/mode/2u

[23] Sterling, op. cit. pp. 163

[24] Marriages (PR) England. Pirbright, Surrey. 1 May 1827. STIRLING, Charles and STIRLING, Charlotte Dorothea. Collection: Surrey, England, Church of England Marriages, reference PI/2/2/2. http://ancestry.co.uk

[25] The Gentleman’s Magazine. (1867) Deaths. The Gentleman’s Magazine Vol. IV. July – December 1867. p. 542. https://archive.org/stream/gentlemansmagazi223hatt#page/542/mode/2u

[26] Reid, Robert. (1884) Glasgow Past and Present Vol. 1 Glasgow: David Roberson and Co. p. 484.

[27] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Muiravonside, Stirling. 25 August 1867. STIRLING, Charles. 486/ 40. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[28] Find a Grave. General Sir William Stirling. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/158244525

[29] Sterling, op.cit. p. 163.

[30] The Sandhurst Collection. William Stirling. http://archive.sandhurstcollection.co.uk/view/1565/55974/

[31] Marriages (PR) England. Westminster, London. 2 June 1864 STIRLING, William and STIRLING, Anne Douglas. Collection: England, Select Marriages, 1538–1973. FHL Film number 1042324. http://ancestry.co.uk

[32] Births (OPR) Scotland. Larbert, Stirling. 8 November 1834. STIRLING, Anne Douglas. 485/ 10 531. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[33] Sterling, op.cit. p. 129. https://archive.org/stream/sterlinggenealog01ster#page/128/mode/2up

[34] Sterling, op. cit. pp. 129-132. https://archive.org/stream/sterlinggenealog01ster#page/128/mode/2up

[35] Smith, John Guthrie and Mitchell, John Oswald. (1878) The Old Country Houses of the Glasgow Gentry 2nd ed.  Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/smihou/smihou063.htm

[36] Births (OPR) Scotland. Dunblane, Stirling. 24 February 1803. STIRLING, Silvester, Douglas. 348/ 30 04 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[37] Smith, John Guthrie and Mitchell, John Oswald. (1878) The Old Country Houses of the Glasgow Gentry 2nd ed.  Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/smihou/smihou063.htm

[38]  University College London. Legacies of British Slave Ownership.  https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/15121

[39] Measuring Worth. https://www.measuringworth.com/ppoweruk/

[40] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Abbey. 7 September 1830. STIRLING, Sylvester Douglas and CONNELL, Anne Craigie. 559/ 80 234. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[41] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 24 May 1759. CONNELL, David. 644/1 130 190. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[42] Deaths (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 28 January 1819. CONNELL, David. 644/1 610 221. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[43] Births (SR) Scotland. St George, Edinburgh. 7 December 1865. STIRLING, Anne Douglas. 685/1 1476. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[44] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 1899 STIRLING, Anne Craigie. Stirling Sheriff Court SC67/36/118. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[45] Census. England. 1901. Brockenhurst, Hampshire. Class: RG13; Piece: 1035; Folio: 67; Page: 4. http://ancestry.co.uk

[46] Sterling, op.cit. p. 163. https://archive.org/stream/sterlinggenealog01ster#page/162/mode/2up

[47] London Gazette (1879) Colonel William Stirling. 21 November 1879, issue 24785, p. 6586. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/24785/page/6586

[48] London Gazette (1893) Supplement, Queen’s Birthday Honours. Lieutenant General William Stirling. 3 June 1893, issue 26405. p. 3251. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/26405/page/3251

[49] London Gazette (1900) Lieutenant General Sir William Stirling. 9 January 1900, issue 27152, p. 146. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/27152/page/148

[50] London Gazette (1902) General Sir William Stirling. 8 August 1902, issue 27462, p. 5101. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/27462/page/5101

[51] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 5 June 1906. STIRLING, General Sir William. Supplementary Inventory. Edinburgh Sheriff Court. SC70/1/457. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[52] Find a Grave. General Sir William Stirling. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/158244525

[53] Marriage Announcements (1903) The Scotsman 12 November. HOUSTOUN, George Ludovic and STIRLING, Anne Douglas. p. 10h. Collection: Scotsman Digital Archive 1817 – 1950. https://auth.nls.uk

[54] Burke, John and Burke, John Bernard. (1844). A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland and Scotland. 2 ed. London: John Russell Smith. p. 627. https://books.google.co.uk

[55] Ibid.

[56] Births (OPR) Scotland. Ayr. 8 September 1744. HOWSTOUN, George. 578/ 30 247. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[57] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Renfrewshire. 29 January 1779. HOUSTOUN, George and MCDOWAL, Maria. 559/ 40 292. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[58] Burke, op.cit.

[59]  Jisc Archives Hub. Papers of the Houstoun family of Johnstone.  https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/

[60] Lloyds Banking Group. Paisley Union Bank.  http://www.lloydsbankinggroup.com/Our-Group/our-heritage/our-history/bank-of-scotland/paisley-union-bank

[61] Cameron, Alan. (1995) Bank of Scotland 1695 – 1995: A very singular institution. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company. p.150.

