‘The gifts include a water colour, “The Sweep`s Land, Stockwell Street” by James (sic) Fairbairn, presented by Mr Joseph Henderson, R.S.W., Glasgow, and this sub-committee resolved that a special vote of thanks be accorded him for the gift’. 1
Joseph Henderson was born on 10 June 1832 in Stanley, Perthshire, He was the third of four boys. When he was about six, the family moved to Edinburgh and took up residence in Broad Street. The two older boys joined their father, also Joseph, as stone masons. 2 Joseph’s father died when Joseph was eleven leaving his mother, Marjory Slater, in straightened circumstances. 3 As a result, Joseph and his twin brother, James, were sent to work at an early age and the thirteen-year-old Joseph was apprenticed to a draper/hosier. At the same time, he attended part-time classes at the Trustees’ Academy, Edinburgh. At the age of seventeen, on 2 February 1849, he enrolled as an art student in the Academy.4 From the census of 1851, Marjory, Joseph and James were living at 5 Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh. Marjory was now a ‘lodging housekeeper’ with two medical students as boarders. James was a ‘jeweller’ while Joseph was a ‘lithographic drawer’.5 In the same year Joseph won a prize for drawing at the Academy enabling him, along with fellow students, W. Q. Orchardson, W. Aikman and W. G. Herdman, to travel to study the works of art at the Great Exhibition in London, which he found to be a very formative experience.6
He left the Academy about 1852-3 and settled in Glasgow. He is first mentioned in the Glasgow Post Office Directory for 1857-8 where he is listed as an artist living at 6 Cathedral Street.7 The census of 1861 confirms this address where he is a ‘portrait painter’ living with his wife Helen, daughter Marjory aged four and his mother Marjory who is now his ‘house keeper’.8
Joseph Henderson’s first exhibited work was a self-portrait which was shown at the Royal Scottish Academy (RSA) in 1853.9 He painted several portraits of friends and local dignitaries including a half-length portrait of his friend John Mossman in 1861. His painting, The Ballad Singer established his reputation as one of Scotland`s foremost artists when exhibited at the RSA in 1866.10 Throughout his career he continued in portraiture. He executed portraits of James Paton (1897) a founder and superintendent of the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum (this portrait was bequeathed to Kelvingrove in 1933) and Alexander Duncan of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. 11 He also painted Mr. Scott Dickson, Sir Charles Cameron, Bart., DL, LLD (1897), RGI and Sir John Muir, Lord Provost of Glasgow (1893). 12 His portrait of councillor Alexander Waddell (1893) was presented to Kelvingrove in 1896.13
However, it is probably as a painter of seascapes and marine subjects that he became best known. His picture Where Breakers Roar attracted much attention when exhibited at the Royal Glasgow Institute (RGI) in 1874, ‘as a rendering of angry water’.14
Henderson was in part responsible for raising the profile and status of artists in Glasgow and was a member of the Glasgow Art Club (he was President in 1887-8), the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts (founded 1861) and the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolour.15 Between 1853 and 1892, he exhibited frequently at the RSA and at the RGI and between 1871 and 1886 he had twenty pictures accepted for the Royal Academy in London. In 1901 he was entertained at a dinner by the President and Council of the Glasgow Art Club to celebrate his jubilee as a painter. He was presented with a solid gold and silver palette. An inscription on the palette read: ‘Presented to Joseph Henderson, Esq., R.S.W. by fellow-members of the Art Club as a mark of esteem and a souvenir of his jubilee as a painter, 8th January 1901’ 16
Joseph Henderson was married three times. On 8 January 1856 he married Helen Cosh (d. 1866) with whom he had four children including a daughter Marjory who became the second wife of the artist William McTaggart. On 30 September 1869 he married Helen Young (d. 1871) who bore him one daughter and in 1872 he married Eliza Thomson with whom he had two daughters and who survived him.17 Two of his sons, John (1860 – 1924) and Joseph Morris (1863 – 1936) became artists; John was Director of the Glasgow School of Art from 1918 to 1924.18
By 1871 he had moved with his family; wife Helen, daughter Marjory and sons James, John and Joseph and his mother Marjory from Cathedral Street to 183 Sauchiehall Street. He also employed a general servant. He is described in the census as a ‘portrait painter’.19 In 1881, Joseph was living at 5 La Belle Place, Glasgow with Eliza, two sons and four daughters.20 He later moved to 11 Blythswood Square, Glasgow. 21 In the 1901 census he was still at this address with his wife Eliza, sons John and Joseph and daughter Mary and Bessie. His occupation is ‘portrait and marine painter’.22
Joseph Henderson painted many of his seascapes at Ballantrae in Ayrshire. At the beginning of July 1908, he again travelled to the Ayrshire coast. However, he succumbed to heart failure and died at Kintyre View, Ballantrae, on 17 July 1908 aged 76 and was buried in Sighthill cemetery in Glasgow. 23 A commemorative exhibition of his works was held at the RGI in November of that year. 24 A full obituary was published in the Glasgow Herald. 25
As well as his devotion to art, Joseph Henderson was a keen angler and golfer. A contemporary account states that he was ‘frank and genial, with an inexhaustible fund of good spirits and a ready appreciation of humour, of which he himself possesses no small share’. 26
A comprehensive account of the life and works of Joseph Henderson has been written by Hilary Christie-Johnston. 27
Thomas Fairbairn (1821 – 1885) was an older contemporary of Henderson and both were friends of John Mossman and Robert Greenlees.A series of his drawing were acquired by Glasgow Corporation. 28 It is possible that the painting The Sweep`s Land, Stockwell Street was given to him by the artist.
Glasgow Corporation Minutes, 6 July 1898, p 642.
Scotland’s People, 1841 Census, St. Cuthbert’s Edinburgh
In October 1950 Mrs. Helen Percy presented to Glasgow Museums a portrait of her mother by the artist John Graham Gilbert.
Her mother was Elizabeth Bannatyne, wife of Glasgow merchant John Jarvie who was heavily involved in trade with China and the Far East during the middle of the nineteeth Century.
This article looks at both their family backgrounds and how he became a ‘foreign merchant’ particularly in Singapore, who was not always successful.
John Jarvie’s grandfather was William Jarvie, a coal master of Pollokshaws. He married Agnes McGie in 1754 and they had at least four children, three girls and one boy. They were all baptised on the same day in 1762 in the parish of Eastwood, their birth dates ranging from 1755 to 1762.
William was a coal master at a time in Scotland when essentially miners were no better than slaves and were legally tied to mines (bondsmen) by an Act of Parliament (1606), unless their master agreed to release them. Another Act in 1672 authorised ‘coal masters, salt masters and others, who had manufactories in this kingdom to seize upon any vagabonds or beggars wherever they can find them, and to put them to work.’  This state of affairs continued until the beginning of the 19th Century. For more on the history of coal mining in Scotland the Scottish Mining Website (http://www.scottishmining.co.uk/index.html) is an excellent source of information.
Whilst his main occupation is given as coal master he also farmed at various locations within Sir John Maxwell’s Pollok estate, including at Clogholes farm, PolIocktoun and Northwoodside. His will, he died c.1767, details the value of equipment and crops at each of these locations and others, and also includes the value of tools, equipment and instruments associated with his coal works at Napiershall. When household goods, furniture and so on are included his estate was valued at £334 2s., his wife Agnes being his named executrix.
His son Robert was born in July 1758 at Shaws. His initial schooling has not been established, the only certainty being that he did not attend the University as the matriculation or graduation records do not include his name. It’s probable he worked for his father at some stage but again nothing has been found to indicate what he did in the early part of his life.
Robert eventually became a merchant in Glasgow however his first appearance in the Post Office Directories does not occur until 1806 where he is described as a merchant with James Hamilton, Sen. and Co., his home address being given as Charlotte Lane, which is where he lived until 1815. He remained with that company for the rest of his active life, eventually becoming a partner in the business and others. He was also a director of the Chamber of Commerce from 1829 until 1833.
He married in 1814 Jane Milligan, the daughter of William Milligan, merchant, and Jean Ure of Fareneze Printfield, Neilston. They had seven children, five sons and two girls. The family home was at Maxwellton Place from 1815 until 1824, at which time they moved to 19 Carlton Place.
Robert died at home on the 28th April 1843. At the time of his death his movable estate was valued at £8378 9s 3d, equivalent to £800,000 today by simple RPI changes, in terms of economic power it equates to several millions of pounds.
However, that does not tell the whole story of his wealth. In 1830 he set up a Trust Disposition and Settlement which dealt with his heritable estate in Glasgow plus what is described as his ‘stock in trade’ including his ‘share of same’ from other co-partneries with which he was involved. Included was property/ground bounded by the west of Robertson Street and the Broomielaw, subjects in Queen Street, property in Carlton Place and other properties and ground.
Eleven trustees were named whose function was to manage the trust to support his wife and children and if need be, their children. There are three codicils to the deed the last of which in 1836 names his eldest son William as a trustee.
Four of the five sons, William, Robert, James and John,more of whom later, all matriculated at the University between 1829 and 1837, and all became merchants in due course. There is no evidence to suggest the youngest son Alexander became a merchant or attended the University, however there was a bit of a mystery about his whereabouts after 1856 which led to a petition for him to be presumed dead.
In 1885 Robert’s sister Agnes, the widow of Isaac Buchanan, resident in Hamilton, Canada, sought to have Alexander presumed dead in accordance with the 1881 Presumption of Life Limitation Scotland Act. In her submission to the Lords of Council and Session she stated that her brother had sailed from New York to Melbourne, Australia in 1856 and had not been heard of since. She also stated that he was unmarried at that time.
Deposited in a bank account in his name was his share of his father’s estate which was finally settled in 1865, plus other bequests and interest accrued amounting to £1644, all of which had remained untouched since the account had been set up.
Judgement was given in her favour and Alexander was presumed to have died on or about the 23rd February 1864. Why that date is not made clear however a reasonable guess would be that since he was presumed to have died before his father’s estate was settled then his share would automatically go to his siblings, otherwise it should go to any heirs (children) he may have had which would have entailed a difficult search for proof.
In the event with Alexander being declared dead Agnes, as the only surviving sibling, was confirmed as executrix and sole beneficiary of his estate in January 1886.
When I tried to find out if he did die in Australia only one possibility arose in that an Alexander Jarvie died in Wellington, New South Wales in 1902. The data from the NSW web site is sparse but intriguingly the first names of the parents quoted in the document were Robert and Jane. Pure coincidence or could this have been the long lost brother?
The other brothers’ stories are also somewhat interesting. The eldest, William, started on his own account as a commission agent in 1839 in Robertson Street. By 1846 he was a partner in Rainey, Jarvie and Co. and by 1848 he was declared bankrupt and had his assets sequestrated. He never appears in the Post Office Directories again.
Very little is known about James except he died in 1867 at Lismore, Argyllshire. The registration document describes him as a merchant, no other source has been found to confirm that, and that he died of ‘excessive drinking’.
A little more is known about Robert. He undoubtedly was a merchant but it’s not obvious with whom in Glasgow. The most likely is Buchanan, Hamilton and Co. as in 1860 a partnership was established in Shanghai between Buchanans, Robert Jarvie and William Thorburn, which was styled Jarvie, Thorburn and Co. This partnership lasted until Robert’s death in Shanghai in 1866.
John Jarvie, the second youngest of the brothers was born in 1822. He matriculated at the University in 1837 and by 1842 he was in Singapore donating 20 Spanish dollars for raising a spire and tower for St. Andrew’s Church there.
He was essentially to remain there for the next eighteen years, travelling around the Far East as required by business. In 1848 he was acting as an agent for the Glasgow firm of Hamilton, Gray and Co. and in 1852 he became a partner of the company in Singapore and also of Buchanan, Hamilton and Co. in Glasgow. During that period, he travelled to and from Hong Kong,Siam, India, and Australia. His travels continued to these destinations and others until he returned home circa 1860.
In 1854 he was appointed Consul for Denmark in Singapore, an appointment he fulfilled well on behalf of that country. In 1858 he travelled to Siam accredited to the Royal Court there by King Frederich VII of Denmark. His task was to negotiate a treaty with the ‘first and second kings’ of Siam and their ‘magnates’. As he was well known to all of the personnel involved he had no difficulty in concluding a treaty of friendship and commerce along the same lines as other countries had done before.
He played his part in Singapore civic life serving on several grand jurys between 1849 and 1854. In 1853 he served on a jury whose calendar comprised of eighteen cases including two murders. In November 1850 he was elected Master of the local Masonic lodge from the position of Senior Warden.
In 1859 in recognition of his service to Denmark he was created a Chevalier of the Royal Order of Danebrog by the King of Denmark.
He returned to Glasgow in 1860 and married Elizabeth Bannatyne in November of that year. She was the daughter of Andrew Bannatyne, writer, and Margaret Millar.
Her paternal grandfather was Dugald Bannatyne a prominent citizen of Glasgow in the early part of the nineteenth century. He was a stocking weaver who was influential in the development of George Square around 1800. He formed, along with Robert Smith Jr and John Thomson, the Glasgow Building Company. He was able to attract English capital to what was a speculative venture through Thomson’s brother-in-law, an English stocking weaver called Johnston. By 1804 the Square had buildings on each side which were being described as ‘elegant, particularly on the north (side).’
He was appointed Post Master General in 1806 and was secretary to the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce from 1809 to 1830. In 1817 he was a member of a committee of the Glasgow Merchants House charged with bringing about the building of a new Merchants Hall. Dugald’s wife was Agnes Stirling, who was a descendant of the Stirling family of Drumpellier.
John and Elizabeth had 11 children, six boys and five girls. Sadly, with two exceptions they all died before they were forty-five years old, the exceptions being Helen the donor of the painting and her sister Agnes. Two died as infants, four as teenagers, two of whom, Andrew and Robert, died from pneumonia within 8 days of each other in 1878. The other five all married, more of which later.
John continued in partnership with Buchanan, Hamilton and Co. and others this time based in Glasgow, the family living at 13 Park Circus. Unfortunately this situation did not last for very long. In 1865 the funds of all the partnerships he was involved with and those of the individual partners were sequestrated. The companies involved were Buchanan, Hamilton and Co., Jarvie, Thorburn and Co., and Hamilton, Gray and Co., the partners being Walter Buchanan, William Hamilton, John Jarvie and George Henderson. The process of dealing with creditors lasted until 1876.
John however around 1866/67 had already formed another partnership with George Henderson apparently unaffected by the sequestration problems they both faced. They were known as Jarvie, Henderson and Co, in Glasgow  and J. Jarvie and Co. in Shanghai. However, this was another venture which ended up in failure, the funds of the companies and those of the partners being sequestrated on the 2nd June 1873.
There is no evidence that he formed any other partnerships following that with George Henderson, as from 1874 on his entries in the Post Office Directories simply state that he is a merchant.
He died intestate in 1879 at 9 Lyndoch Crescent, the family home since 1866. When he died his occupation was recorded as wine agent. The value of his estate was eventually given as £642 5s 7d. John’s wife Elizabeth died in Bournemouth in 1924. Her estate was valued at £9690 16s, probate being granted to her daughters Agnes Bannatyne and Elizabeth Helen Percy.
The five surviving children of John and Elizabeth were George Garden Nicol, Norman Alexander, Helen (Elizabeth Helen), Agnes and Susan Evelyn.
George married Sarah Elizabeth Tuffin at St Peter’s Limehouse in 1900. He was 29 years old and Sarah was 22. At the time of his marriage his occupation was given as mariner. They had a son in 1903, George Norman who died a few months after his birth. George’s occupation at that was time given as ‘independent’. Not much more has been established about him except that he died on the 10th May 1907, age 36 at the Deddington Arms, a beer house in Poplar, Middlesex. He left estate valued at £30. He seems to have been the landlord of the establishment as two years later his wife was still at the same address.
Norman spent some of his life in the military. In 1895 he was given a commission as a second lieutenant in the 3rd/4th battalion of the Highland Light Infantry. As a lieutenant he acted as aide-de-camp to Colonel Thackery, his battalion commander, when the Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria and the battalion’s honorary chief, visited the battalion in June 1899.
He eventually attained the rank of temporary captain and was an Instructor of Musketry when he was seconded to a line battalion in South Africa early in 1900 at the start of the second Boer War.
It seemed his military career was progressing satisfactorily though it came to an abrupt end a few months later whilst he was in South Africa. In the London Gazette of the 1st May 1900 it was announced that Captain N.A. Jarvie was to be appointed second lieutenant. I have not been able to ascertain what caused this demotion but worse was to follow. About seven weeks later his new appointment was cancelled to be followed by his dismissal from the army in November, the official Gazette notice stating that he was ‘removed from the army, Her Majesty having no further occasion for his service’.
Norman married Edith Nora Ferguson in Huntingdon in 1903. By the 1911 census they were living in a private apartment in Llandudno with no family. Norman’s occupation was given as actor working on his own account. You can’t help but get the impression that he had led a rather nondescript life since his dismissal from the army.
However, there are two postscripts to his army life. In 1905 there was a further entry in the London Gazette about him, which stated that the paragraph about his removal from the army in the November 1900 issue was to be substituted by one that simply said that Captain (temporary) N.A. Jarvie has retired from the Military.
The other is that three weeks after Great Britain declared war on Germany on the 4th August 1914 Norman enlisted as a private with the King Edward’s Horse at the age of 41. He did not see any active service as he died on the 13th December of that year at a hospital in Hounslow, cause of death not stated but seemingly from an accident or an illness. The army documentation which records his enlistment and his death also records that his estate was not entitled to any war gratuity as he had not served for six months. His estate was valued at £11.
Agnes married chartered accountant John Allan Bannatyne in 1894.[71He was the son of her mother’s brother John Miller Bannatyne, that is, they were first cousins. He was a partner in Bannatyne, Bannatyne and Guthrie when the company was founded in 1892 but after 1902 he is no longer mentioned in the directory and the company name has changed to Bannatyne and Guthrie. What he did subsequently is unknown. They had a son Ninian John, born in 1896, who was killed in action in France in 1917. John died intestate in Sierra Madre, California in 1909, leaving £688 2s 7d, probate granted to Agnes twenty years after his death. She died in Durban, South Africa in 1949.
Susan Evelyn married Duncan Forbes Robertson Aikman in 1903 in Westminster, London. He was a member of the Robertson Aikman family of Ross House and New Parks House Leicester. His father was Hugh Henry Robertson Aikman whose brother Frederick Robertson Aikman won a V.C. during the Indian Mutiny in 1858. The marriage was childless and did not last very long as Susan died at the age of 32 in 1908. He died in 1920.
Helen, the donor of the painting was born in 1868. She married Edward Josceline Percy in 1907 in London. He was the son of Hugh Josceline Percy who was descended from Hugh Percy, the 1st Duke of Northumberland (great grandfather), via the 1st Earl Beverly (grandfather),and the Rev. Hugh Percy, Bishop of Rochester and then Carlisle, his father. Edward died in 1931, probate granted to Helen, his estate being valued at £7898. She died in 1954. There were no children of the marriage.
In the Necropolis in Glasgow, the family lair has fifteen family names inscribed on its headstone starting with Robert Jarvie and his wife Jane Milligan. They are followed by John Jarvie and his wife Elizabeth Bannatyne and all of their children. Not all of them are buried there however, the exceptions being George Garden Nicol Jarvie and Susan Evelyn Jarvie.
When it’s considered that Robert Jarvie left a very significant fortune when he died in 1843 it’s difficult not to come to the conclusion that none of the adult sons took advantage of the start in business that had been given to them. In fact, the family fortune went in reverse due to their combined lack of the business acumen shown by their father.
On a sadder note, despite having eleven children there are no direct descendants of John Jarvie and Elizabeth Bannatyne.
 Testamentary Records. Scotland. 8 May 1925. JARVIE, Elizabeth. National Probate Index (Calendar of Confirmations and Inventories), 1876-1936. 1925, p. J10. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Marriages (SR) England. Limehouse, Tower Hamlets. 30 July 1900. JARVIE, George Garden Nicol and TUFFIN, Sarah Elizabeth. England, Church of England Marriages and Banns, 1754-1932. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Births (SR) England. Poplar, St Stephen, Tower Hamlets. 10 May 1903. JARVIE, George Norman. London, England, Church of England Births and Baptisms, 1813-1917. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Testamentary Records. England. 18 July 1907. JARVIE, George Garden Nicol. Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate. 1907, p. 325. Collection: England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Marriages (SR) England. Huntingdon. 1st Qtr. 1903. JARVIE, Norman Alexander and FERGUSON, Edith Nora. England & Wales, Civil Registration Marriage Index, 1837-1915. Vol. 3b, p. 630. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Testamentary Records. England. 14 June 1916. JARVIE, Norman Alexander. Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate. 1916, p. 285. Collection. England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Testamentary Records. Scotland. 26 November 1929. BANNATYNE, John Allan. National Probate Index (Calendar of Confirmations and Inventories), 1876-1936. 1929, p. B15. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Testamentary Records. England. 30 June 1950. BANNATYNE, Agnes Marion. Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate. 1950, p. 317. Collection. England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Marriages. (SR) England. London. 1st Qtr. 1903. AIKMAN, Duncan Forbes Robertson and JARVIE, Susan Evelyn. England and Wales Civil Registration Indexes, 1837-1915. Vol. 1a, p. 768. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Marriages. (SR) England. London. 1st Qtr. 1907. PERCY, Edward Josceline and JARVIE, Elizabeth Helen. England and Wales Civil Registration Indexes, 1837-1915. Vol. 1a, p. 868. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Testamentary Records. England. 8 August 1931. PERCY, Edward Josceline. Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate. 1931, p. 679. Collection. England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
 Testamentary Records. England. 11 April 1954. PERCY, Helen Elizabeth. Principal Probate Registry. Calendar of the Grants of Probate. 1954, p. 377. Collection. England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk
Jessie Turner bequeathed a portrait of her grandfather James Turner by Norman Macbeth to Glasgow City Council in 1927. Jessie was born in 1837 in Laurieston, Glasgow to William Turner, an ironmonger and Elizabeth Paterson, whose family were from Ayr.(1) They married in 1834 in Glasgow.(2) Williams’ parents were James Turner, a tobacco spinner, and Jean Hardie (3) who married in 1797 (4) and it is James who is the subject of the portrait.
James was born on 29th April 1768 in Glasgow (5) and became a wealthy tobacconist, living at Thrushgrove House in the district of Garngad, an area which became a centre of social unrest in the early nineteenth century.
In Recollections of James Turner Esq of Thrushgrove 1854 by J Smith, he is described as ‘rather under the middle size, of firm make and benevolent aspect. …an adorable portrait by Mr Macbeth gives an admirable idea of what he was when an octogenarian.’ (6) James Macbeth was born in Greenock andspent some time in Glasgow and Edinburgh as a portrait painter. He became a full member of The Royal Scottish Academy in 1880. (7)
James was the son of William Turner, a shoemaker in Glasgow. (8) He appears to have been a very obstinate boy as he refused to go to school. His father resolved to punish him by making him a tobacco boy. James served with several tobacconists before entering the employment of a Mr Hamilton as an errand boy at sixteen pence a week. Mr Hamiltonregularly read to his employees and James decided that he should be able to read and write. Although some of his education would have been from home, he benefited from his employer’s benevolence. Following a nine years apprenticeship James continued as a Journeyman. In 1798 he set up his own business as a tobacconist and tobacco spinner with a shop at 275 High Street near the University. (9)(10)
On 4 June 1797 James married local girl Jean Hardie (11) and rented their first house using part of his savings of around £100, a larger than average amount for a newly wed at the time.
The business flourished and he moved to premises at The Cross Well, farther down High Street at number 104, and he remained there till 1831 when he retired.(12)(13) The couple had a total of eleven children, only three surviving at the time of James death; George, William and James. In 1813 he was able to afford his own small estate of Thrushgrove on the edge of Glasgow at Garngad, now Royston. (14) The property ran from Castle Street to Garnock Street and the area was later intersected by Turner Street (in memory of James Turner), Villiers Street, Cobden Street and Bright Street, also named after men who shared Turner’s radical views. (15) He lived there till 1838 (Jane died in 1837) when he moved to London Street followed by St Andrew Square and East George Street, and finally to Windsor Terrace. (16)
It was in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars that James Turner came to public notice. There was great discord in the country, high unemployment, and dissatisfaction with living conditions and the lack of representation in local and national government. There was universal outcry for parliamentary reform, and public meetings became a common occurrence. In 1816 both the town council and the owners of land normally used for meetings refused permission for a meeting to demand political reform. It was during this emergency that James Turner came forward and offered the radicals the use of the fields of Thrushgrove, as it lay just outside the jurisdiction of the magistrates of Glasgow.
It is believed that upward of 40,000 attended the meeting on 29 October 1816, which lasted from twelve till four pm. It was the largest radical gathering ever seen in Scotland. The City Council was so afraid of trouble that the 42nd regiment was drawn up in arms within the barrack square in Gallowgate in readiness. However order prevailed throughout and physical intervention was not required.
James chaired the meeting and his speech included calls for an overhaul of The House of Commons and voting rights for citizens to elect members of Parliament and representatives of town councils.
A petition of nineteen resolutions was sent to His Royal Highness, The Prince Regent. James Turner was later charged with high treason and was imprisoned in the Bridewell Prison in Duke Street. However he was never brought to trial and was soon released. (17) The Bridewell was rebuilt as Duke Street prison around 1825 and survived till 1955, when it closed and was finally demolished in 1958. (18)
A contemporary east end poet, Sanny Roger penned the following verse amid the foment going on in the city at the time. He is better known for The Muckin’ o Geordie’s Byre. (19)
Vile sooty rabble what d’ye mean
By raisin’ a’ this dreadful din
Do you no ken what horrid sin
Ye are committing
By haudin’ up your crafts sae thin
For sig a meeting?
When the demand for political reform was renewed in 1830, Turner became a leading member of the Glasgow Political Union, which aimed to unite working class supporters of reform of Parliament. When the Reform Act of 1832 gave the vote only to the middle class, Turner continued to campaign for further reform and for a further extension of the franchise to include all householders. In 1833 a democratic electorate was introduced in politics and Turner was elected to the new town council as a representative of the First Ward. He remained an active member of the council until his defeat in 1847, when he became a Baillie. He continued his interest in reform and was regularly asked to chair political reform meetings, although he did not go as far as The Chartists did, in supporting universal suffrage. He remained convinced of the importance of re-establishing the links between middle class and working class reformers. (20)
James acquired many properties, mainly around High Street, Gallowgate and adjacent to the Thrushgrove Estate. Flats, shops and land were passed on to his three surviving sons on his death. In his Will, probated on 13 July 1858, he describes two shops ‘just under Blackfriars Church and on the east side of High Street’ (Blackfriars Church stood next to Glasgow University which was later demolished to make way for The City of Glasgow Union Railways College Station).
Just to the north of Thrushgrove was land bordered by the site of Charles Tennant and the Company of St Rollox. (21) Charles Tennant discovered bleaching powder and founded a mighty industrial dynasty and the St Rollox Works soon grew to be the largest chemical plant in the world. (22) Charles Street was named in his memory and had just been formed when Turner made his Will. Some 1433 square yards of land between St Rollox and Thrushgrove is part of Turner’s bequest to his sons. (23)
On 20 May 1858 James died at the ripe old age of 90 at his son’s house in Windsor Terrace, Glasgow (24) and was laid to rest in the Necropolis, adjacent to Glasgow Cathedral. The Glasgow Herald reported in his obituary that ‘in private life he was highly esteemed by all…in personal matters he was uniformly kind and conciliatory.’ (25)
Our donor John Weir made a donation of a painting entitled Christ lamenting over Jerusalem by Sir Charles Eastlake P.R.A. to the Kelvingrove Gallery and Museum in February 1928 and a copy of it is shown below.
John Weir was born in Rothesay on 23 July 1873. He was the eldest child of John and Mary Weir. His father was a boilermaker and plater. When John was still a young boy, his family moved to Govan, then, to Dumbarton and settled there.  He attended Rowallan Public School, between 1880 and1883.  He then attended College St. School in Dumbarton between 1883 and 1887. In his last year he became the Dux Gold Medallist. Between 1888 -1892 he attended Dumbarton School of Science and Art, where his technical education began. After graduating he attended the Glasgow Athenaeum Commercial College 1892-1897. In his last year, he was once again a Dux medallist.  The Glasgow Athenaeum Commercial College was then an important establishment in Glasgow.  having first started in 1847 in the Assembly Rooms, Ingram Street, and the inaugural address was given by Charles Dickens.  It was originally built as a centre of adult education and recreation. Fundamentally, it was a go-between the Mechanic’s Institute and the University. However, in 1888 the commercial part of the Glasgow Athenaeum was separated from the Music, Drama and Art sections and became the Glasgow Athenaeum Commercial College. In 1915, it became the Glasgow and West of Scotland Commercial College and in 1955 the Scottish College of Commerce. Nine years later the Scottish College of Commerce combined with the Royal College of Science and Technology to form the University of Strathclyde. 
After completing his education, John Weir started work at William Denny and Brothers Limited in Dumbarton as an apprentice clerk between the years 1887 to 1892. It should be noted here that William Denny and Brothers Limited was often referred to simply as Denny or Denny’s which was a very important British shipbuilding company based in Dumbarton, Scotland, on the River Clyde. It built a total in excess of 22,000 vessels in its working life. Although the Denny’s Yard was situated near the junction of the River Clyde and the River Leven, the yard was on the Leven. Denny’s was always an innovator and was one of the first commercial shipyards in the world to have their own experimental testing tank. This is now open to the public as a museum in Dumbarton.  During the time he was working at Denny’s John Weir was a Private Secretary to James Denny, who was the son of William Denny, and also to the late Walter Brock, one of the directors.
Between 1897 and 1901, our donor had already left Scotland and gone to London. During this period, he served as Secretary and Estimates Clerk to the Superintendent Engineer of the New Zealand Shipping Co. Ltd., Royal Albert Dock, having been appointed by the Chairman of the Company, the late Sir Edwyn S. Dawes.  In 1901 John Weir married Mary Thomson.  Mr. and Mrs. Weir lived in West Ham in East London. However, before long, John Weir became a founder director of the shipping firm Silley Weir in London. 
In and around 1907 the Thames shipbuilding industry was in decline. One of the larger ship builders of the Blackwall Docks, R. & H. Green Ltd. continued to build ships until 1907. Then, in 1910 they amalgamated with Silley Weir & Company and became R. H. Green & Silley Weir Ltd. The new company grew rapidly until the outbreak of the First World War and then became one of the largest ship building companies in London. Throughout the war the firm constructed and repaired munitions ships, mine-sweepers, hospital-ships and destroyers. Their contribution to the war effort was acknowledged by a visit from King George V in November 1917. 
John Weir always considered himself to be a Dumbartonian.  He kept in touch with Dumbarton and in 1902, became a founder member of the London–Dunbartonshire Association.  He was the Association’s first secretary and for many years the chairman. It was largely due to his interest that the gift of a ‘mountain indicator’ was placed on Dumbarton Rock and also the memorial fountain, which was erected and dedicated at Dumbarton Cemetery shortly after the end of World War II. 
Our donor’s interests spread quite widely. Among them was geography, so much so that he applied for a fellowship to the Royal Scottish Geographical Society (RSGS) on 20 February 1913.  His address on his application form is given as: Dunbritton,Alderton Hill Loughton, Essex. He stayed at this address until his death.  Around this time there were some notable artistic and scientific communities as well as quite a collection of ship building magnates also living there. Among them were William Brown Macdougall (1868-1936), a Scottish artist, wood engraver, etcher and book illustrator and his wife Margaret Armour (1869-1943) the translator, poet and playwright, both of whom lived at Elm Cottage, Debden Road where a BLUE PLAQUE commemorating them was unveiled in 2012. They were both members of the New English Art Club. William died on the 20 April 1936 in Loughton and after his death Margaret returned to Edinburgh where she died in 1943. 
Our donor was also a friend of James Howden Hume  who was a keen collector of art and was President of the Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts between 1919 and 1924 and more information about Mr Hume may be found in a previous blog under his name at this website.
He also devoted a great deal of time to social and welfare work in the East End of London. For many years he was the Chairman of the St. Mary’s Hospital for Women and Children Plaistow.  From 1915-32 he was a member and chairman of the London County Council’s School of Engineering and Navigation in Poplar, where a hall was named after him.  He was also a permanent magistrate at West Ham Court. He was considered ‘Father’ of the Court of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, as he was then the oldest member of the Court. 
In The Scotsman of 26 September 1949 a news article appeared announcing under the title of GESTURE FROM “BLITZED” LONDON:
Memorial at Dumbarton
There was unveiled and dedicated in Dumbarton Cemetery yesterday a memorial fountain built to the design of Mr Hugh Lorimer, A.R.S.A., and erected by the London-Dunbartonshire Association to commemorate Servicemen belonging to Dunbartonshire who fell in the last war and those of the county who lost their lives by enemy action. The dedication was performed by the Rev. K. Goldie, clerk to Dumbarton Presbytery, and the memorial was unveiled by Major-General A. Telfer-Smollett, Lord-Lieutenant of the county, who formally handed it over to the Town Council for perpetual upkeep. Provost H. Brown accepted custody on behalf of the Town Council.
Mr John Weir, chairman of the London-Dunbartonshire Association, emphasised that the memorial was a county one and was a gesture from “blitzed” London to “blitzed” Dunbartonshire. After the ceremony Major-General Telfer-Smollett took the salute at a march past of detachments and units of His Majesty’s Forces.
It might be of some interest here to mention that a letter written by John Weir on headed notepaper of “R & H. Green and Silley Weir”, the “Ship and Engine repairers” of the Royal Albert Dock in the East End of London in 1926 to the Royal Society of Arts was on sale on e-bay recently (in 2006). . The letter  was a request by John Weir for application forms for the competitions for the Fothergill Prize (for the studies in history and philosophy of sciences) and the Thomas Gray Memorial Trust Prize (for the advancement of the Science of Navigation and the Scientific and Educational interests of the British Mercantile Marine). It is signed, in ink by John Weir, and relates to his position of ‘Vice Chairman of the advisory committee of the LCC School of Engineering and Navigation’. It has been stamped with the Royal Society of Arts receiving mark. It is not known if the letter was sold on e-bay.
John Weir’s wife Mary Thomson, who both together were a Freeman of the city of London.  Mrs Mary Thomson died aged 71 years old in October 1944.  There were no children. John Weir died on 16 November 1957, at the age of 85. There was a funeral service held for him at The Crown Church Covent Garden, London. His family and friends and all the local dignitaries attended. 
The remains of John Weir were brought to Dumbarton for interment in the cemetery on Friday, 22 November 1957 according to his wishes. A large gathering was present at the ceremony. 
The author would like to express her thanks to Sarah Strong, Archives Officer, Foyle Reading Room, Royal Geographical Society, Mr Graham Hopner, Dumbarton Library Study Centre, Cllr C Pond, the local historian of Loughton, Essex for their generous help.
 1891 Census Book-9, Dumbarton Library Archives.
 UK Mechanical Engineer Records 1847-1838 for John Weir; Sequence No 20,875.
In 1903, James Waddell wrote to the Glasgow museums donating a painting of his father, Revd Peter Hately Waddell by James Lorimer, a leading artist of the day. His letter says that the painting had been well-received when exhibited in Glasgow and Edinburgh and that his father had been well known as a preacher and as a member of the school board in Glasgow. (1)
James Waddell was born on 26 December 1846 (2) in Girvan the oldest son of the Revd Peter Hately Waddell and Helen Halcro Waddell. He attended classes at Glasgow University (3) but did not graduate. This was not unusual at that time. He became a mechanical engineer and worked abroad in Singapore and Java. On 5th February 1881 (4), in Singapore, he married Margaret Little, daughter of a doctor, in the Presbyterian Church. Thereafter his place of work can be defined by the locations of his children’s births(5): Peter Hately Waddell 1881 ; Robert Waddell 1883 ; Mary Campbell Waddell 1885 ; Helen Halcrow Waddell 1887 all in Singapore and Margaret Wardlaw Waddell 1889 in Java . By 1892 he had retired to Glasgow where he made his will. (6) In 1901 he was living in the West End of Glasgow with his wife and family. (7) He died in 1907. (8)
The Rev Peter Hately Waddell LL.D. (1816-1891)
Our donor’s father and the subject of the painting was a colourful character: minister of religion, ardent student of Scottish culture, particularly of the life and works of Robert Burns and author of several books. He was born at Balqhatston, Slamannan on 19 May 1816 the son of Revd James WaddelL and his wife Anne Hately Waddell. (9) The family moved to Glasgow wherehe attended high school and Glasgow University. He was ordained as a minister at Rhinie in Aberdeenshire. In 1841 he was licensed as a minister in the established Church of Scotland and began his career in Girvan.(10) In 1843 at the time of the Disruption (11) he joined the Free Church of Scotland as a probationer. However he disagreed on some points of faith and governance with the Free Church, writing pamphlets and letters to Thomas Chalmers and James Guthrie.(12) He left the Free Church in the same year and founded a church in Girvan, known as Waddell’s Church. He preached there for 19 years.(13 ) He married Helen Halcro in August 1845.(14)
In 1861 he moved to Glasgow to a Chapel in Waterloo Street and the expansion of his congregation led to a move to the City Halls. (15) A church was then built for him in east Howard Street.(16) In 1874 he had to move back to the City Halls where he continued to preach for several months in the year. (17 ) By all accounts he was an evangelical “Latter Day “ preacher.
While in Girvan he developed and pursued a love of Scottish culture and literature, particularly the writings of Robert Burns, Sir Walter Scott and Ossian. He gave the oration in Alloway in 1859 at the centenary of Burns birth. (18) After that he was much in demand as a lecturer in Glasgow. He gave a series of three lectures in 1860 (19) in which he compared Burns as a poet to Shakespeare and, significantly to King David who wrote the Psalms. He addressed the problem of Burns as a moral man and as a poet. This led to criticism from the Moderator of the Free Church of Scotland that he had made a profane comparison.(20)
In 1864 he was the Chairman of a public dinner in Burns’ Cottage in Alloway to mark the Shakespeare tercentenary celebrations.(21) He proposed the toast and he said
“Shakespeare was the Glorious Legend, Burns was the Glorious Voice”.
In 1868 The Glasgow Herald reported that the Tusculum College, Tennessee, USA had conferred the degree of LL.D. on him. (22)
He was the author of several books. He edited an edition of the poems of Robert Burns published in 1869 in two volumes. (23) The contents can be read on the electronic Scotland website. He also edited an edition of Scott’s Waverly novels with notes and an introduction.(24)
He intended to produce a translation of the Old Testament in the Scottish tongue from the Hebrew but only the Psalms of David were published in 1871 as The Psalms :Frae Hebrew intil Scottis.(25) This translation was unique in that it was a direct translation from the original Hebrew and not a Scottish version of English translations. It is a scholarly work. He also translated Isaiah (26) but did not attain his objective of translating all of the Old Testament.
He was supportive of education and was a member of the school Board in Glasgow. (27 )
He died on 5th May 1891 at 5 Ashton Terrace, Glasgow.(28)
Minutes of Glasgow City Council 1903
Glasgow University Archives
National Records of Scotland Wills and Conformations 1907
National Records of Scotland Census 1901
National Records of Scotland Statutory Register of Deaths 1907
This portrait was donated by his family in May 1896 in recognition of the work which he did for the East End of Glasgow and the posts which he held on Glasgow City Council. It was painted in 1893 by Joseph Henderson, RSW.(1)
Joseph Henderson was born in Stanley, Perthshire on 10 June 1832. His family moved to Edinburgh when he was six years old and at the age of thirteen, he was apprenticed to a hosier and studied art alongside this. Eventually, in 1852 he gave up hosiery and moved to Glasgow and became a portrait painter. As he had a reputation for painting honest representations of his sitters, he painted many of the important people of that time in the West of Scotland.(2)
Alexander Waddell was born in Girvan, Ayrshire on 18 February 1820. His parents were Matthew Waddell who was a tailor and Elizabeth, nee Rowan. (3)
Sometime between then and 1840 the family moved up to Glasgow to live in Calton, in the east end of the city. The family home was at 72 Canning Street.
Alexander also served his time as a tailor and went into business with his father in the firm of M. Waddell and Son, clothiers, of 44 Canning Street and 75 Jamaica Street.
On 8 June 1840 he married Isabella Barrett. The 1841 census has them living in Duncan Street with a two-month-old daughter, Elizabeth.
In 1845 he opened a branch of the Western Bank in Calton, the first suburban bank branch and moved into a house in the Western Bank Buildings in Canning Street. The Western Bank tried to attract small (working class or artisan) depositors. Their extensive branch systems opened in the evenings and paid high deposit rates. However, it failed in November 1857. The Western bank was later taken over by the Royal Bank of Scotland and Waddell managed several of its branches. (4)
By the 1851 census his address is given as 66 Canning Street where he is described as a clothier, and he and Isabella have five daughters, the youngest a baby of three months. The 1855 Valuation Roll records him at the Western Bank, 70 Canning Street and he is described as a Registrar. He was Registrar for Calton, a post which he held until his death. (5)
I can find him in neither the 1861 nor the 1871 census returns. Sometime after 1851 his wife Isabella dies, but I can find no record of her death. In 1867, described as a widower, he marries Grace French, a spinster, at Boathaugh, Lanark. By this time he has moved to 37 Monteith Row, overlooking Glasgow Green, where he lived for the rest of his life.
In 1871 he was elected to represent the First Ward (Great Hamilton Street on the south; Well Street on the east; New Street on the north; and the Royalty of the City of Glasgow on the west). He held this post until his death in 1895.(6) Offices which he held included Baillie of the Burgh, City Treasurer and Master of Works. He was also a Preceptor of Hutcheson’s Hospital.(7)
He actively supported many community institutions in the Calton and Bridgeton areas.
He was involved with the South Eastern District Sabbath School Union in 1868 -1869. He was Superintendent of the Calton, Mile-End and Bridgeton Mechanics Institute which had been established at 46 Canning Street in 1833. It was the first institution of its kind in the country. He was also involved with the London Road Baths which were opened in 1876 under the management of the Police Board. They were situated in the Calton Police Building at 92 Tobago Street.(8)
He was Chair of the Glasgow Eastern Merchants and Tradesmen’s Society which met in the Mechanics Hall in Canning Street. This was a Friendly Society and ran many social events. He was also involved with the Bridgeton Working Men’s Club.(9)
His second wife, Grace, died in 1879 of heart disease and congestion of the lungs. In 1883 he married for a third time to Christina Jeffs, a spinster, living in 21 Holyrood Crescent.
The 1891 census finds them still in Monteith Row with his daughter Catherine who is described as being 35 years old, which is odd as she as three months old in 1851.
Alexander Waddell died at home on 18 November 1895. His funeral was held in Greenhead U.P. Church in Bridgeton on 21 November and he was buried in the Eastern Necropolis.
On 22 November the following announcement was made in the Glasgow Herald:-
Funeral of Ex-Baillie Waddell.
The remains of Ex-Baillie Waddell were interred yesterday in the eastern Necropolis, Janefield. A public service was held within Greenhead U.P. Church which was attended by the Lord Provost and magistrates and many of the Town Councillors, the Lord Dean of Guild, and the Deacon-Convenor, along with a number of the leading Corporation Officials. The funeral cortege, which consisted of 28 mourning coaches, was watched by large crowds along the route. The flag was hoisted at half-mast on the City Chambers, and the city bells were tolled from half-past one until three o’clock.
In December 1918, Robert Gemmell Hutchison of 8, St. Bernard`s Crescent, Edinburgh and “Coral Den”, Carnoustie presented the painting Getting Ready to Glasgow Corporation as a memorial to his son the artist.1
Robert Gemmell Hutchison was born at 35, North Richmond Street, Edinburgh on 1st July 1855. He was the first child of George Hutchison, a brass founder, and his wife Margaret Forman. 2 Soon after his birth, the family moved to 37, Carrubbers Close, Canongate. 3 It is not recorded which school Robert attended but he did not enjoy the experience! He was described as “scraping from class to class with as little work as possible, and, as soon as he could, leaving it gladly”.4 From the census of 1871, the family was still at 37, Carrubbers Close and had increased to seven; three sons and four daughters. Robert`s occupation was “seal engraver”. 5 “Still, if he did not like school, he liked seal-engraving, to which he was apprenticed, less”. With encouragement from his mother of whom he “always speaks with great reverence”, he was determined to become an artist and gave up seal-engraving to attend, aged 17, the Board of Manufacturers` School of Art in Edinburgh (also called the Trustees Academy).6 One of his instructors here was William McTaggart. He also attended the Royal Scottish Academy (RSA) Schools. At this time, he received valuable advice and help from the artist J. Campbell Noble, RSA and thus encouraged he sent some of his paintings to the RSA Annual Exhibitions. After several rejections, he was eventually successful in 1878 when he had three small landscapes exhibited: Youthful Labour, Quiet Pastures and A Country Well. 7 One of these was bought by the Royal Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland and for which Hutchison received the sum of six guineas. 8 He submitted the paintings from his studio at 1, India Buildings, Edinburgh.
On 24th June 1879, Robert aged 23, married Janet Boe who was 21 and the daughter of a grocer in Biggar. The marriage took place at 4, Morningside Park, Edinburgh. On the marriage certificate he listed his occupation as “artist (figure painter)” and his address as 38, Jamaica Street, Edinburgh. For some reason he omitted to sign his surname on the certificate! 9 The couple had nine children only five of whom survived infancy 10. These were four daughters; Jane (1880-1956), Marion Maud (1887-1963), Roberta Louise (1889-1966), Ann Carr Forman (1893-1978) and a son, George Jackson Hutchison who was born in 1895. In 1881, Robert was with his wife and daughter Jane at 26, Caledonian Place, Edinburgh. His occupation was “artist”.11
After a period spent painting landscapes along the Fife coast, Robert began to specialise in scenes of Scottish rural life especially those involving children and in the year after his marriage, he had a painting The Empty Cradle exhibited at the Royal Academy (RA) in London. His studio was now at 53, George Street, Edinburgh. There followed five exhibits at the RA over the next decade all sent from addresses in London.12 He continued to exhibit annually at the RSA and in 1886 was awarded a prize for his painting Boys Guddling Trout. From 1888 onwards he also exhibited at the Royal Glasgow Institute. At the 1891 Census he was an “artist, figure and portrait”, living at 4, Melville Place, Edinburgh with his wife and four daughters. 13 His son George was born at the same address four years later. 14
He began to paint and exhibit widely throughout Britain. A favourite location was Carnoustie in Angus where he had a house, “Coral Den”, in William Street. He also painted in Macrihanish, at Musselburgh and on the Farne Islands. From about 1896 to 1903 the family (Robert, Janet, Roberta, Ann and George) was living at St. Ive`s Cottage Lanark Road, Braidwood, Carluke. 15,16 Robert was elected to many prestigious institutions throughout the British Isles; e.g. to the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolour, (RSW) in 1895, the Royal Society of British Artists (RBA), 1896, the Royal Institute of Oil Painters (ROI), and Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy (ARSA) in 1901 and RSA in 1911.17 In 1903 he exhibited a work Bairnies Cuddle Doon at the Paris Salon. 18 He was awarded a gold medal and the painting was purchased by the Scottish Modern Arts Association.21 He was awarded a second gold medal at the Paris Salon Exhibition of 1928 for his painting The White Seam. This was bought by Paisley Corporation and is now at the Paisley Museum and Art Gallery. Hutchison was elected to full membership of the RSA in 1911, replacing William McTaggart who had died the previous year.20 “Gemmell Hutchison had held McTaggart in the highest esteem and it was to him that he owed his loose painterly technique and in many ways his most popular subject matter – that of children on the beach. Both his family and that of McTaggart confirmed that the latter was a luminary for Hutchison. 21
Another influence on Hutchison was the artistic style of the Hague School in Holland which he visited in 1905. On his return to Scotland he took to painting in the open air with a “looser technique and lighter palette”. 22 One of his works of this period was Seagulls and Sapphire Seas (1909) which he sold to Bolton Art Gallery in 1912 (Appendix 1). In 1910 he was commissioned to paint the coronation of George V and Queen Mary at Westminster Abbey. From the census of 1911 he and his family were living at 14, Craighall Terrace, Inveresk, Musselburgh. In his later years he spent his summers at his daughter`s home in Coldingham, Berwickshire painting outdoors. His subjects included views of St. Abbs, Gulls on the Farne Islands as well as portraits of his daughter. He continued to exhibit up till the year of his death.
Robert Gemmell Hutchison died of a cerebral haemorrhage at Coldingham on 23rd August 1936. He was 81 years of age. 23 He was buried in the Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh after a private service at his home at 8, St. Bernard`s Crescent. Two of his daughters, his son-in-law and a nephew were among the pall-bearers. Also present were many fellow artists and members of the artistic establishment. 24,25
His estate was valued at £11,079.10s.7p with his two daughter named as next of kin. 26
Various critics have commented on his painting style:
“Robert Gemmell Hutchison is one of the best-known of the early twentieth-century Scottish artists who drew their inspiration from the Hague School of painters and by the work of the nineteenth century Dutch artists Joseph Israels and Bernardus Johannes Blommers. His paintings of fisher-folk, especially of young children playing by the sea or seated in cottage interiors, have a charming pathos and are similar in subject to those painted by his luminary William McTaggart ”. 27
He “has an appreciation of the fusing influence of tone and atmosphere, and brings a broad and vigorous method of painting, good drawing, and effective design to bear upon a rather fresh view of village life. Despite a certain commonness, his pictures are usually well thought out, and, logically put together in a pictorial way, tell their stories with considerable point. His feeling again, although lacking in charm or novel insight, is sympathetic, and his treatment of childhood, if somewhat literal, fresh and individual”. 28
His paintings today are valued and continue to sell well e.g. The Village Carnival sold for £110,000 in Edinburgh in 2006. 29 (See also Appendix 2).
George Jackson Hutchison was a gifted painter but was killed in action at Merville, France on 28th June 1918 aged only twenty-two. He had served as a private in the K.O.S.B.s. After George`s death, his father presented his painting Getting Ready to Glasgow Corporation as a memorial to his son. The painting was accepted on 18th December 1918. The Minutes of the Corporation record that;
“The sub-committee agreed to accept the picture by this talented young artist, who made the supreme sacrifice for King and Country, and to recommend that the Corporation accord his father a vote of thanks for the gift and extend to him their sympathy and condolence in his bereavement”. 30
Each year, Edinburgh College of Art awards a “George Jackson Hutchison Memorial Prize” for outstanding painting. It seems likely that this was initiated by Robert Gemmell Hutchison in memory of his son. However, Edinburgh College of Art, now incorporated into Edinburgh University, could not confirm this due to the current state of their records.
Glasgow Corporation Minutes, Sub-Committee on Art Galleries and Museums, C1 3.60, p330, 18th December 1918.
Scotland`s People, Birth Certificate
ancestry.co.uk, Scotland Census 1861
Setoun, G., R. Gemmell Hutchison, R.S.W., R.B.A., Art Journal, 1900, pp 321-6
ancestry.co.uk, Census 1871
Setoun, G., R. Gemmell Hutchison, R.S.W., R.B.A., Art Journal, 1900, pp 321-6
Royal Scottish Academy Exhibitors, 1826 – 1990, Hilmartin Manor Press, 1991.
Setoun, G., R. Gemmell Hutchison, R.S.W., R.B.A., Art Journal, 1900, pp 321-6.
Scotland`s People, Marriage Certificate
Scotland`s People, Census 1911
Scotland`s People, Census 1881
Catalogues of the Royal Academy Exhibitions, 1880-89, W. Clowes and Sons, Ltd.
Scotland`s People, Census 1891
Scotland`s People, Birth Certificate
Scotland`s People, Census 1901
Slater`s National Commercial Directory of Scotland, 1882-1915
Johnson, J and Greutzner, A., Dictionary of British Artists, 1880 – 1940, , Antique Collectors Club, 1976).
Setoun, G., R. Gemmell Hutchison, R.S.W., R.B.A., Art Journal, 1900, pp 321-6
Fowle, Frances, The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, OUP, 2004-13, May 2011.
Glasgow Corporation Minutes, Sub-Committee on Art Galleries and Museums, C1 3.60, p330, 18th December 1918.
One of the finest paintings by Robert Gemmell Hutchison, possibly the best loved of Scottish artists, set a new world record for the artist at Bonhams Annual Scottish Sale in Edinburgh on Wednesday 31 August, 2011 when it was sold for £120,000. Sea Gulls and Sapphire Seas was painted in 1909 and represents the artist at the height of his powers. In a dazzling display of impressionistic technique, Hutchison places a characteristic foreground of children in the sand dunes against the sparkling sea and whirling gulls. Many of his most popular paintings feature children playing beside the sea and he often used his daughters and their friends as models in coastal locations in Berwickshire, East Lothian and Carnoustie. The painting was sold by Bolton Museum which bought the work from the artist for £150 in 1912.
A pensioner has unearthed a hoard of stolen art treasures in the loft of his Helensburgh home. The 67-year-old discovered the missing paintings while rummaging in the dusty room and – not realising their value – decided to try to raise a few pounds by selling them. After seeking advice from an art expert, he was told the paintings were not his to sell. The canvasses were the creations of two celebrated Scottish artists, which had been stolen five years ago and were worth at least £250,000. Inquiries revealed that the three paintings by Robert Gemmell Hutchison and two by Sir James Guthrie were stolen from a house in Helensburgh’s Cairndhu Gardens in 2002. Investigators believe that when the thieves failed to sell the works they dumped them in the communal attic above a block of flats in the town’s Kirkmichael estate. The paintings are The Pink Pinafore, Feeding the Gulls and Cottarita by Gemmell Hutchison and Luss Road and Candlelight by Guthrie.
One resident said: “The old boy went up there on Thursday and initially tried to sell them on. He contacted someone at the Fine Art Council and they made checks and realised they were stolen. “There were five paintings in total and my mate was offered them as a set, but wasn’t that impressed and wouldn’t have paid more than £50 for the lot.” He added: “The paintings have obviously been nicked years ago by a gang of young lads, but when they found out they couldn’t get anything for them, they just dumped them.
Robert Gemmell Hutchison was born in Edinburgh in 1855 and was a prolific artist whose works were lauded around Britain. His work, The Village Carnival, was sold for £110,000 in 2006. At the time of their theft in 2002 the five paintings were valued at £246,000.
In September, 1902, Sir Thomas Mason gave an oil painting entitled The Fifth of November by John Burr A.R.W.S. to GlasgowMuseums. (1)
Thomas Mason was a successful Glasgow businessman and was prominent in many civic activities in Glasgow. (2)
He was born in Airdrie in October 1844 the son of John Mason, a builder, and his wife Marion. (3) He was educated at a private school, Anderson’s College in Carlton Place, Glasgow. (4) After leaving school he was apprenticed to a mason in Paisley. (5) This was the time of the expansion of the railway system and for six years he worked as a contractor in railway construction. In 1867 he joined the firm of James Brand and was responsible for the construction of the Ayr viaduct. (6 ) In 1871 he was living in Ochiltree , Ayrshire and employing 20 Masons and 12 labourers. (7 )
In 1876 he joined the firm of John Morrison in Glasgow as the junior partner and the firm became Messers Morrison and Mason in 1879. (8 ) This was a very successful partnership which continued up to Morrison’s death in 1917. In 1876 Morrison was completing a number of contracts for Glasgow including the Merchants’ House, the Stock Exchange and the General Post Office. (9)
Mason’s experience with public works extended the firm’s involvement into major railway works in the West of Scotland including the Paisley Canal line, the first section of the Glasgow Cathcart Circle and also into England for Carlisle station. (10)
They gained contracts for major waterworks including the Mugdock tunnel for Glasgow (1886), the Thirlemere Reservoir (1887) and the aqueduct for Manchester . Nearer home they constructed tunnels and the reservoir at Craigmaddie. (11) They continued their specialisation. In England they built reservoirs for Birmingham and Keighly. On the Clyde they extended the Fairfield dock and built Yarrow’s dock at Scotstoun. Their largest contract was in 1907 at the Portsmouth Naval Dockyard for the lock gates and a graving dock for Dreadnoughts. (12 )
Further construction projects included the offices of the Clyde Navigation Trust for which the architects were J J Burnett and the municipal buildings on George Square for the main offices of the corporation. (13 ) They also built the forerunner of the Citizens’ Theatre –Her Majesty’s Theatre –in the Gorbals. In Glasgow they extended the Royal Maternity Hospital in Rottenrow and built the fever hospital at Ruchill. The firm also built bridges over the Clyde, the Rutherglen Bridge and the Glasgow Bridge. (14)
Nor did they neglect their own accommodation. Morrison built a flamboyant mansion in Pollokshields, Rhuadsgeir, now Sherbrooke Castle hotel , in 1896. (15 )
Down the road in Bellahouston, Mason bought Craigie Hall on the death of its owner John Maclean (16 ) and it was extended by the architects Honeyman and Keppie and the interior decoration is attributed to Charles Rennie Mackintosh, especially a much admired casement for an organ.
He was a member of the Incorporation of Masons in Trades House and served as Deacon Convener of the House in 1889. (17) In 1891 he was elected to serve as Councillor for the city’s eighth ward. (19) Then in 1906 he was Lord Dean of Guild, leader of the
Merchants’ House. (18) He was therefore at different times both the second citizen of Glasgow and the third citizen of Glasgow, the first citizen being, of course, the Lord Provost. He later served as Chairman of the Clyde Navigation Trust for eleven years and was credited with promoting schemes which improved navigation on the Clyde such as the building of the Princes Dock and of the Rothesay dock at Clydebank. (20)
He was knighted in 1908 in recognition of his public service.(21)
He was first married to Jean Paton (22 ) in Ochiltree and they had two children. She died in 1875. (23 ) He later married Charlotte Wyllie. When he came to Glasgow he lived in Bellahouston, first in Dumbreck Priory (24 ) (25), and then in Craigie Hall. He and Charlotte had seven children. (26) He is described in the Bailie as “one of the kindest and least assuming of men……………his tact and kindliness are only two of his many qualities.” (27 )
In addition to his many interests, he maintained a small racing stable and he was often to be seen at the horse races in Ayr. (28)
He died in 1924 and there is a very full obituary in the Glasgow Herald. (29)
Minutes of Glasgow City Council September 1902
Nicholas J. Morgan “Sir Thomas Mason” in Slaven, A. A Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography. Aberdeen, Aberdeen University Press,1986. Pp 158-160
National Records of Scotland. Old Parish Records. Baptisms 1844
The Bailie The Man You Know October 8th 1890. The Mitchell Library, Glasgow.
Ancestry.co.uk Scotland census 1861
Nicholas J. Morgan “Sir Thomas Mason” in Slaven A.A Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography. Aberdeen. Aberdeen University Press,1986. Pp 158-160
National Records of Scotland Census 1871
Nicholas J. Morgan “Sir Thomas Mason” in Slaven, A. A Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography. Aberdeen, Aberdeen University Press,1986. Pp 158-160
The Bailie The Man You Know November 9th 1906. The Mitchell Library, Glasgow.
John Keppie was a renowned Glasgow architect whose business partners during his career included John Honeyman and Charles Rennie Mackintosh. He was also an accomplished watercolourist and had studied at the Glasgow School of Art and in Paris. On his death in 1945 he bequeathed a number of paintings to Glasgow which included works by Edward Walton, Bessie MacNicol and Joseph Crawhall.
The following notes describe his family background, his early life, career and painting activity. Inevitably they touch on his relationship with Mackintosh whose fame, some sources suggest, has unfairly overshadowed Keppie’s success and achievements as an architect. Keppie is almost invariably referenced, when mentioned, as a partner of Mackintosh as if he had no other meritorious claim.
The Keppie family originated in Haddington, East Lothian. John’s paternal grandfather, also John (Keppy), married Mary Quelain, the daughter of James Quelain, a Haddington flax dresser, in Edinburgh on 20th April 1810. He was aged about twenty four and worked as a gentleman servant, Mary was about 17 years old.
Between 1811 and 1836 they had five sons and seven daughters all born in Haddington. John Keppie’s father, James was born on the 19th October 1816 and baptized on the 3rd November. Grandfather John appears to have had a number of occupations being variously described as a labourer, carter and finally a farmer.
James Keppie married twice. His first wife was Janet Smith whom he married in Canongate Parish Church on 12 June 1840. At the time of his marriage he was described as a tobacconist lodging with William Corns, a bookbinder, in Leith Walk. Janet was the daughter of John Smith, a gentleman’s butler of North Berwick. She was also lodging in Edinburgh at the time with a Miss Ritchie at 21 Lothian Road.
In the following year James was working as a tobacco spinner in Glasgow, he and his wife living in Buchanan Court in the Gorbals. It’s likely he was in the employ of Henry Spence and Co. whose tobacco and snuff manufactory at that time was located in Park Place, Stockwell Street. Spence commenced trading around 1813 in Main Street, Gorbals  moving to Stockwell Street in 1816  where he remained until 1848 when he ceased trading from that address. His company continued for another year from premises in the Trongate which he had occupied since 1842.
In 1848 James Keppie set up his tobacco business in the premises in Stockwell Street vacated by Spence, hence the conjecture that Keppie had worked for Spence and had learned the broader business from him. By 1851 Keppie’s snuff and tobacco manufactory business employed two men, one apprentice and nineteen boys. The smuggling and adulteration of tobacco and snuff at this time were of major concern to the legitimate manufacturers, and to the Excise. In 1851 thirty one of Glasgow’s tobacco manufactories, including Keppie’s, formed a society whose purpose was to protect themselves against such activities. In the Glasgow Herald of the 7th March 1851 notice was given of the society’s formation, included in which was the threat that retailers found selling such contraband would be liable for an Excise fine of £200.
His marriage to Janet Smith was childless and sometime after March 1851 she died. The exact date has not been established but James remained a widower until 1856 when he married Helen Morton Hopkins on the 14th February in Glasgow. Helen’s family came from Galston in Ayrshire where her parents, James Hopkins, a bookseller and Elizabeth Cuthbertson, had married in 1824.
James and Helen had eight children, five daughters and three sons , John, the eldest boy, being born on the 4th August 1862. The family lived at various addresses in Glasgow including Frederick Street, where John was born, Granville Street and by 1879 at 42 Hamilton Park Quadrant  which James owned. This address became 42 St James Street with the street name changed late in 1887. By 1875, in addition to his Glasgow home, James owned two properties in Station Road in the parish of Monkton. One was rented out to Mr. John Campbell, a police officer in Glasgow, the other was the family second home.
James’ tobacco business seems to have been very successful with premises at different times in Stockwell Street, Brunswick Street, and finally at 157 Trongate where he owned two properties, acquired around 1859. He used one to run his tobacco business and rented out the other. At one point he employed two travellers, four spinners, two message boys and forty two boys in the workshop. He retired from business in 1880 having rented out his business property to another tobacconist, F & J Smith & Co. five years previously. He continued to operate some business from these premises until his retirement. He died at home in 1889 from chronic bronchitis, his death registered by his son-in-law David Riddoch  who had married John’s sister Elizabeth in 1887.
His will and particularly his inventory makes interesting reading. The net value of his estate was £22,494 which included a number of shareholdings as well as heritable and other moveable property. His shareholdings ranged from railways to land holdings in New Zealand, Australia and Canada.
Initially his will, which was written in 1874, refers to an ante-nuptial agreement between him and his wife Helen dated 1856. She would inherit all his property should he predecease her. His will recognized that they now had seven surviving children who should be provided for in the event of his death, his wife agreeing to these provisions. It also notes he had significantly more assets than at the time of his marriage. Essentially the daughters were to be educated and supported until they married, the sons until they could ‘stand on their own two feet’. Five trustees acting as executors, curators and tutors were named to ensure the intended objectives of the will were achieved.
A codicil was added in 1883 which along with some minor changes replaced two of the original trustees with his sons John and James, and added his wife Helen, Hugh Hopkins and Dr James Corns of Oldham.
There were two items in the inventory which were unexpected. The first was that in addition to his estate in Scotland he had assets abroad, namely in Henderson County, Kentucky where he had an interest in Thomas Hodge and Co., a tobacco manufacturing company established in 1884 . His interest in the company was valued at $40,076.
What happened to that interest has not been established despite a search of Kentucky probate records and others of the period 1889 – 1895. This company continued into the 1970s when the then owner (another Thomas Hodge) sold it.
How did Keppie come to invest in a tobacco company in Kentucky? It’s very likely the initial connection was with tobacconists J & T Hodge, established in 1850, whose business was located at 12 Maxwell Street, Glasgow. They were members of the same society as Keppie that set out to deal with smuggling and the adulteration of tobacco.
James Hodge was a partner in the business and two of his sons emigrated to the United States. Son John Henderson Hodge (b.1854) emigrated in 1876  and set up the John Hodge Tobacco Co. in Madison, Kentucky. His younger brother Thomas (b.1859) joined him in 1880 , establishing his own company in 1884. In Keppie’s will that company is referred to as Thomas Hodge & Co., in a history of tobacco manufacturers in Kentucky it is referred to as the Hodge Tobacco Manufactory.
The other point of interest was that Keppie’s son James was described as a janitor in the inventory and also as a “sometime tobacco manufacturer in Henderson, Kentucky, U.S.A., at present in Glasgow”. It therefore seems probable he had been working for Thomas Hodge and Co. whilst in Henderson County. He returned to Glasgow in 1890  and was living with his mother Helen, brother John and sister Mary at 42 St James Street in 1891. He died in Glasgow in 1918  having been in the Gartnavel Royal Lunatic Asylum since before 1901, his infirmity recorded as ‘lunatic’.
James Keppie senior’s estate for the time was exceptional. Looking at RPI changes since 1889 his Scottish assets equate to £2.2m today; taking into account economic power that value increases to between £17m and £29m. His interest in the Kentucky tobacco company equates to somewhere between £2m and £10m, using the 1889 exchange rate of $4.87/£1.
When you consider his father at the time of his marriage in 1810 was a gentleman servant and that James had been a tobacco spinner in 1841, it was an incredible transformation in the family’s wealth in the following near fifty years. It provided a standard of living that all his children benefited from significantly throughout their lives.
John Keppie’s initial schooling was at Ayr Academy. At the age of about 15 he began a five year architectural apprenticeship with the Glasgow firm of Campbell Douglas and Sellars. In the following year he enrolled at the Glasgow School of Art, remaining a student there until 1882, when his apprenticeship was complete. During this time in 1879 he also attended Glasgow University for two sessions studying mathematics. In his final year he gained a bronze medal in the National Competition, won five guineas (second prize) in the Worshipful Company of Plasterers competition and achieved a third or highest grade in the advanced section of the school.
He then went to Paris to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the Atelier Jean Louis Pascal apparently because the Campbell Douglas practice was concerned that it was being threatened by others with Paris trained architects. He remained there for eighteen months, sharing rooms with fellow architects Frank Lewis Worthington Simon and Stewart Henbest Clapper.  In the autumn of 1886, he toured northern Italy with an artist friend. This tour produced sketches and watercolours of Lucca, Florence and Sienna  which were used to illustrate a talk called ‘A Tour of Italy’ he gave to the Glasgow Architectural Association in May 1887. The association published some of them in their sketch book of 1888, the year in which he became their president.
A watercolour of a Sienna street scene was also exhibited in 1888 by the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. His future travels were to become a major inspiration for many of his watercolours and sketches.
Later in 1886 he was successful in the Royal Institute of British Architects’ William Tite Prize competition winning the silver medal, as reported in the Glasgow Herald of the 24th January 1887. He was to repeat this success in 1887.
In January 1887 a competition was advertised for the Glasgow International Exhibition of 1888 and Keppie worked with Sellars to produce the firm’s entry which was successful and built. However the years 1887 and 1888 were generally difficult for the practise with Campbell Douglas becoming ill and making no contribution to the business and Sellars dying late in 1888 from blood poisoning. This resulted from a wound sustained by him to his foot during a visit to the exhibition site.
As a consequence of this Keppie, late in 1888, was taken into partnership by John Honeyman thus establishing John Honeyman and Keppie. This was not only a positive move for Keppie but probably saved Honeyman’s business as at that point it was chronically short of work and capital, Keppie bringing with him the ongoing contract for the Anderson’s College of Medicine. His final service to his old colleague and mentor James Sellars was to design his memorial which was erected in Lambhill Cemetery.
The partnership between Honeyman and Keppie seems to have flourished from the beginning. In 1888 Herbert McNair joined the practise as a draughtsman and in 1889 Charles Rennie Mackintosh also joined as an assistant or junior draughtsman, in addition to at least four other members of staff. Mackintosh had served an apprenticeship between 1884 and 1889 with architect John Hutcheson and like Keppie had attended the Glasgow School of Art.
A friendship developed among the three young men which saw them spend working weekends at the Keppie Prestwick home along with, in due course, Keppie’s sister Jessie, the McDonald sisters Margaret and Frances, Agnes Raeburn, Janet Aitken and Katherine Cameron, who all stayed in rented accommodation at Dunure further down the coast. They referred to Dunure as the ‘Roaring Camp’ and collectively called themselves ‘The Immortals’.
Between 1889 and the mid 1890s the practice was involved in a number of projects and competitions, perhaps the most notable of the former being company offices for the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company in Govan (1889-1891), the Glasgow Art Club building in Bath Street, Glasgow (1893) and the Glasgow Herald building, known as ‘The Lighthouse’, in Mitchell Street, Glasgow (1893-1895).
Keppie had been elected an artist-member of the Glasgow Art club in 1888. In 1891 he was appointed honorary secretary of the artists section and he and three other members were tasked with investigating the possibility of the club acquiring its own premises, it then currently renting a property at 151 Bath Street. Adjacent properties at 187 and 191 Bath Street were purchased in 1892 for £5500 with the aid of a loan of £3500 from the trustees of James Keppie, John Keppie’s father. The loan was secured over the two buildings and eventually discharged in 1941.
The job of adding to and refurbishing the property, perhaps unsurprisingly, fell to Honeyman and Keppie, a sum of £1500 being allocated for the work which commenced on 16th September 1892 and was completed in June the following year at almost twice the planned cost. John remained a member of the club for the rest of his life becoming Vice-President between 1896 and 1898 and president twice, in 1905-06 and again in 1926-27.
The firm also had three entries in the competition for the new Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum in 1891/92, all of which were unsuccessful. 
Keppie, as his career developed, joined a number of architectural organisations, the first being the organisation for apprentices and junior architects, the Glasgow Architectural Association. He then became a member of the Glasgow Institute of Architects in 1890, becoming its President twice, in 1904 and 1905. In 1898 he was on the council of the newly formed Scottish Society of Art Workers and in 1906 he was Deacon of the Incorporation of Wrights in Glasgow.
The Honeyman and Keppie partnership continued to progress. The staff recruited in 1889, including Mackintosh, gained in confidence and experience, as would their responsibilities in design and draughting. How this was shared with each staff member and Keppie is difficult to determine, (part of the Keppie/Mackintosh who did what debate), however Keppie or Honeyman would be signing off each project as lead architect until Honeyman retired in 1901 when Mackintosh became a partner.
This would not be a passive role. In any collaborative process, the lead would ensure that the team worked together, guiding, intervening, advising, contributing to design activity and artistry, and bringing practical architectural experience and skill to the project to ensure the customer objectives were being met.
The Art Club project, as reported in various newspapers and periodicals of the time illustrates Keppie’s design and artistic skills as well as the leadership of the Honeyman and Keppie team which included Mackintosh.
The Glasgow Herald of 6th June 1893 in its report on the Club’s reopening commented that “Mr John Keppie….prepared the designs, and the work….has been carried out under his supervision”.  The Studio magazine of July 1893 stated “The architectural alterations……in fact all the details have been carried from the designs of Mr John Keppie and display much artistic taste”. 
Keppie’s and Mackintosh’s personal lives at this time were intertwined particularly at Prestwick where he formed an attachment with John’s sister Jessie. That appears to have lasted from c.1891 to 1897 with one source saying, unconfirmed by any other and unlikely, that they became engaged in 1891. In the event the relationship came to nought with Mackintosh marrying Margaret McDonald in August 1900.
Whether or not Mackintosh’s original intention for his prolonged involvement with Jessie was to benefit professionally from the working weekends at Prestwick and to stay close to John Keppie, his boss, is pure conjecture, however Jessie was very disappointed with the outcome and remained unmarried throughout her life.
John’s personal life also had its disappointments in that he never married. He had hoped to marry widow Helen Law however that was not to be as she married the artist Edward Arthur Walton in Glasgow in June 1890. In 1897 there appears to have been, at least, the beginnings of an attachment to the artist Bessie MacNicol. However she was ill that summer and “any hint of romance with John Keppie did not survive the illness”
In 1896 the director of the Glasgow School of Art Francis Newbery announced a competition for the design of a new school building. He had been instrumental in raising £21,000 for the project, £14,000 of which was to be spent on the new building. In the event Honeyman and Keppie won the competition and were awarded the contract. The first phase started in 1897 and was completed in 1899, however work on phase two did not commence until 1906 finishing three years later in 1909.
The building has deservedly become of world renown mainly because of its association with Charles Rennie Mackintosh. However there is perhaps a bit more to it than it being the work of one man. In his book of 2004 “Mackintosh and Co.” David Stark, then managing director of Keppie Design*, stated the following: “Mackintosh is traditionally credited with designing the Art School himself. More recent research (he does not say by whom) suggests the design of the building was a team effort with each partner (Honeyman and Keppie) and their assistants playing to their strengths.”
One aspect of the building on which Keppie brought his skills and experience to bear was the design of its ventilation system. He had worked on such a system for the Victoria Infirmary with James Sellars in 1887 which was subsequently very successful, being described as “exemplary, leading to good air quality in the wards and quicker patient recovery.” 
The Art School system consisted of a series of very large basement tunnels and horizontal and vertical ducts. Keppie understood that fans large enough to move air through this system would be required and following research with the school builder appropriate fans were obtained from B.F. Sturtevant. It has been described by some as the first planned air conditioning building in the world.
Mackintosh undoubtedly made a significant contribution. It seems clear that Keppie also did likewise. The site location is on a steep hill which made for a complicated structure. The large windows specified and the ‘air conditioning’ system of the building suggests that more than one mind was at work, perhaps a mix of the artistic and the practical. Did the external and internal aesthetics of the building ‘disguise’ the more mundane issue of the technical difficulties associated with the build design and process?
In 1901 the business was renamed Honeyman, Keppie and Mackintosh reflecting Mackintosh’s new status as partner. The partnership did not require any capital from Mackintosh and initially profits were split such that he got the lowest share primarily because Keppie had the largest clientele. That changed in 1906 when the original agreement expired and profits were split equally between the two men, Honeyman having been bought out in 1903.
Following the partnership agreement Keppie returned to designing for his own clients producing a number of projects which were very well received. Perhaps the two most praiseworthy are the McConnell Buildings in Hope Street opposite the Theatre Royal (1907) and the Glasgow Savings Bank at Parkhead Cross (1905).
His stature as an architect growing, in 1904 he became a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and in 1905 undertook the role of competition assessor, judging “the competition for Glasgow’s Mitchell Library, a contest of much more than local significance” In 1906 he proposed Mackintosh as a Fellow, which was approved in November of that year.
The end of the first decade of the 20th century brought a number of difficulties to the partnership, particularly for Mackintosh whose personal client base diminished significantly. There had been problems with the Scotland Street School project in 1905 and also with the second phase of the Glasgow Art School in 1907. In 1912 Mackintosh failed to complete the firm’s entry for the Jordanhill Training College competition. “Some of his corridors terminated in mid-air…his preliminary sketches were unworkable. After working on the project for several months he had nothing to show.” Eventually the required design drawings for the demonstration school were done by Andrew Graham Henderson who had joined the firm in 1904. When the competition was won, despite these problems, Keppie sent Mackintosh a cheque for £250 as his share of the competition award.
Around this time Henderson advised Keppie he would not stay with the firm if Mackintosh remained a partner. There seems a number of reasons for this, some of which, according to Thomas Howarth (a Mackintosh biographer), would have been as a result of his mood swings, his sometime lack of purpose and vagueness in directing his team, his drinking, and his general inability to listen to advice and suggestions.
Keppie had concerns of his own and subsequent to the then current partnership agreement running out in January 1910 he reviewed the firm’s accounts for the period 1901 to 1911 which effectively resulted in the partnership being ended, the formal end being sometime between 1913 and 1914. During the review period Keppie had brought £16,303 new business to the practice whilst Mackintosh new business amounted to £4,934 with his share of the profits being £5,467. Keppie had also been warding off complaints from some of the business’s clientele, both issues making the continuation of the partnership untenable.
The partnership reverted to its original title of Honeyman and Keppie although John Honeyman had died in 1914. Henderson had gone off to war in the same year, and was wounded in 1916 resulting in him being invalided out of the forces and returning to work for Keppie. He became a partner in the firm at the end of the war, it then trading as Keppie and Henderson.
From that time until Keppie retired in 1937  the majority of design activity was undertaken by Henderson. During this time two notable projects were the Mercat Building (1925-1928) at Glasgow Cross and the Bank of Scotland building (1929-1931) in Sauchiehall Street both of which included statues by the sculptor Benno Schotz.
He continued to be involved with the professional bodies which saw him become President of the Glasgow Institute of Architects again in 1919-1920, President of the Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland in 1924-1926 and Vice-President of the RIBA in 1929.
In 1915 he had joined the Old Glasgow Club becoming a life member, and he continued with his involvement with the Glasgow Art Club becoming known as ‘King John’ to the members.
He was keen golfer and had joined the prestigious Glasgow Golf club in 1892. The club was formed in 1787 and was initially located at Glasgow Green. For a number of reasons between circa 1835 and 1870 it enjoyed only sporadic activity. It was reconstituted in that year and was located at Queens Park, then as membership continued to grow, Alexandra Park and, in 1895, Blackhill. By the early 1900s the club was again looking for new premises which resulted in Killermont House, owned by the Campbell Colquhoun family, being leased for a period of twenty years. By this time Keppie was a member of the House and General committees of the club and was very much involved with the necessary and substantial internal refurbishment of the house.
It’s not clear when the original house was built however in 1804/05 the South front was added by architect James Gillespie Graham. The estate owner at that time was Archibald Campbell Colquhoun whose father John Coats Campbell of Clathic had succeeded to the estate through his wife Agnes Colquhoun. A perhaps interesting aside is that Coats Campbell was the brother-in-law of John Glassford who had married his sister Anne Coats in 1743.
Honeyman, Keppie and Mackintosh were retained as architects and it is generally understood that the project was designed and led by Keppie. The major part of the work to be done required gas fitters, stone masons, plumbers and painters and tenders were issued early in 1904, the first quote being accepted on the 23rd February. The quotes totalled just over £978; the final bill however was £1,404, the main ‘culprits’ being the masonry work (+£230) and the gas fitting which was nearly £200 more than the quote of £43! An all too modern story.
Simultaneously the course layout was designed by Old Tom Morris and all was ready for the opening ceremony on the 21st May 1904, performed by the then Lord Provost of Glasgow John Ure Primrose. In 1922 the club acquired the house and grounds permanently.
In 1909 Keppie became club captain and in 1926 he gifted prints of four of his own etchings, two of which remain hanging in the club Gun Room.
Throughout his life Keppie had continued to paint and exhibited frequently at the annual exhibition of the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and at the Royal Scottish Academy. Between 1888 and 1943 sixty seven paintings, mainly watercolours, were exhibited by the Institute, a number of them resulting from his travels in Europe and North Africa.
At various times he had travelled to Spain, Morocco, Italy, Holland, Belgium, France and Egypt, each trip providing subject matter for his watercolours. His exhibits included paintings of ‘Chartres’ – 1890, ‘Grenada’ – 1898, ‘Patio, Alhambra’ – 1910, ‘Bovignes, The Ardennes’ – 1907, ‘St Marks, Venice’ – 1912, Mosque Courtyard, Cairo – 1916, and ‘A Street in Tangiers’ – 1939. He also exhibited four of his etchings between 1932 and 1939. In time his Scottish paintings outnumbered those of his foreign excursions. He became an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1920 and a full member in 1937.
His connection with the Glasgow School of Art after his student days had begun in 1892 as a design competition examiner for the school. In 1904 he joined the Board of Governors. As Keppie’s company were the architects for the second phase of the new school he resigned from the Board in 1907 and did not re-join it until 1923. From 1926 to 1944 he served two terms as Vice-Chairman of the Board (1926-1931 and 1937-1944) and was Chairman from 1931 to 1937. He also endowed two scholarships in architecture and sculpture in 1923.
The last few years of Keppie’s life saw him live with his sister Jessie at Haddington Park West in Prestwick having given up his home in Glasgow at the start of World War Two. He died there on 28th April 1945, cause of death myocarditis. He is buried in Monkton and Prestwick cemetery, in the same grave as his sisters Jane (d. 1924), Mary (d. 1923) and brother-in-law John Henderson who was the husband of sister Helen and had died in 1918. Jessie died in 1951 and was buried with her siblings.
He left estate valued at £40,931(around £8m today in economic power) , bequeathing £2,000 to his partner Andrew Graham Henderson, and eleven paintings to Glasgow. Interestingly he left estate in Scotland and Wales, his sister Jessie and Matthew Wylie being granted probate in Llandudno in August 1945. All his sisters when they died left significant estates, and all had property in Scotland and England.
One final point about Keppie’s reputation or lack of one. I have no competence in the architectural debate however it does seem to me that Keppie is diminished by Mackintosh’s supporters undeservedly. The website ‘Glasgow – City of Sculpture’ in its biographical notes on Keppie states “Keppie’s contribution to the firm’s design work in the 1900s has been overshadowed by Mackintosh’s celebrity, with every one of his surviving architectural drawings scrutinized by historians eager to find evidence to confirm that drawings previously credited to Keppie were, in fact, actually by their God, Mackintosh.”
It’s as if by diminishing Keppie, Mackintosh is somehow enhanced. They were two different people with similar and different skills, each deserving merit for the application of these skills. Artistically Mackintosh was the better of the two, however both had trod similar paths at the School of Art and had toured Italy producing sketches and watercolours of scenes observed. Keppie certainly was the more durable of the two professionally and was a more stable character than the temperamental, unstable, and depressive Mackintosh. It is perhaps forgotten or dismissed that Mackintosh not only would be influenced by the older Keppie, but there would be a cross fertilisation of ideas with Frances and Margaret McDonald. In 1897-98 ‘The Studio’ magazine published an article over ten pages detailing the artistic endeavours, with illustrations, of Mackintosh and the McDonald sisters. Looking at these illustrations it’s difficult to dismiss the idea that some form of collaboration or cross inspiration occurred. That is not to say there is no distinction between the three, there is, however they were, along with Herbert McNair, a close knit group (The Four) who would surely share ideas, enthusiasms and techniques as part of their way of life.
We should be celebrating two significant architects both with artistic skills rather than trying to deify one at the expense of the other. The Glasgow School of Art biographical notes on Keppie describe him as a superb draughtsman and watercolourist. The Glasgow University project ‘Mackintosh Architecture’ headed by Professor Pamela Robertson and Joseph Sharples is probably the most balanced I’ve read with Keppie’s achievements being given due credit. It ends by saying that by the time Keppie died in 1945:
“Mackintosh’s elevation to the role of neglected genius was already underway, and Keppie’s posthumous reputation has suffered by comparison with his more illustrious associate. When his death was announced in the RIBA Journal, the opening sentence summed him up as partner of Charles Rennie Mackintosh – this despite a long and productive career of his own, with major buildings to his credit, and a lifetime of behind-the-scenes work on behalf of architecture in Glasgow and beyond”.
* Keppie Design are the ‘descendants’ of the architectural company started by John Honeyman in 1854. The book is an account of architects and architecture in the following 150 years.
My thanks to Donald Macaskill (Glasgow Art Club Archive) for access to the club’s information on John Keppie and Charles Rennie Mackintosh and also for the many conversations involved.
My thanks also to Nevin McGhee, Glasgow Golf Club Archivist, for his help with John Keppie’s involvement with the club.
 Glasgow Museums, John Keppie object file at GMRC, South Nitshill.
 Births (OPR) Scotland. Haddington, East Lothian. 25 February 1821. KEPEY, William. GROS Data 709/0 0070 0020: Census 1841 Scotland. Haddington, East Lothian. GROS Data 709/00 003/00 015: Marriages Scotland. Central District, Glasgow. 14 February 1856. KEPPIE, James and HOPKINS Helen. GROS Data 644/01 0039. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk:
 Testamentary Records. England. 20 August 1945. KEPPIE, John Principal Probate Registry, Calendar of the grants of probate. p.49. Collection: England and Wales, National Probate Calendar 1858-1966.
In his will of 1902, Robert Jeffrey bequeathed the contents of his library at Crosslie House, Renfrewshire to the Mitchell Library in Glasgow. This bequest consisted of ‘all the books that shall belong to me, at the time of my decease, together with the bookcases in which they are contained and the statuettes on the top thereof, as well as the ivory carving statuettes and mosaics on the wall between the principal bookcases and the oriel window in my library at Crosslie House’. 1 An incidental part of his bequest included two portraits one of himself and one of his wife Margaret Jeffrey (nee Reid)
Robert Jeffrey was born into a family of cloth manufacturers whose business spanned the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Robert`s grandfather, James Jeffrey, was a linen manufacturer in Fife where Robert`s father, Robert Thomson Jeffrey was born in 1787. His mother was Margaret Thomson.2 On the 21 December 1813, Robert Thomson Jeffrey married Margaret Jack in Biggar, Lanarkshire. 3 Margaret`s father, James, was a farmer in Roberton. The marriage produced eight children; William born 1816, Agnes 1817, John 1818, James 1820, Andrew Gordon 1822, all born in Biggar. 4 After the birth of Andrew, the family moved to Edinburgh where Robert set up business in the Lawnmarket: ‘Jeffrey, Robert, cotton manufacturer, 300 Lawnmarket.‘5
During their stay of about nine years in Edinburgh, three more children were born; Isobel 1824 and Francis 1830. Robert Jeffrey junior was born on the 4 March 1827 in Edinburgh and christened in St. Cuthbert`s Church. 6 About 1833, the family moved to Glasgow where Robert set up business at 37 St. Andrew`s Street with a house at 16 St. Andrew`s Square later moving to 49 St. Andrew`s Square: 7 ‘Jeffrey, R, stripe, check and linen manufacturer, 37, St Andrew’s St, house 49 St Andrew Sq.’8
With business obviously prospering, the family moved to Wyndford House in Maryhill, Glasgow:‘Jeffrey, R. cotton and linen manufacturer, 37, St Andrew`s Street, house Wyndford by Maryhill’ 9
In the census of 1841, the family at Wyndford consisted of Robert and Margaret Jeffrey, Agnes, William, James and Francis along with Robert Jeffrey junior aged 13. Robert was educated at Glasgow High School and at the Collegiate School which opened in 1842 in Garnethill.10,11 Two family members not on the census were John and Andrew. John Jeffrey had probably left by this time to take over or establish a base for the family business in Kirkcaldy 12 and Andrew may already have moved to Balfron to look after the family`s interests there.
(The Ballindalloch cotton works near Balfron were built in 1790 by Robert Dunmore and sold to Kirkman Finlay of James Finlay & Co. in 1798. They were subsequently sold to Robert Jeffrey & Sons in 1845 after the death of Kirkman Finlay). 13
By 1851 Robert Jeffrey was a linen manufacturer employing 54 males and 114 females.14 The firm exhibited at the Great Exhibition in London: ‘Jeffrey, Robert, Mary Hill, Glasgow, Kirkaldy (sic), Forfar, and Brechin – Specimens of huck, dowlas, ticks, loom sheeting, diaper, &c.’ 15
In that year, Robert and Margaret together with Agnes, James and Robert junior were still at Wyndford. Robert junior was now aged 23 and employed as a clerk of works. 16
On 3 November 1858 the thirty-one-year old Robert Jeffrey, a ‘manufacturer’ married Margaret Reid who was twenty-two. The wedding took place in Hillock House, Govan which was the bride`s home. Her father Alexander Reid was a turkey red dyer who had founded the Govan Dyeworks in 1829; 17 her mother was Mary Veitch. 18 Robert and Margaret moved to 17 Buckingham Terrace, Glasgow with Robert employed in the family business at 118 Brunswick Street. 19
Meanwhile John Jeffrey was overseeing the building of the family`s Balsusney Works in Kirkcaldy 20 with William and Andrew in control of the Ballindalloch Works:
‘an extensive Cotton work on the banks of the Endrick Water, the building varies from one to six storeys in height and was erected in 1789. The machinery is propelled by water of about 30 horse power. This work employs about 250 persons when in full operation, chiefly females. Property of W. and A. Jeffrey, Balfron.’ 21
The works which were employed in cotton spinning would have been supervised by Andrew Gordon Jeffrey who lived locally in Buchanan Street, Balfron.
Robert Thomson Jeffrey was widowed in 1861 when his wife Margaret died at Wyndford on 15 March. 22 In the census of 1861 his address was Garscube Road, Maryhill, still a cotton and linen manufacturer now aged 73 with his daughter Agnes aged 44. Three years later on 6 May 1864 Robert Thomson Jeffrey died at Wyndford House. 23 In his will dated 27 April 1863 24 he left all his assets; ‘in favour of William Jeffrey, manufacturer in Glasgow, John Jeffrey, manufacturer in Kirkcaldy, Andrew Jeffrey, cotton spinner, Ballindalloch, Balfron, Robert Jeffrey junior, manufacturer in Glasgow, all my sons’.
He described his business relationship with his sons as a ‘copartnery. and his four sons were to divide equally the whole residue of his estate between them. There was no mention of his daughter Agnes.
In 1867, Robert Jeffrey, his wife Margaret and brother Andrew sailed from Liverpool to Boston, Massachusetts where they arrived on 9 May. 25 On their return, on 31 July 1867, Robert Jeffrey
‘retired from and ceased to be a partner in the company of Robert Jeffrey & Sons, Manufacturers in Glasgow and at Wyndford near Glasgow, Balsusney near Kirkcaldy and Ballindalloch near Balfron of which he and the other subscribers were the sole partners ‘.
The ‘other subscribers’ were William Jeffrey and John Jeffrey with no mention of Andrew. This was reported in the London Gazette the following year. 26
Robert and Margaret Jeffrey moved to Crosslie House as tenants about 1869 with previous addresses being 224 Great Western Road and 21 Holyrood Crescent. 27 It would be about this time that Robert started to collect books for his library and begin his travels in Europe and venturing as far as Egypt. From the outset, though, he was involved in discussions with the owners of Crosslie House concerning repairs and alterations first of all to the offices and then to part of the building damaged by fire. The Glasgow architect John Baird was employed to draw up plans. This work was completed by 1873. However, later that year Robert intimated that ‘he will renew his tenancy for 11 years provided that certain alterations are made to the house and he ‘wishes permission also to erect vineries, conservatories or glass houses’. The plans give a description of the house and grounds:
‘The house has 3 floors and “a sunk flat”. The Ground Floor includes a Large Entrance Hall and a Large Library (formerly two rooms converted into one) and the First Floor comprises Dining Room, Drawing Room and Bedroom. The Offices consist of Coachman or Gardener’s House (2 rooms and kitchen) Stable 3 stalls and loose box, Coach house for 3 carriages, Washing-shed, 2 Conservatories (Stone Built), Dog Kennel (Modern).The Garden and Grounds extend to 10 acres or thereby, and are beautifully wooded and planted with a fine variety of pines and shrubs.’ 28
The 1871 census confirms that Robert and Margaret were at Crosslie House, Renfrewshire and employed a cook and a housemaid. He was described as a ‘retired merchant’. In the same year, Andrew Jeffrey died of heart disease at Buchanan Street, Balfron. He was Justice of the Peace for Stirlingshire and a Captain of Rifle Volunteers. 29
In 1879 Robert set out a second time to visit the USA. This time on his own. He sailed from Glasgow via Larne and arrived in New York aboard the ‘State of Nevada’ on 24 February 1879 30
The firm of Robert Jeffrey & Sons appears to have ceased trading in the 1880s. The Glasgow Post Office Directory for 1880/81 has the listing:
‘Jeffrey, Robert & Sons, cotton spinners, Ballindalloch Works, Balfron; linen and cotton manufacturers, Wyndford Works, Maryhill; warehouse 110 Brunswick Street’.
However, in the Glasgow Post Office Directories from 1881 to 1887 only the Wyndford Works is mentioned and the entry for 1887/88 is the last for the firm. The year 1889 saw the opening of the Castle Brewery in Maryhill, which was
‘built upon the premises vacated some time since by Messrs. Robert Jeffrey & Sons, Linen and Cotton manufacturers, and the ground, buildings, and accessories cover an area of fully an acre’. 31
On 29 August 1899, Margaret Jeffrey died at Crosslie House. She was sixty two. 32 In the census of 1901, Robert was at Crosslie House, aged 74 and a retired linen manufacturer. A visitor to Crosslie at the time of the census was Francis Barrett aged sixty five. He was Glasgow`s City Librarian and first Librarian of the Mitchell Library. He seems to have guided Robert in his choice of books for his library. Robert Jeffrey died on 18 August the following year at Crosslie House, probably of cancer of the stomach. His death was reported by his gardener. 33 He was buried on 22 August at Craigton Cemetery in Glasgow. His grave (F 630 – 632) 34 is next to that of his brother-in-law Thomas Reid who was the principal shareholder of the cemetery at the time of his death.
Sacred To the Memory of Margaret Daughter of Alexander Reid Of Govan and Wife of Robert Jeffrey Manufacturer, Glasgow Died 29th August 1899 Aged 62 Years
Also The Above Robert Jeffrey Died 18th August 1902 Aged 75 Years.
He bequeathed to the Public And Endowed The Jeffrey Reference Library
In the memorandum written by Francis Thornton Barrett, Robert Jeffrey amassed his collection of books over a period of about thirty years. The collection includes first editions of collected works by Dickens, Scott and Thackeray. There are many works of Scottish history and literature including the Kilmarnock edition of the poems of Robert Burns. Among the many works of natural history there is a double elephant folio of The Birds of America by John James Audubon – apparently a gift from Margaret to Robert. At his death the collection amounted to over 4,300 volumes and had cost about £6,300. It was valued at the time of his death at £4789.5.6. His total estate was valued at £32,901.15.2 35
His will 36 was written at Crosslie House by Johnstone, Renfrewshire. It was presented for registration at Edinburgh on 23 August 1902 and at Paisley on the 26th of February 1903. Francis Thornton Barrett, librarian of the Mitchell Library, was one of the trustees and executors. He was given a legacy of £50 paid annually. Robert`s housekeeper Jessie Robertson was to choose articles of furniture and plenishings from the house to the value of £100. She also to be given £50 per annum. On the death of his wife Margaret Reid he had received about £2000 derived from the estate of her father, he wished this to be returned to her family i.e. her four nieces. and shared equally. £50 per annum was to be paid to Francis Jeffrey and £100 per annum to Robert Milne Jeffrey and William Jeffrey sons of his deceased brother William Jeffrey. It was also evident from the inventory of his estate that he had retained possession of Hillock House, his wife`s former home and that he rented it out with a piece of vacant ground to Mackie and Thomson, shipbuilders.
The bulk of his will is devoted to the disposal of his library. He states that he has bestowed much time, labour and expense on the acquisition of his library of books. He wishes it to be preserved intact and to be called ‘The Jeffrey Reference Library’ and made available ‘for the benefit and instruction of all well conducted persons’… He wishes to hand over all the books….together with the bookcases in which they are contained and the statuettes on the top thereof, as well as the ivory carving statuettes and mosaics on the wall between the (four) principal bookcases and the oriel window in the library at Crosslie House……and that they shall in all time coming be retained and held by the Managers of the Mitchell Library without any power to dispose of them. To be kept separate and apart from other books of the Mitchell Library with a separate catalogue and not added to. If the Mitchell Library refused the gift or failed to meet the conditions, the library was to be offered to the University Court of the University of Glasgow. It was a further condition that whoever accepted the gift of the library had to agree to provide the funds to maintain his burying ground and monument in Craigton Cemetery ‘in all time coming’ in perfect condition. No further internments were to be allowed. His library was to be fully insured against loss or damage by fire, theft or otherwise. It was to be under the management of a Special Assistant whose salary is to be considered as part of the cost of maintenance.
If the Mitchell and the University were to refuse the gift then the library was to be sold and all together with the whole residue of his means and estate to be given to the Royal Infirmary Glasgow subject only to them maintaining his burying ground and monument in Craigton Cemetery. The Mitchell if it accepted the gift was forbidden to try to dispose of any part of it under threat of forfeiture to the University and the same for them to the Royal Infirmary.
National Records of Scotland, Wills and Testaments, SC58/42/63
Scotland`s People Death Certificate (Robert Thomson Jeffrey)
Old Parish Registers, Family Search
Old Parish Registers, Family Search; ancestry.co.uk., 1851 Census
Edinburgh Post Office Directory, 1832-3
Old Parish Registers, Family Search
Glasgow Post Office Directories, 1833-34 to 1841-42