[62] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 1818. HOUSTOUN, George. Wills and Testaments. Paisley Sheriff Court. SC36/48/13http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[63] Measuring Worth (2016). https://www.measuringworth.com/m/calculators/ukcompare/

[64] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Renfrewshire. 22 October 1809. HOUSTOUN, Ludovic and STIRLING, Ann. 559/ 40 551. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[65] Census. 1861. Scotland. Abbey of Paisley, Johnstone. 559/3 11/1. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[66] London Gazette (1831) 15 August 1831 Issue 18849, p. 1878. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/13470/page/809

[67] The Chopin Society UK. Chopin’s visit to Britain 1848.  http://www.chopin-society.org.uk/articles/chopin-britain.htm

[68] Burke, op.cit.

[69] Stapylton, H.E.C. (1884) Eton School Lists 1791 – 1877. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co. p. 117.      https://archive.org/stream/etonschoollistsf00lond#page/116/mode/2up

[70] Oxford University Alumini. 1500 – 1886. Vol. II 1715 – 1886, p. 117. http://ancestry.co.uk

[71] London Gazette (1831) 22 February 1831 Issue 18778, p. 340 https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/18778/page/340

[72] The Gentleman’s Magazine. (1844) Deaths. The Gentleman’s Magazine. Vol. XXI. January – June 1844. p. 203.

https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000080772795;view=1up;seq=215

[73] Glasgow Herald. (1848) Glasgow, August 28, Glasgow Herald. 28 August 1848. p. 4f. https://auth.nls.uk

[74] Fowler’s Paisley Commercial Directories 1824 – 1846. https://auth.nls.uk

[75] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Johnstone, Renfrew. 3 October 1862. HOUSTOUN, Ludovic. 559/3 129. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[76] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Johnstone, Renfrew. 6 February 1856. HOUSTOUN, William. 559/ 3 37. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[77] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Gargunnock. 8 July 1845. HOUSTOUN, William, and RUSSELL, Marion Douglas. 481/ 20 238 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[78] Sterling, op.cit. pp. 133, 134.

[79] Births (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Paisley. 15 October 1846. HOUSTOUN, George Ludovic. 559/ 70 36. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[80] Births (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Paisley. 25 October 1848. HOUSTOUN, William James. 559/ 70 418 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[81] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Paisley. 17 August 1850. HOUSTOUN, Mary Erskine. 559/ 70 450. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[82] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Paisley. 2 April 1852. HOUSTON, Ann Margaret. 559/ 70 488

[83] Census 1851 Scotland. Johnstone. 559/ 17/3 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[84] Smith, Dr. Jonathan (2018), Archivist at Rugby School: George Ludovic Houstoun at Rugby School. E-mail to George Manzor, 8 March 2018.

[85] (1886) Rugby School Register 1850-1874. Vol. II. Rugby: A.J. Lawrence. p. 80.

[86] Houstoun Family of Johnstone Papers. Glasgow City Archives: Mitchell Library TD263

[87] Ibid

[88] Ibid

[89] Census. 1891. Scotland. Abbey, West Renfrewshire, 559/3 15/ 22. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[90] Census. 1901. Scotland. Johnstone, Paisley. 573/2 17/ 14. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[91] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Lochwinnoch, Renfrewshire. 18 September 1866. HOUSTOUN, William James. 570/ 56. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[92] Houstoun Family of Johnstone Papers. Glasgow City Archives: Mitchell Library TD263.

[93] Death Announcements. (1931). the Scotsman. 5 September. HOUSTOUN, George Ludovic. p. 15b. Collection: Scotsman Digital Archive 1817 – 1950. https://auth.nls.uk

[94] Houstoun Family of Johnstone Papers. Glasgow City Archives: Mitchell Library reference TD263.

[95] Collins, P.C. (1988) A Short History of St. Andrew’s English Church, Kyrenia, Cyprus: 1913 – 1988.

http://www.standrewskyrenia.org/about-us/our-history/

[96] Ibid

[97] St. Andrew’s Church, Kyrenia. Our Chaplain. http://www.standrewskyrenia.org/about-us/our-chaplain/

[98] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 16 March 1932. HOUSTOUN, George Ludovic. National Probate Index (Calendar of Confirmations and Inventories), 1876-1936. http://ancestry.co.uk

[99] Testamentary Records. England and Wales. 21 October 1950. STIRLING, Anne Douglas. National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1966. http://ancestry.co.uk

[100] St. Andrew’s Church. Kyrenia. The Houstoun Cemetery. http://www.standrewskyrenia.org/the-british-cemeteries-committee/the-houstoun-cemetery/

[101] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 16 June 1904. HOUSTOUN, Mary Erskine. Paisley Sheriff Court Wills. SC58/45/13 and SC58/ 42/64. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[102] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 26 June 1925. HOUSTOUN, Ann Margaret. Dunblane Sheriff Court Wills. SC44/48/2. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk